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Report froebel and herbart

  1. 1. MAJOR PHILOSOPHIES AND ITS PHILOSOPHERS Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel And Johann Friedrich Herbart
  2. 2. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel Biography: BORN : APRIL 21, 1782 Oberweißbach, Schwarzburg- Rudolstadt, Germany His father, who died in 1802, was the pastor of the orthodox Lutheran (alt- lutherisch) parish there. The church and Lutheran Christian faith were pillars in Fröbel's own early education. Oberweißbach was a wealthy village in the Thuringian Forest and had been known centuries long for its natural herb remedies, tinctures, bitters, soaps and salves. Families had their own inherited areas of the forest where herbs and roots were grown and harvested.
  3. 3. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel Each family prepared, bottled, and produced their individual products which were taken throughout Europe on trade routes passed from father to son, who were affectionately called "Buckelapotheker" or Rucksack Pharmacists. They adorned the church with art acquired from their travels, many pieces of which can still be seen in the renovated structure. The pulpit from which Fröbel heard his father preach is the largest in all Europe and can fit a pastor and 12 men, a direct reference to Christ's apostles.
  4. 4. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel Shortly after Fröbel's birth, his mother's health began to fail. She died when he was nine months old, profoundly influencing his life. In 1792, Fröbel went to live in the small town of Stadt-Ilm with his uncle, a gentle and affectionate man. At the age of 15 Fröbel, who loved nature, became the apprentice to a forester. In 1799, he decided to leave his apprenticeship and study mathematics and botany in Jena. From 1802 to 1805, he worked as a land surveyor.
  5. 5. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel • On 11 September 1818, Fröbel wed Wilhelmine Henriette Hoffmeister (b. 1780) in Berlin. • The union was childless. • Wilhelmine died in 1839, and Fröbel married again in 1851. • His second wife was Louise Levin.
  6. 6. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel CAREER : • an educator in 1805 at the Musterschule (a secondary school) in Frankfurt where he learned about Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi’s ideas. • He later worked with Pestalozzi in Switzerland where his ideas further developed.
  7. 7. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel • From 1806 Fröbel was the live-in teacher for a Frankfurt noble family’s three sons. • He lived with the three children from 1808 to 1810 at Pestalozzi’s institute in Yverdon-les-Bains in Switzerland.
  8. 8. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel In 1811, Fröbel once again went back to school in Göttingen and Berlin, eventually leaving without earning a certificate. He became a teacher at the Plamannsche Schule in Berlin, a boarding school for boys, and at that time also a pedagogical and patriotic centre.
  9. 9. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel During his service in the Lützow Free Corps in 1813 and 1814 – when he was involved in two campaigns against Napoleon – Fröbel befriended Wilhelm Middendorf, a theologian and fellow pedagogue, and Heinrich Langethal, also a pedagogue. After Waterloo and the Congress of Vienna, Fröbel found himself a civilian once again and became an assistant at the Museum of Mineralogy under Christian Samuel Weiss. This did not, however, last very long, and by 1816 he had quit and founded the Allgemeine Deutsche Erziehungsanstalt (“German General Education Institute”) in Griesheim near Arnstadt in Thuringia.
  10. 10. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel * A year later he moved this to Keilhau near (now in) Rudolstadt. In 1831, work was continued there by the other cofounders Wilhelm Middendorf and Heinrich Langethal. * In 1820, Fröbel published the first of his five Keilhau pamphlets, An unser deutsches Volk (“To Our German People”). The other four were published between then and 1823.
  11. 11. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel • In 1826 he published his main literary work, Die Menschenerziehung (“The Education of Man”) and founded the weekly publication Die erziehenden Familien (“The Educating Families”). • In 1828 and 1829 he pursued plans for a people’s education institute (Volkserziehungsanstalt) in Helba (nowadays a constituent community of Meiningen), but they were never realized.
  12. 12. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel * From 1831 to 1836, Fröbel once again lived in Switzerland. In 1831 he founded an educational institute in Wartensee (Lucerne). * In 1833 he moved this to Willisau, and from 1835 to 1836, he headed the orphanage in Burgdorf (Berne), where he also published the magazine Grundzüge der Menschenerziehung (“Features of Human Education”). * In 1836 appeared his work Erneuerung des Lebens erfordert das neue Jahr 1836 (“The New Year 1836 Calls For the Renewal of Life”).
  13. 13. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel * He returned to Germany, dedicated himself almost exclusively to preschool child education and began manufacturing playing materials in Bad Blankenburg. • In 1837 he founded a care, playing and activity institute for small children in Bad Blankenburg. • From 1838 to 1840 he also published the magazine Ein Sonntagsblatt für Gleichgesinnte (“A Sunday Paper for the Like- Minded”).
