ARKANSAS ELEMENTARY ART TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES
TOWARD DISCIPLINE-BASED ART EDUCATION AND
THEIR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE VI...
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
ARKANSAS ELEMENTARY ART TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES
TOWARD DISCIPLINE-BASED ART EDUCATION AND
THEIR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE VI...
UMI Number: 3273752
INFORMATION TO USERS
The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy
submit...
The purpose of this study was to examine the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art
teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundat...
level regarding the knowledge of each discipline, and job satisfaction had significant
effect on the participants’ attitud...
I hereby authorize the University of Arkansas Libraries to duplicate this
dissertation when needed for research and/or sch...
Acknowledgements
My most sincere gratefulness and thanks are due to God for the graces, guidance,
and support that he has ...
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................... vi
T...
Pilot Study . . . . . . . . . 42
Measures . . . . . . . . . 43
Reliability and Validity . . . . . . . . 43
Data Analysis P...
LIST OF CHARTS
Chart Title Page
1. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward
the Importance of Art Makin...
11. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward
the Importance of Aesthetics Due to the Participants’
Job ...
LIST OF TABELS
Table Title
1. Visual Arts Standards’ Reliability Coefficient .
2. The Participants Characteristics .
3. Th...
15. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art History
Based on the Participants’ Confidence Knowledge
Level of Ar...
28. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of
Standard Three Based on Teaching Art Knowledge
Confidence Level . ....
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
In the late twentieth century, conferences and seminars held for evaluating
American education call...
The report called for focusing more on the educational subject content, claiming
that the teacher preparation curriculum f...
Putting the educational reco=mmendations and theories of the conferences and
reports into practice, The Getty Education In...
discussions of ideas, subjects, styles, and qualities of artworks. In addition, the influence
of artists’ works appears in...
Curriculum Framework section). There are three visual arts standards for K-4 grade in
Arkansas. Standard One aims to devel...
implementation in the art teachers’ lesson instructions based on five independent factors.
The examined factors were the a...
and understanding about visual arts by going beyond the production of the art objects to
the artistic forms, historical an...
And principals are using DBAE initiatives to organize entire elementary school
curriculum, (p. 11)
In his study “The effec...
standards. The schools in Central regions of the state had the highest percentage of
meeting the standards, while the scho...
2) To what extent do Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers implement the
State visual arts standards in their instruc...
In addition, this research study hypothesized that there were differences between
Arkansas art teachers’ implementation of...
• Art making/ studio art: “The process of responding to observations, ideas,
feelings, and other experiences by creating w...
DBAE content does not contradict the states’ visual arts frameworks because they have
objectives that serve the four found...
CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
This chapter provides the review of the literature related to this study. It starts
wi...
Art like music is taught with an eye to its appreciation values. Observation and
experience show that he who has tried to ...
illustration of stories made by children, and evidences of the quality difference of the
children’s thinking driven from d...
In the 1930s the importance of art appreciation, which had been considered as an
important purpose of teaching art in the ...
as models for students, “the students should be introduced to the ways of thinking, the
concepts, and the typical activiti...
According to Dobbs (1998), “comprehensive approach to art education is markedly
different from the approach taken in most ...
Barkan’s ideas were discussed in a conference held at Pennsylvania State University
indicating that schools should provide...
these commercial products supported the comprehensive art approach, it was not enough
for the needs of art specialists and...
approach to teaching and learning in art based upon disciplines that contribute to the
making and understanding of art. (p...
o Learning about tradition of craftsmanship and developing respect and utilitarian
ways of materials
o Learning attitudes ...
helps students learn and evaluate the basis upon which to make judgments about art.
Aesthetics seeks answers for the defin...
which “the teachers try to develop an elementary sense of art and exploit the well-known
propensity of young children to d...
can be reasonably defined and that are conducted by clearly credentialed
professionals who serve as role models, (p. 21)
A...
The Getty Education Institute for the Arts published lesson examples to describe
ways of implementing the discipline-based...
