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  1. 1. How do these two maps show a change over time regarding the slave trade?
  2. 2. Benin Political System •Absolute Monarch called Oba (Chief) • Uzama – Group of officials (bureaucracy) •Ewuare the Great •Independent city-states joined together Economic System •Already established before Europeans •Known for bronze statues •Economy was based on spices, ivory, and textiles •Began to exchange slaves for guns but tried to limit slave trade – increased due to European pressure and need for weapons
  3. 3. Influence of Europeans •First contact in 1485 – Portuguese – Traded ivory, pepper, palm oil •Increased slave trade began to overshadow other industry •Guns increased Benin power in the region Benin Impact of Slave Trade •Kingdom disintegrated in 1700s as a result of civil wars and rulers’ greed over the slave trade. •Britain wanted to control rubber production in 1860s
  4. 4. Kongo Political System •Absolute Monarch called ManiKongo (king) •King Afonso 14561542 •Claimed Divine Right Economic System •Traded pottery and iron goods •Agriculture – corn introduced in 1600s from Americas •Slave trade – for guns with Portuguese.
  5. 5. Kongo Influence of Europeans •Christianity is spread – King converts – state religion •Guns for slaves impact power of Kongo •Portuguese interference in political, economic, religious concerns – Pope Impact of Slave Trade •Merchants offset ruling families •Corrupting influence of slave trade – civil wars and assassinations •Wars with Portugal and Dutch - Kingdom falls by 1800s – Divided into small states.
  6. 6. Asante Political System •Absolute Monarch called Asantehene •Osei Tutu •Centralized – elected chief •Golden Stool of Kumasi Economic System Film Clip •Traditionally dealt in gold and kola nuts •Gold allowed them to buy slaves •Increased power due to slave trade – received guns •2/3 of exports were slaves
  7. 7. Asante Influence of Europeans •Portuguese contact with Asante at Fort of El Mina •Gun / slave trade Impact of Slave Trade •Power declined with end of slave trade in 1800s •Use of slave trade provided rulers with great wealth and power –led to conflict with European •Fell to British in 1901 after a long war
  8. 8. Video Recap
  9. 9. FORCED IMMIGRATION “Humanity is divided into two -- the masters and the slaves.” ~Aristotle
  10. 10. The Transatlantic Slave Trade • The potential wealth to be made from slavery led to the triangular trade between _________________________ Europe, Africa and the _______________. Americas. • Europeans were able to sell manufactured goods in exchange for raw materials ____________ and luxury items.
  11. 11. A Merchant Slaving Vessel: The Henrietta Marie First Stop! London! Let’s follow the journey of a typical slave ship…
  12. 12. The Port of London What ventures could a wealthy man like me invest in? Hmmmm. The Henr i would sta etta Marie rt its jour ney in London, a thriving port built on the ba nks of the Th ames Riv er. •As the capital city, it was the center of social and economic developments; it was also the place in which _____________ entrepreneurs would invest money in Trading Companies __________________ to make money.
  13. 13. Investors in the Slave Trade By 1650, most of the coastal states in Europe had possessions in the Americas. Graph of countries participating in the slave trade 1. Around what year was the Slave Trade at its peak? 2. Which country continued the Slave Trade the longest? Why?
  14. 14. The Crew of a Merchant Slave Ship Men who could not find other work often gravitated to ports such as London where they signed on to escape their economic problems. Crews of slavers tended to be desperate, violent men.
  15. 15. Former slave ship master Reverend John Newton (B.1725) wrote about the men aboard the merchant slavers: "We are for the most part supplied with the refuse and dregs of the nation. The prisons and glass houses supply us with large quotas of boys impatient of their parents and masters, or already ruined by some untimely vice and for the most part devoid of principles."
  16. 16. A Merchant Slaving Vessel: The Henrietta Marie , masted Three- erned st quare- ut 60 s bo essel, a g. v feet lon Small s hi p, capab l e of h o l di n g 200 sl ave s i n her c ar go ar e a. To Africa! Stepped decks, built on many levels to accommodate the different cargoes of the transatlantic trade route.
  17. 17. Arriving in Africa! Benin •When Europeans arrived in the late 15th century, there were established states throughout West Africa.
  18. 18. • West Africa was divided into states with different rulers governing different areas. • Some African ethnic groups read and wrote in Arabic, others had strong oral (speaking and singing) traditions, and religious practices. Port cities along the coast were controlled by Portuguese, Dutch, English.