  14. 14. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel In 1840 he coined the word kindergarten for the Play and Activity Institute he had founded in 1837 at Bad Blankenburg for young children, together with Wilhelm Middendorf and Heinrich Langethal. These two men were Fröbel’s most faithful colleagues when his ideas were also transplanted to Keilhau near Rudolstadt.
  15. 15. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel He designed the educational play materials known as Froebel Gifts, or Fröbelgaben, which included geometric building blocks and pattern activity blocks. * A book entitled Inventing Kindergarten, by Norman Brosterman, examines the influence of Friedrich Fröbel on Frank Lloyd Wright and modern art.
  16. 16. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel • His great insight was to recognise the importance of the activity of the child in learning. • He introduced the concept of “free work” (Freiarbeit) into pedagogy and established the “game” as the typical form that life took in childhood, and also the game’s educational worth. • Activities in the first kindergarten included singing, dancing, gardening and self-directed play with the Froebel Gifts.
  17. 17. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel Fröbel intended, with his Mutter- und Koselieder – a songbook that he published – to introduce the young child into the adult world. These ideas about childhood development and education were introduced to academic and royal circles through the tireless efforts of his greatest proponent, the Baroness (Freiherrin) Bertha Marie von Marenholtz-Bülow.
  18. 18. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel Through her Fröbel made the acquaintance of the Royal House of the Netherlands, various Thuringian dukes and duchesses, including the Romanov wife of the Grand Duke von Sachsen-Weimar. Baroness von Marenholtz-Bülow, Duke von Meiningen and Fröbel gathered donations to support art education for children in honor of the 100th anniversary of the birth of Goethe.
  19. 19. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel • The Duke of Meiningen granted the use of his hunting lodge, called Marienthal (the Vale of Mary) in the resort town of Bad Liebenstein for Fröbel to train the first women as Kindergarten teachers (calledKindergärtnerinnen). DIED: on 21 June 1852 in Marienthal, now a constituent community of Schweina. His grave can still be found in the cemetery at Schweina, where his widow, who died in Hamburg, was also buried on 10 January 1900.
  20. 20. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel WORKS OF FROBEL Froebel is author of many books. The folowing works are mentioned because they are mainly devoted to education. 1)Autobiography 2)Education of Development 3)The Education of Man 4)Mother play 5)Pedagogies of Kindergarten
  21. 21. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel PHILOSOPHICAL VIEWS OF FROBEL Froebel was a spiritual idealist. For him all things of the world have originated from God. Hence, all the objects , though appear different, are essentially the same. This law of Unity is operating in the whole Universe. The second characteristic of his philosophy is the Law of Development. According to him this Law of Development is applicable of both, the spiritual as well as the physical world in the same way.
  22. 22. FROEBEL'S EDUCATIONAL PRINCIPALS 1. The Aim of Education: Enable the child to realise the unity principles. 2. The Method of Education: Self- activity method of education 3. The Method of Play: The play forms for impairing education to children 4. Principle of Freedom: Free infettered natural development of children. 5. Principle of Social Atmosphere: Should be developed through self-activity in a social atmosphere. 6. Purpose of Education: Unfold the innate powers of children to order to them to attain spiritual union with God.
  23. 23. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel CURRICULUM ACCORDING TO FROEBEL Should give importance to Religious instruction, Nature study, Arithmetic, Language, arts, Handicrafts METHOD OF TEACHING ACCORDING TO FROEBEL 1. Principles of Self- Activity 2. Principle of hearing by Play 3. Principle of Sociability 4. Principle of Freedom
  24. 24. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel DISCIPLINE He condemned the repressionistic concept of discipline held the views that by his own free and natural activities the child learns self- discipline. THE ESSENTIAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KINDERGARTEN (a)The kindergarten is like a miniature, society, where the children discover their individualities in relation to others. The social aspect of development is given due emphasis in these schools. (b)There will be an atmosphere of freedom and lot of scope for self- expression in the form of songs, movements and construction.
  25. 25. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel MERITS OF FROEBEL'S KINDERGARTEN 1. Froebel laid emphasis on pre-school or necessary education. 2. Froebel stressed the necessity of the study of child's nature, his instincts and impulses. PERMANENT CONTRIBUTIONS TO EDUCATION 1. Inner self- activity directs the development. 2. Early education should be organises around play.