DBAE Evaluation
According to Wilson (1997), between 1988 and 1994 evaluators visited more than
100 elementary schools that...
confident in their ability to provide art instruction to students. The teachers who have
been oriented about DBAE indicate...
ensure the scope and sequence plan (DiBlasio, 1987). In addition, DBAE provides
specific art knowledge, concepts, and tech...
various names, they have much in common with DBAE and are often conceptually
identified with it.” (p. 66)
Arkansas visual ...
in their art instruction. In addition, it aims to provide additional standards objectives
according to the elementary art ...
growth. When the novice teacher’ teaching meets the mentoring requirements, Praxis III
performance assessment is scheduled...
Summary
In the opening of the twentieth century the focus of art education started to shift
from the industrial purposes t...
and performance. Therefore, the relationship between DBAE and the states’ frameworks
is reciprocal where DBAE was influenc...
CHAPTER III
METHODS
Chapter III presents the methodology and procedures that were used in this study
to attain the study g...
school region. The sample was also divided into different sets of three categories
according to the teachers’ years of tea...
• Each survey included two cover letters. The first one was directed to the school
principal asking him/her to give the su...
• Reading of art education journals
• Level of reading about teaching art
• The teachers’ confidence level about teaching ...
Attitude:
The teachers’ attitude consisted of four dependent variables which investigated
the Arkansas K-4 grade elementar...
Participants’satisfaction of being art teachers: The participants’ satisfaction of
being art teachers was obtained in item...
Self-efficacy regarding the participants’knowledge of the art subject: Self-
efficacy was obtained in item 11 and measured...
also expected that the participants would spend about 15 to 20 minutes to answer the
survey questions.
Measures
Descriptiv...
is accounted for by the independent variables. The internal consistency of each
standard’s was tested by Cronbach alpha. T...
independent variables, namely, professional reading level, level of confidence regarding
their knowledge of studio art, ar...
education (DBAE) and their implementation of Arkansas visual arts standards in their
lesson instructions. This study was l...
CHAPTER IV
FINDINGS
Chapter four provides an analysis of the study data providing the types of
statistical tests used in t...
envelope with a stamp were enclosed. The art teachers were given a week to complete
and return the questionnaires.
The fiv...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state vi...
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Arkansas elementary art teachers' attitudes toward discipline-based art education and their implementation of the state visual arts standards

  1. 1. ARKANSAS ELEMENTARY ART TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD DISCIPLINE-BASED ART EDUCATION AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE VISUAL ARTS STANDARDS Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  2. 2. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  3. 3. ARKANSAS ELEMENTARY ART TEACHERS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD DISCIPLINE-BASED ART EDUCATION AND THEIR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STATE VISUAL ARTS STANDARDS A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy By MOHAMMAD M. A. ALDOSARI, B.S., M.S. King Saud University, 1995 University of Dayton, 2003 December 2006 University of Arkansas Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  4. 4. UMI Number: 3273752 INFORMATION TO USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. Broken or indistinct print, colored or poor quality illustrations and photographs, print bleed-through, substandard margins, and improper alignment can adversely affect reproduction. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if unauthorized copyright material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion. ® UMI UMI Microform 3273752 Copyright 2007 by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights reserved. This microform edition is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code. ProQuest Information and Learning Company 300 North Zeeb Road P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  5. 5. The purpose of this study was to examine the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of discipline-based art education (DBAE), art making/studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism, to determine their acceptance of the approach. Another purpose of this study was to examine the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ level of implementation of the state’s three visual arts standards in the instruction. In Content Standard One K-4, the students are expected to develop concepts and ideas through the processes of inquiring, exploring, and discovering a variety of references, such as historical, cultural, social, environmental, and personal references. Content Standard Two K-4 aims to develop students’ creativity skills by manipulating a wide variety of media, techniques, processes, and tools to develop original works of art and design. Finally, Content Standard Three K-4 sets learning expectations through a process of rediscovering and responding to artworks and concepts of self, of others, of environment, and of cultures. The study also sought the factors that may influence the art teachers’ attitudes and implementation means. To answer the study’s questions, a 56-item survey questionnaire was developed. Independent-sample t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey (HSD) post-hoc analysis tests were conducted to analyze the collected data. The participants of the study were 288 K-4 grade elementary art teachers. Results of the study revealed that the participants highly valued the importance of art making/studio art and art history. Aesthetics and art criticism had the lowest means of attitudes. Statistical tests determined that having a degree in teaching art, confidence Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  6. 