World History - The partition of africa


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World History - The partition of africa

  1. 1. The Partition of Africa The Spread of European Imperialism
  2. 2. Before and After
  3. 3. Africa in the Early 1800’s Africa is a huge continent, 3 times the size of Europe with many languages and governments North Africa – Includes the Sahara and land along the Mediterranean – Before 1800 it remained part of the Muslim world and much of it remained under the rule of the declining Ottoman Empire
  4. 4. Africa in the Early 1800’s Islamic Crusades in West Africa – Usman dan Fodio called for social and religious reforms based on the religion Islam and to rise up against their European rulers – Literacy increased, wars stopped and trade improved
  5. 5. Africa in the Early 1800’s Impact of Slave Trade – Europeans began to end the slave trade but it continued in Asia – Some people helped freed slaves resettle in Africa – Sierra Leone became a colony for freed slaves
  6. 6. European Contact Increases 1500-1700 Europeans traded along the African coast Africans wanted to trade with them but did not want them to live there Resistance by Africans, difficult geography and diseases kept Europeans from moving too far into Africa
  7. 7. European Contact Increases Explorers Advance into Africa – European explorers went further into Africa, they were fascinated by the geography but they endured great hardships along the way
  8. 8. European Contact Increases Missionaries follow Explorers – Sought to win people to Christianity – Built schools and clinics and churches – Paternalistic approach where they saw Africans as a group who needed guidance How did European contact with Africa increase in the late 1800’s?
  9. 9. History Mystery What Did Imperialism Look Like in the Congo
  10. 10. European Contact Increases Livingstone Blazes a Trail – Best known explorer and missionary – He traveled Africa for 30 years and wrote about the cruelty of the slave trade – Thought Africa should be opened up to Christianity and trade with other nations
  11. 11. David Livingstone Late 1860’s he was a missionary from Scotland who traveled deep into central Africa to promote Christianity Several years passed with no word from him An American newspaper sent a reporter to find him
  12. 12. David Livingstone The reporter H.M. Stanley would write articles about his journey trying to find him. His famous greeting, – “Dr. Livingston I presume” made headlines around the world
  13. 13. Scramble for Colonies King Leopold of Belgium hires Stanley (a journalist) to explore the Congo and arrange trade treaties with African leaders Publicly he Desires… – A civilizing mission to improve the lives of Africans Privately he Desires… – Conquest and profit His activities lead other nations to follow in his footsteps and the claim for colonies begins
  14. 14. European Conquest of Africa Better Weapons – Guns vs. spears and clubs Drug Quinine in 1829 protected Europeans from Malaria – Allowed Europeans to travel freely in Africa Europeans learned to play rival groups against each other
  15. 15. A Scramble for Colonies Berlin Conference – To avoid bloodshed and war over Africa European colonies met in 1884 to • Recognize Leopold’s private claim to the Congo but call for free trade on the Congo and Niger Rivers • European power cannot claim any part of Africa unless it had a government office there • 20 years later Europe had divided up Africa amongst themselves with little regard for the Africans there
  16. 16. Berlin Conference
  17. 17. A Scramble for Colonies Horrors in the Congo – Leopold exploited all the riches in the area (copper, rubber and ivory) – Reports came of Belgians abusing workers, forcing them to work for nothing, beating and mutilating them and brutalizing villagers – Leopold had to give his personal colony to the Belgian government in 1908 and while the worst abuses ended it was still exploited and the wealth of Africa went to Europe
  18. 18. A Scramble for Colonies Britain Takes its Share – While their claims were scattered, they had areas with rich resources – They took chunks of West and East Africa
  19. 19. A Scramble for Colonies The Boer War – Despite the Berlin Conference there was a major conflict in South Africa – It was between the British and the Dutch settlers (Boers) – Discovery of gold and diamonds in Sothern Africa made the area very tempting to the British – Boers took up arms to protect their land but Britain won and instituted racial segregation that would last until 1993
  20. 20. A Scramble for Colonies France Extends its Influence – France took a giant share – French empire in Africa was as large as the continental United States! Others Join the Scramble – Portuguese, Italians, Germans all join in and start carving out their colonies in Africa
  21. 21. Africans Resist Imperialism Ethiopia Survives – Ethiopia resisted European colonization and maintained its independence – Menelik II modernized his country and hired Europeans to build roads and set up a western school system, he imported the latest weapons and officers to train his army – When Italy invaded Ethiopia they were well prepared and smashed the Italian invaders
  22. 22. Africans Resist Imperialism A New African Elite Emerges – A western educated African elite (upper class) emerge – Some middle class Africans admired western ways and rejected their own culture – Other valued African traditions and condemned western societies that upheld liberty and equality for whites only – By the 1900’s African leaders were forging nationalist movements to pursue self determination and independence
  23. 23. Which African country resisted imperialism and how?
  24. 24. Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa Negative – Loss control of their land – Diseases – Breakdown of their culture – Artificial boundaries that divided or combined groups unnaturally and still create problems today – Identity problems because of the two cultures
  25. 25. Legacy of Colonial Rule on Africa Positive – Reduced local warfare – Improved sanitation and created hospitals and schools (people lived longer and there was higher literacy) – Economic expansion (African products became valuable)