  26. 26. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel The Froebel Gifts (German: Fröbelgaben) are a range of educational materials designed by Friedrich Fröbel. • first used in the original Kindergarten at Bad Blankenburg. • The Gifts (GabeThe Gifts were each assigned a number and ranged in complexity from simple (e.g. Gift 1 for young children) to advanced (e.g. Gift 20 for older children). Gift 1 The first Gift consists of six individual, crocheted, colored, woolen balls. Each ball is attached to a matching string. The balls are dyed in one of six solid hues consisting of the primary colors red, yellow and blue, as well as their secondary colors, purple, green and orange. The balls themselves are not completely solid and can be squashed in the hand before reverting to their original shapes.
  27. 27. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel The first gift was intended by Fröbel to be given to very young children. His intention was that, through holding, dropping, rolling, swinging, hiding and revealing the balls, the child may acquire knowledge of objects and spacial relationships, movement, speed and time, color and contrast, weights and gravity. Gift 2 The second Gift consists of four wooden objects, each about 2 inches square: two cubes, one cylinder and one sphere, with holes drilled in them and a wooden hanging apparatus. These wooden blocks are smoothly finished, but are not painted or stained. Fröbel called this gift "the children's delight" and believed that as children observed the similarities and differences of the properties of these blocks, it would set the educational foundations for later physics education.
  28. 28. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel advocated the importance of free play in childhood. Each gift (Gabe) was designed to be given to a child to provide material for the child's self- directed activity. These Gifts are a series of activity- based playthings ranging from simple sphere-shaped objects, through to geometric wooden blocks and more advanced Gifts pertaining to sewing, cutting, weaving and the modelling of objects in clay.
  29. 29. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel "Realising how the Gifts were eventually misused by Kindergarten teachers who followed after Froebel, it is important to consider what Froebel expected the Gifts to achieve. He envisaged that the Gifts will teach the child to use his (or her) environment as an educational aid; secondly, that they will give the child an indication of the connection between human life and life in nature; and finally that they will create a bond between the adult and the child who play with them" Joachim Liebschner on page 82 in his book, A Child's Work: Freedom and Guidance in Froebel's Educational Theory and Practice • Froebel Gifts remain popular today in Korea and Japan in early childhood education.
  30. 30. Johann Friedrich Herbart Herbart was first greatly interested in science and music, but at Jena he studied philosophy and law. He was strongly influenced by Enlightenment thought, particularly Kant’s ethics and Fichte’s metaphysics. Later he became a close friend of Pestalozzi. Herbart received his doctorate and qualified for lecturing at Göttingen, where he lectured on philosophy and pedagogy. In 1808 he accepted an invitation to take over Kant’s chair at Königsberg, where he established the first pedagogical institute with an experimental school. He also served on various commissions responsible for the improvement of the Prussian educational system.
  31. 31. Johann Friedrich Herbart • German philosopher. • the founder of the pedagogical theory that bears his name, which eventually laid the groundwork for teacher education as a university enterprise in the United States and elsewhere. • born in Oldenburg, Germany, on May 4, 1776, the only child of a gifted and strong-willed mother and a father whose attention was devoted to his legal practice. • tutored at home until he entered the gymnasium at the age of twelve, from which he went on as valedictorian to the University of Jena at a time when such stellar German intellectuals as Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and Friedrich von Schiller were associated with that institution. • Schiller's Briefe über die ästhetische Erziehung des Menschen (Letters concerning the aesthetic education of man), then in progress in 1795, that influenced Herbart to devote himself to philosophy and education.
  32. 32. Johann Friedrich Herbart According to Herbart, the structure and operation of man’s perception are conditioned by the changing complex of ultimate entities of reality, which he called the “reals” (Realen). As in the ancient theory of atoms and elements or Leibniz’ monad theory, the complex structure of reality arises through a rhythmical joining (synthesis) and separation (analysis) of the reals. The behavior of these entities is determined by their tendency toward self-assertion. Hence, a dialectical struggle of opposites emerges as the “law of motion” of reality. The task of philosophy is to create a rigorous analytic-synthetic conceptual system from perceived reality.
  33. 33. Johann Friedrich Herbart The soul is a central totality of manifold simple reals. The ideas that appear in the soul are the result of the interplay of the “self-preservative reactions” of the reals. If in this process an idea is so thoroughly repressed that it vanishes from consciousness, it struggles to emerge from below the threshold of consciousness until it reappears as a freely moving idea (memory). Herbart held that mental processes can be described with the exactness of mathematical laws.