6. level regarding the knowledge of each discipline, and job satisfaction had significant effect on the participants’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines. The study’s results also indicated a high level of implementation of three visual arts standards. Visual art standard two had the highest level of implementation; then visual art standard one came second, finally; visual art standard three had the lowest level of implementation. Factors such as, having a degree in teaching art, confidence level of professional knowledge, and job satisfaction were found to be statistically significant factors. Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  7. 7. I hereby authorize the University of Arkansas Libraries to duplicate this dissertation when needed for research and/or scholarship. Agreed / / ) y h a w im oi-r) Refused Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  8. 8. Acknowledgements My most sincere gratefulness and thanks are due to God for the graces, guidance, and support that he has given me through my life. My deepest appreciation and gratitude go to my beloved father, mother, brothers, and sisters for their continuous support. In addition, I would like to express my sincere appreciation and thanks to my wife and children who did not spare any effort to prepare a good family environment that greatly helped me throughout my graduate study. My sincere gratitude is also due to my advisor and the chairman of the dissertation committee, Dr. Michael Wavering, for his support, expertise, and valuable advice during the dissertation process. I would like to express my deepest appreciation and gratitude to the research committee, Dr. George Denney, Dr. Mounir Farah, and Dr. Angela LaPorte, for their unlimited support and assistance in this dissertation and throughout my doctoral study. Finally, I would like to thank all my friends who have supported me during my study journey. Mohammad November 30, 2006 vi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  9. 9. TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS................................................................................... vi TABLE OF C O N T E N T S .................................................................................. vii LIST OF C H A R T S ................................................................................................ix LIST OF T A B L E S ................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1: IN T R O D U C T IO N .........................................................................1 Purpose of the Study . . . . . . . . 5 Significance of the Study . . . . . . . 6 Statement of the Problem . . . . . . . 6 Research Questions . . . . . . . . 9 Research Hypotheses . . . . . . . . 1 0 Definition of Terms . . . . . . . . 1 1 Summary . . . . . . . . . 12 CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE . . . . 1 4 The Twentieth Century Educational Movements and Studies that Contributed in developing the Status of American Art Education . . . . . . . 1 4 tVi Art Education at the Opining of the 20 Century . . . 1 4 Art Education before World War II . . . . . 1 5 Art Education after World War II . . . . . 1 7 Discipline Oriented Art Education . . . . . 1 7 Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) Roots . . . . 1 8 DBAE Definition and Development . . . . . 1 8 Foundational Disciplines of DBAE . . . . . 2 2 How to Teach the DBAE Four Foundational Disciplines . . 26 Evaluation of DBAE . . . . . . . 28 Arkansas State Visual Arts Standards . . . . . 3 0 Arkansas State Teacher Accreditation . . . . . . 3 2 Competency Area . . . . . . . 3 3 Summary . . . . . . . . . 34 CHAPTER 3: M E T H O D S ................................................................................... 36 Research Rationale . . . . . . . 3 6 Participants . . . . . . . . . 36 Procedures and Data Collection. . . . . . . 3 7 Instrument . . . . . . . . . 38 Variable List . . . . . . . . . 39 vii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  10. 10. Pilot Study . . . . . . . . . 42 Measures . . . . . . . . . 43 Reliability and Validity . . . . . . . . 43 Data Analysis Procedures . . . . . . . 44 Delimitation of the Study . . . . . . . 45 CHAPTER 4: F I N D I N G S ................................................................................... 47 Pilot Study . . . . . . . . . 47 Data Collection . . . . . . . . 48 Elimination of Record . . . . . . . 49 Participants . . . . . . . . . 49 Hypotheses Testing . . . . . . . . 5 6 Summary . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0 CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . 1 1 3 Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . 1 1 4 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 8 Implications. . . . . . . . . . 1 2 9 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 1 Recommendations . . . . . . . . 1 3 2 Conclusions. . . . . . . . . . 133 R E FE R E N C E S...........................................................................................................136 A P P E N D IX E S ...........................................................................................................140 A. Survey Cover Letter (Principal’s Letter) . . . . . 1 4 1 B. Survey Cover Letter (Art Teacher’s Letter) . . . . 1 4 3 C. The Survey . . . . . . . . 145 D. The Arkansas State’s Visual Arts Frameworks K-4 Grades . . 1 5 3 viii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  11. 11. LIST OF CHARTS Chart Title Page 1. