Foundation of education 4


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Foundation of education 4

  1. 1. Chapter 4 “ Pioneers of Teaching and Learning” Lecturer: Group Members: SOEUNG Sopha 1. Chhit Seyha 2. Seng Saksreyney 3. Norng Chanmoninich
  2. 2. Pioneer(s) of Teaching and Learning ? person who is one of the first people to do something
  3. 3. This chapter aims to show:  How the leading educational pioneers constructed their philosophies and theories of education and then to shape teachers in today’s classroom.
  4. 4. Pioneers 1. Comenius (Czech) 2. Roussseau (Swiss) 3. Pestalozzi (Swiss) 4. Herbart (German) 5. Froebel (German) 6. Spencer (English) 7. Dewey (American ) 8. Addams (American) 9. Montessori (Italian) 10. Piaget (Swiss) 11. Freire (Brazilian)
  5. 5. 4 things to discuss: I. Pioneers’ Background II. Principles of Teaching and Learning III. Education and Schooling IV. Influences on Educational Practices Today
  6. 6. 1. Comenius:„The Search for a New Method‟ Name: Jan Komensky Known as: Comenius Born: Moravian Town, Nivnitz, Czech ( 1592-1670)
  7. 7. Comenius‟s teaching method is (abilities to see, hear, smell, taste,& feel) „Using the senses, rather than passive memorization‟.  Lessons began with short, simple phrases and gradually moved to longer, more complex sentences.
  8. 8. Comenius Principles of Teaching and Learning Respecting children‟s needs and development Children‟s natural needs and interests by requiring teachers to be caring persons who created pleasant classroom. Lessons should be appropriate to children‟s natural stages of development.
  9. 9.  Principles of Teaching 1. use objects or picture 2. practical lives 3. present directly and simply 4. general principles before details 5. creatures and objects are parts of universe 6. present in sequence, stressing one thing at a time 7. do not leave a specific skill or subject
  10. 10. Comenius Education & Schooling multicultural and international educator promote international understanding, peace and non violent world
  11. 11. Influence on Educational Practices Today He advised teachers:  use objects and pictures to encourage children to use their senses in learning. x not to rush or pressure children
  12. 12. 2. Rousseau:„Educating the Natural Person‟ Name: Jean-Jacques Rousseau Known as: Swiss-born, French Theorist Born: ( 1712-1778)
  13. 13. Rousseau‟s teaching method is, through his novel Emile , „Reliance on sensation; experience with nature.‟  Learn directly by using senses to examine the objects in the environment.
  14. 14. Rousseau Principles of Teaching and Learning Five Stages of Development: 1. Infancy : first contacts with environment 2. Childhood: exploring the world through senses 3. Boyhood : natural science 4. Adolescence : entering society 5. Youth : broaden cultural awareness
  15. 15. Education vs Schooling Letting children grow according to their own natural instincts, interests, and needs Force children into the routines
  16. 16. Influence on Educational Practices Today Rousseau’s argument that:  Teachers should follow children’s interest  so that they can learn from their direct interaction and environment
  17. 17. 3. Pestalozzi: „ Educator of the Senses & Emotion‟ Name: Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Known as: Swiss educator Born: ( 1746- 1827)
  18. 18. Pestalozzi‟s teaching method is that, „Emphasize the right of children to learn in an unhurried manner in a caring environment.‟  reliance on sensation; object lessons; simple to complex, near to far.
  19. 19. Pestalozzi Principles of Teaching and Learning Warm, Secure School Create a permissive and emotionally healthy homelike learning environment Sensory learning The object lesson- plants, rocks, artifacts, in daily experience which they can draw and trace it. Instructional Strategies 1. begin with concrete objects 2. begin with the learner’s immediate environment 3. begin with simple and easy exercises 4. always proceed gradually and cumulatively
  20. 20. Education & Schooling Naturalistic Schooling Based learning on natural principles and stress the importance of human emotions Slow, precise learning in a loving environment A teacher is not only skilled in instructional methods, but also capable of loving all children
  21. 21. Influence on Educational Practices Today Pestalozzi advised that: Schooling should base on emotion security and object learning.
  22. 22. 4. Herbart: „ Systematizing Teaching‟ Name: Johann Friedrich Herbart Known as: German professor of philosophy & psychology Born: ( 1746- 1827)
  23. 23. Herbart‟s teaching method is, „Systematized instruction & encouraged students‟ moral development.‟  Organized instruction into system and concerned with moral development of student .
  24. 24. Herbart Principles of Teaching and Learning Apperceptive mass A large mass or network of ideas would generate a great number of interests by introducing students to an increasing number of ideas and to help them construct relationships between ideas. Moral development The humanistic studies of history or literature as rich sources of moral values by studying the living of great men and women, student could discover how people made their moral decision.
  25. 25. Education & Schooling Instruction as a sequence of steps 1. Preparation 2. Presentation 3. Association 4. Generalization 5. Application
  26. 26. Influence on Educational Practices Today Herbart advised that: 1. Clearly identify the skills & concepts 2. Plan organized & unambiguous lessons 3. Test students
  27. 27. 4. Froebel: „ The Kindergarten Movement‟ Name: Friedrich Froebel Known as: German Educator Born: ( 1782-1852)
  28. 28. Froebel‟s teaching method is, „Self-activity; play ; imitation.‟  Be sensitive to children’s readiness and needs rather than be taskmasters who heart preset recitations and forced children to memorize words they did not understand.
  29. 29. Froebel Principles of Teaching and Learning Kindergarten A prepared, permissive environment in which children could externalize their inner spirituality through activity such as games, play, songs, stories, and crafts. Gifts Objects with fixed form such as spheres, cubes, cylinders, intended to bring to full consciousness the underlying concept. Occupations Materials that children should shape and use in design and construct activities.
  30. 30. Education & Schooling Importance of teacher’s personality Kindergarten teacher’s personality is paramount importance. And preservice experiences should help teachers become sensitive to children’s needs and give them the knowledge and skills required to create caring and wholesome environment.
  31. 31. Influence on Educational Practices Today Froebel influenced on: Preschools designed to liberate the child’s creatively.