  34. 34. Johann Friedrich Herbart • In Herbart’s pedagogical writings each person is an individual and distinctive totality, capable of change and determination or redefinition, and therefore possessing “adaptiveness” (Bildsamkeit). This latter quality is especially characteristic of the moral will. • Therefore, the goal of upbringing and education is the development of the personality of the whole human being. This development aims at the union of five ideas: inner freedom (harmony of moral insight and will), perfection (health of body and soul), benevolence (toward the will of others), justice (balancing of interests, respect for the rights of others), and equity (suitability of reward and punishment). Together they constitute the “virtue of self-determination.” As long as insight and self- determination of the will are lacking, the desires must submit to external regulation (subordination to authority and supervision). With the growth of intellectual spontaneity the pupil’s interest can be awakened through instruction and discipline.
  35. 35. Johann Friedrich Herbart • Herbart distinguished three forms of the “interest in knowledge” (empirical, speculative, aesthetic) and three forms of the “interest in participation” (sympathetic, social, religious). The development of insight and will requires a rhythmic alternation from a probing, analytic instruction to a reflective, synthetic one. “Static” penetration leads to conceptual clarity, “progressive” penetration (association) to the increase of knowledge; static reflection yields the system of knowledge, and progressive reflection gives rise to its method. From these four fundamental concepts Herbart deduced the four formal stages of instruction. The course that the instruction takes can be demonstrative, analytic, or synthetic, according to need.
  36. 36. Johann Friedrich HerbartA goal of discipline is to mold the interests stimulated by instruction into a totality of moving ideas (Gedankenkreis). In particular, instruction seeks by this means to instill within the pupil fundamental moral tenets and to form them into a conscience. With increasing age, education is first restraining, then determining, then regulating, and finally supportive, as it ends and self- education begins. With these basic concepts and requirements Herbart established pedagogy as an independent science. He was likewise a founder of educational therapy and a precursor of child psychiatry.
  37. 37. Johann Friedrich Herbart Career In 1797 and almost against his will Herbart was persuaded by his mother to accept a position as tutor to the sons of the regional governor of Interlaken in Switzerland. During his three years of work with these three very different boys, aged fourteen, ten, and eight when their relationship began, Herbart confronted in earnest the problems of teaching children, reporting monthly to their father on his methods and the results achieved. During his Swiss sojourn, he was also influenced by the thinking of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, whose school at Burgdorf he visited and whose ideas he systematized in 1802 in his Pestalozzis Idee eines ABC der Anschauung untersucht und wissenschaftlich ausgeführt (Pestalozzi's idea of an ABC of sense impression investigated and laid out scientifically).
  38. 38. Johann Friedrich Herbart Returning to Germany in 1800, Herbart completed his remaining doctoral work at the University of Göttingen, receiving his degree in 1802. He remained there as a lecturer in both philosophy and pedagogy until he received an appointment as professor of philosophy in 1805. Chief works related to education from his Göttingen period are Über die ästhetische Darstellung der Welt als das Hauptgeschäft der Erziehung (On the aesthetic representation of the world as the main concern of education), published in 1804, and Allgemeine Pädagogik aus dem Zweck der Erziehung abgeleitet (General pedagogy deduced from the aim of education), published in 1806. He also published on metaphysics and psychology.
  39. 39. Johann Friedrich Herbart In 1809 Herbart accepted the chair of pedagogy and philosophy at the University of Königsberg, formerly occupied by Immanuel Kant, and began a period of great productivity, ranging across the full spectrum of philosophical investigations. *In the midst of work in metaphysics and psychology he also organized a pedagogical seminar for advanced students, attached to a demonstration school in which he and his students attempted to implement his pedagogical ideas, which were then critiqued and revised through the seminar discussions. This seminar, widely imitated by his later disciplines in Germany and elsewhere, was a first step toward trying to approach educational work scientifically.
  40. 40. Johann Friedrich Herbart Herbart left Königsberg in 1833, apparently because of disagreements with the Prussian government over his educational views in relation to state and church power. He returned to the University of Göttingen, where he remained for the last eight years of his life, producing his Umriss von pädagogischen Vorlesungen (Outlines of pedagogical lectures) in 1835, in which he attempted to connect more directly his early pedagogical theory and his later psychological work. He gave his last lecture two days before he died of a stroke on August 14, 1841.