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art Making Due to their Professional Reading Level . . . . . . 64 2. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art History Due to their Professional Reading Level . . . . . . 66 3. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Aesthetics Due to their Professional Reading Level . . . . . . 6 8 4. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art Criticism Related to their Professional Reading Level . . . . . 7 0 5. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art Making Based on the Participants’ Art Making Confidence Knowledge Level . . . . . . 72 6. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art History Based on the Participants’ Art History Confidence Knowledge Level . . . . . . 74 7. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Aesthetics Based on the Participants’ Aesthetics Confidence Knowledge Level . . . . . . 7 6 8. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art Criticism Related to the Participants’ Art Criticism Confidence Knowledge Level . . . . . . 7 8 9. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art Making Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . . . 8 1 10. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Art History Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . . . . 8 3 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  12. 12. 11. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude toward the Importance of Aesthetics Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . 12. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of Attitude Toward the Importance of Art Criticism Related to The Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . 13. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard-One Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . . . . 14. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard Two Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . . . . 15. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard-Three Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . . . . 16. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard One Based on the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . 17. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard Two Based on the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . 18. A Distribution of the Participants’ Mean of State Visual Art Standard Three Based on the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . x Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
  13. 13. LIST OF TABELS Table Title 1. Visual Arts Standards’ Reliability Coefficient . 2. The Participants Characteristics . 3. The participants’ knowledge and confidence and Job Satisfaction Level . . . . . . 4. Frequency and Percentage of Introducing and Preferring Taking a Course in Each Discipline of DBAE . . . . 5. Frequency and Percentage of the Participants’ Attitude toward DBAE . . . . . . . 6. Independent Sample t test for Importance of Art Making Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 7. Independent Sample t test for Importance of Art History Based Having a Degree in Teaching Art 8. Independent Sample t test for Importance of Aesthetics Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 9. Independent Sample t test for Importance of Art Criticism Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 10. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Making Due to Professional Reading Level . . . . 11. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art History Due to Professional Reading Level . . . . 12. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Aesthetics Due to Professional Reading Level . . . . 13. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Criticism Due to Professional Reading Level . . . . 14. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Making Based on the Participants’ Confidence Knowledge Level of Art Making . . . . . . xi Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  14. 14. 15. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art History Based on the Participants’ Confidence Knowledge Level of Art History . . . . . . . 73 16. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Aesthetics Based on the Participants’ Confidence Knowledge Level of Aesthetics . . . . . . 17. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Criticism Based on the Participants’ Confidence Knowledge Level of Art Criticism . . . . . . . 18. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Making Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . 19. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art History Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . 20. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Aesthetics Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . 21. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Importance of Art Criticism Due to the participants’ Job satisfaction Level . 22. Participants Overall Means of Arkansas State Visual Arts Standards . . . . . . . . 23. Independent Sample t test for Standard One Implementation Mean Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 24. Independent Sample t test for Standard Two Implementation Mean Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 25. Independent Sample t test for Standard Three Implementation Mean Based on Having a Degree in Teaching Art 26. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard One Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . 27. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard Two Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . . . . . . . xii 75 77 80 82 84 86 88 91 92 93 94 96 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  15. 15. 28. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard Three Based on Teaching Art Knowledge Confidence Level . . . . . 29. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard One based on the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . 30. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard Two Based on the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . 31. One-Way Analysis of Variance for Implementation of Standard Three Due to the Participants’ Job Satisfaction Level . . . . xiii Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission
  16. 16. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In the late twentieth century, conferences and seminars held for evaluating American education called for reforming and restructuring education in the United States. One of those calls was the well-known report A Nation at Risk, written in 1983, that criticized American public education for causing American students to fall behind in competition with students of other countries. The knowledge of Japanese and German students exceeded the students of the United States not only in industry and commerce but also in high quality of learning, information, and intelligent skills. The report stated that “the educational foundations of our society are presently being eroded by a rising tide of mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and people” (The U.S. Department of Education, 1983, A nation at risk section, para.l). The report provided examples that identified the educational dimensions of the risks. One of those dimensions was the international comparisons of student achievement that indicated that American students were never first or second on 19 academic tests and were last 7 times. Another example was the high rates of illiteracy among adult and teenage Americans. According to the simplest tests of everyday reading, writing, and comprehension, there were 23 million functionally illiterate American adults. In addition, about 13 percent of all 17-year-olds in the United State were considered functionally illiterate. Finally, the high school students’ poor performance in most standardized tests was another indication of the educational risks. It was found that the students’ average achievement on most standardized tests was lower than it had been two decades ago (The U.S. Department of Education, 1983, Indicators of Risk section). 1 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  17. 17. The report called for focusing more on the educational subject content, claiming that the teacher preparation curriculum focused more on courses in educational methods at the expense of the subjects to be taught. The report ended with recommendations for developing the quality of American education. Recommendations included making the subject content more comprehensive and developing students’ skills in comprehension, interpretation, and evaluation. The standardized tests were to be used in schools at transition points from one level of schooling to another and from high school to university and work. Lastly, teachers should meet high educational standards to demonstrate and be prepared for teaching (The U.S. Department of Education, 1983, Recommendations section). The idea of comprehensive curriculum had emerged in art education in the 1960s. Art education curriculum and frameworks were revised to define what students should learn and experience in art. The seminars and conferences that evaluated art frameworks in the 1960s recommended including other visual art areas such as art history, art criticism, and aesthetics in art instruction because those disciplines help in providing a comprehensive art knowledge and understanding (Duke, 1984). However, it was found that the visual art teaching in the United States was concerned with art production over such art disciplines. For instance, the seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development held at the Pennsylvania State University in 1965 recommended a major curriculum reform that shifted the focus of education from teaching facts to more comprehensive knowledge, understanding, and problem solving. Art disciplines such as art history and criticism were to be included in art teaching alongside studio study (Efland, 1984). 2 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  18. 18. Putting the educational reco=mmendations and theories of the conferences and reports into practice, The Getty Education Institute for the Arts in 1984 responded to the need of comprehensive art knowledge and understanding by sponsoring a comprehensive approach called discipline-based art education (DBAE). DBAE is a comprehensive approach to instruction and learning in art with a sequentially organized written curriculum consisting of lessons that draw their content from four foundational art disciplines: (a) art making/studio art enabling students to use their artistic abilities to develop artworks; (b) art criticism helping students to analyze, interpret, and evaluate qualities of artworks; (c) art history providing students with knowledge and understanding of the role of art in society; (d) aesthetics helping students to understand the nature and quality of art to be able to make and justify judgments about it (Dobbs, 1992). DBAE presents art education in the way of other academic subjects’ mode or design, in terms of written lessons and learning activities for each grade level in a systematic, coherent, and sequential way. The written curriculum in DBAE aims also to ensure that the learner move from one grade level to another with appropriate learning that builds on overall goals of skills, knowledge, and understanding (Dobbs, 1998). Ways of implementing the DBAE approach in art instruction have been clarified in the Getty Education Institute for the Arts’ publications making the learning objectives in the art classrooms planned and assessable (McLaughlin & Thomas, 1984). Evaluations of the schools that applied the DBAE approach indicated improvement in the quality of art teaching and learning, which appeared on the students’ performance in the art classroom. In those schools, students are involved in active 3 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  19. 