  19. 19. Slavery in Africa Powerful African leaders met with European Traders from the Henrietta Marie. 1. If you were an African tribal leader, what would you want in exchange for slaves? Why?
  20. 20. Slavery and War Pewter, Iron bars, glass beads, guns and other goods were rare in Africa, where they could be sold for much more than in England or other European countries. guns • European _____were a popular trade item with the Africans. The coastal guns rulers who had access to _____ used them to control areas further inland.
  21. 21. Soon Africans were rounding up slaves in groups of one, two and three hundred for sale to the increasing number of European vessels arriving in coastal ports.
  22. 22. Before Shipping • Slaves captured or purchased in the African interior were often held in confinement for months. • Some of these people had been wounded in battles, and others were exposed to smallpox, yellow fever, and other deadly diseases.
  23. 23. Europeans were Middle Men Not Welcomed Inland! Did conv ert some kingdom s to Christian ity (Kon go) Forbidden to alter African politics • Carried a cargo valued at about £827. • £4 per slave: Brought 206 slaves to Jamaica. • 190 slaves were recorded sold at Port Royal
  24. 24. The Henrietta Marie To the Americas! • The Middle Passage- The Journey from Africa to the New World faced by captive slaves – 1 leg of the triangular trade • Ships were only supposed to transport 300 people but some carried 800 people
  25. 25. Middle Passage • Trek from Africa to the Americas lasted 2 to 4 months
  26. 26. The “Cargo” • By 1654, some 8,000-10,000 Africans each year were undergoing the Middle Passage. •By 1750, the annual number stabilized at 60,000-70,000.
  27. 27. The Middle Passage • Ab o u t 9 to 1 5 million African s w en t o n voyage : • 3 to 5 m perishe illion d befor e t h e y ev en reac hed the Am ericas. “If the Atlantic were to dry up it would reveal a scattered pathway of human bones marking the various routes of the Middle Passage.”
  28. 28. Dangers of Middle Passage Scurvy Gangrene Suicide Dysentery Disease Dehydratio n Malnutritio n • The mortality rate averaged between 13 and 33 percent of the slaves and the crew.
  29. 29. Arrival in the Americas: The Henrietta Marie tive The Na ere w ricans Ame e ing to b beginn ed-due t ermina ext working to over ase. e and dis Land Ho! Colonizers in the New World found a new source of labor...____________. the Africans
  30. 30. Selling Slaves in the Caribbean • With the first sighting of land, the captain of the Henrietta Marie would have ordered slaves on deck in small groups for fresh air and grooming To improve their appearance for sale. •Men were shaved, sores were dressed, and rations were improved as they approached their destination of Jamaica on May 18, 1700, indicating that she spent almost fourteen weeks on the Middle Passage.
  31. 31. Get Your Workers Here! • Sold to the highest bidder • Slaveswashed and greased with tar or lard • Judged by condition – Muscle – Teeth – Scratches
  32. 32. Profitability “No commerce in the world produces as many advantages as that of the slave trade.” ~Colbert, Frenchman Some believe the slave trade was the major reason for the rise of capitalism and the Industrial Revolution.
  33. 33. R, GA SU CO AC OB T SLAVES GUNS, RUM, GOODS The Triangle Trade
  34. 34. Rebellions in the Caribbean • As early as 1522, the first notable slave revolt broke out in the Spanish colony of Hispaniola (now Haiti). •In the Caribbean they were known as "Maroons" and lived in the hills, using guerrilla free warfare to _____ other slaves and steal necessary arms and equipment.
  35. 35. Indentured Servants • White indentured servants were another exploited group of people who, in return for their passage to the Americas or the Caribbean, agreed to work for their sponsor. • Indentured servants were at the mercy of their master: they were unpaid and had to do whatever they were told. • They were bound to their master for a set period of time, usually five years _________________, after which they were set free, and could expect to receive a small tract of land from their master.
  36. 36. The European Sweet Tooth • Most Europeans had never tasted sugar before the economic successes of the transatlantic trade made the Caribbean product readily available. • England was a major consumer as early as 1660. For a century and a half, sugar remained the most valuable and largest import, overtaken only by cotton _______ in the 1820s.
  37. 37. The Henrietta Marie Back to! London! •The profits from the sale of slaves enabled the Henrietta Marie to load West Indian goods for her voyage home to England. • Sugar was the main commodity and cargo entries reveal that she was carrying 81 hogsheads (large barrels) of muscovado sugar.
  38. 38. • Removal of millions of African men and women from their homeland • Economic dependence on Europe, devastating effects when trade was outlawed • Susceptibility to European imperialism