  41. 41. Johann Friedrich Herbart Contribution The legacy of Herbart to education was mediated through two major German disciples, Karl Volkmar Stoy and Tuiskon Ziller, who sought to implement his theories with varying degrees of alteration. • Stoy was inspired by Herbart's early lectures in philosophy and pedagogy at the University of Göttingen and, upon qualifying as a lecturer at the University of Jena in 1842, took charge of a local private school that soon attracted students from all over Europe. • In 1845 he was appointed professor at the university, then he moved in 1865 to the University of Heidelberg, establishing at nearby Bielitz a normal school based upon Herbartian principles. He returned to Jena in 1874 and established there the pedagogical seminar that would be taken over upon his death in 1885 by Wilhelm Rein, and brought to international renown by the end of the nineteenth century both for its practices and for its incorporation of teacher education into the university. It was there that the majority of Herbartians from other countries, including the United States, developed their ideas.
  42. 42. Johann Friedrich Herbart Rein had studied with the second major disciple of Herbart, Ziller, who had pursued a career in law, being appointed a lecturer at the University of Leipzig in 1853. Like Herbart, a period of teaching during his doctoral work led Ziller to investigate educational questions, and his first works, published in 1856 and 1857, were direct extensions and applications of Herbart's ideas. He established at the University of Leipzig a pedagogical seminar and practice school modeled after that of Herbart at Königsberg. Ziller was instrumental in founding the Verein für wissenschaftliche Pädagogik (Society for Scientific Pedagogy) in 1868, which published a quarterly that disseminated Herbartian ideas, and spread all over Germany as local clubs for the study of Herbartian approaches to educational problems.
  43. 43. Johann Friedrich Herbart Ziller wrote Grundlegung zur Lehre vom erziehenden Unterricht (Basis of the doctrine of instruction as a moral force), published in 1865, and his Vorlesungen über allgemeine Pädagogik (Lectures on general pedagogy), published in 1876, five years before his death. These works provided the Herbartian legacy that Wilhelm Rein as a student of Ziller at Leipzig brought to his work when Rein resuscitated the pedagogical seminar at the University of Jena in 1886, a year after Stoy's death.
  44. 44. Johann Friedrich Herbart Some of Herbart's main works on educational theory 1. Ueber die ästhetische Darstellung der Welt als das Hauptgeschäft der Erziehung (On the aesthetic representation of the world as the main subject of education), 2. 1804, Allgemeine Pädagogik aus dem Zweck der Erziehung abgeleitet (General pedagogics derived from the purpose of education), 3. 1806, and Umri° pädagogischer Vorlesungen (Outline of lectures on education), 1835, 1841. In On the Aesthetic Representation of the World Herbart discusses morality as the main purpose of education. As one of the proponents of realism, Herbart, in contrast to the supporters of German idealism, adheres to the recognizability of the objective world, meaning that the mind has to discern rules but does not create them. Thus Herbart understands morality as an ideal that one strives for by learning to assess and influence his or her will on the basis of objective perception in order to act in the interest of social existence. Herbart asks: How can the educator consciously support this learning process?
  45. 45. Johann Friedrich Herbart In General Pedagogics Herbart develops the means of education: 1. Unterricht (instruction), and Zucht, which he latercompletes in Outline of Lectures on Education. Unterricht is to provide understanding. Therefore Herbart's theory of Unterricht stresses the material part of education concerning these dimensions: steps of instruction (structure), subject matter of instruction (choice of subject), and course of instruction (methods). 2. Zucht, on the other hand, focuses the ethical ideal to act according to a better understanding. It refers to the personal attitude of the educator and the pupil toward each other. Both aspects of education, Unterricht and Zucht, lead to Herbart's idea of erziehender Unterricht (educating instruction). This idea gained influence on classroom activity and teacher training at the university level through his followers, the Herbartians.
  46. 46. Famous Herbartians included Karl Volkmar Stoy (1815–1885), Tuiskon Ziller (1817–1882), and Wilhelm Rein (1847–1929). • Their efforts were focused on teacher training at the university level that aimed both at specialist training and pedagogical professionalism. In order to offer both theoretical educational studies and educational practice to students, they affiliated practice schools with teacher training colleges. Life at the practice schools included lessons, school trips, celebrations, gardening, sports, games, and self-government by the pupils. • Stoy developed Herbart's systematic work on education into an acknowledged body of educational theories. Ziller added Herbart's theory on Unterricht and created within the framework of his didactics the Formalstufentheorie (theory of formal steps of instruction), the principle of Konzentration (concentration), and the Kulturstufentheorie (theory of cultural steps). It is thanks to Rein that Herbart became famous all over the world. His pedagogical teacher-training college and holiday courses at Jena gained international interest.
  47. 47. Thank you !!! JACKELINE B. ABINALES TALA HIGH SCHOOL MAY 09, 2014 SUBMITTED BY:

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