19. discussions of ideas, subjects, styles, and qualities of artworks. In addition, the influence of artists’ works appears in the students’ works, which are exhibited with the students’ critical and historical reflections. Art teachers who teach at schools that applied DBAE approach became active members involved in school planning (Wilson, 1997). Moreover, the teachers who have been oriented about the DBAE indicated that they could teach art in important ways and they assisted other teachers to teach effectively (Silverman, 1989). The national visual art standards require art programs to teach more art disciplines. The National Standards for Arts Education development by the Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, published in 1994, established content and achievement expectations for K-12 students considering aesthetics, history, creativity, and performance as basic curriculum content in visual arts (Dreeszen, Craig, & Comp, 2001). The Arkansas frameworks for curriculum guidelines increasingly require exposure and experiences in the various art disciplines such as art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. Hence, DBAE content fits with most visual art standards because these comprehensive approaches have much in common with DBAE (Dobbs, 1992). DBAE evolution was greatly influenced by the state frameworks which were in favor of a comprehensive, multifaceted approach to art. DBAE, in turn, has influenced and changed frameworks in many states. Therefore, the relationship between DBAE and state visual arts frameworks is reciprocal or mutual (Dobbs, 1998). The student learning expectations in Arkansas state visual arts standards for K-4 grades “are specific to what all students in those grades should know and be able to do in visual art during that span of years” (Arkansas Department of Education, 2001, Fine Arts 4 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  20. 20. Curriculum Framework section). There are three visual arts standards for K-4 grade in Arkansas. Standard One aims to develop the students’ inquiry and discovery skills regarding their surrounding cultural, social, and historical environments to develop their own ideas and concepts. Standard Two has objectives regarding the students’ creative skills, expecting students to use their creativity “in a wide variety of media, techniques, processes, and tools to develop original works of art and design.” Standard Three expects students to “reflect upon, respond to, and rediscover the art work and concept of self, of others (past and present), of environments, and of diverse cultures” (Arkansas Department of Education, 2001, Fine Arts Curriculum Framework section). Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study was to examine Arkansas State K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes and knowledge about the discipline-based art education approach (DBAE) to determine its applicability to AR elementary schools. According to Greer (1984), teachers’ acceptance of DBAE and realization of its importance are indications of its successful implementation in schools. This study also attempted to determine if there were factors that influenced art teachers’ attitudes toward DBAE. The examined factors were art teachers educational level, whether or not the art teacher had a degree in teaching art, the art teachers’ professional reading level, the art teachers’ confidence knowledge level of each art discipline, and the art teachers’job satisfaction level. In addition, this study was to examine Arkansas elementary art teachers’ implementation of the state visual arts standards in their lesson instructions and to provide additional important objectives to be added to the arts standards. This study also attempted to determine the significant differences in the mean of standards’ 5 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  21. 21. implementation in the art teachers’ lesson instructions based on five independent factors. The examined factors were the art teachers’ years of teaching experience, educational degree, whether the art teachers have degrees in teaching art, self-efficacy regarding their knowledge of the art subject, and their satisfaction of being art teachers. The level of contribution of each variable was determined. Significance of the Study This study examined Arkansas elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the discipline-based art education (DBAE) approach. Investigating teachers’ attitudes toward DBAE is a factor of its successful implementation to find out to what extent they accept this approach (Greer, 1984). Therefore, this study attempted to provide Arkansas elementary art teachers’ level of acceptance of DBAE, which may be used when planning to use the DBAE approach in the state’s elementary schools. In addition, this study aimed to provide statistical data about the status of the visual arts standards implementation in Arkansas elementary schools, which may be used as a reference for the state’s department of education and districts. As will be clarified later in the literature, the Arkansas visual arts standards were examined in the year 1986 by Teague in a doctoral dissertation titled “An assessment o fArkansas middle school/junior high school art programs using art education association standards therefore this study may update the data on teachers’ views concerning these standards. Statement of the Problem Since the last quarter of the 20th century there have been calls for providing K-12 students with a comprehensive art curriculum that adequately serves students’ knowledge 6 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  22. 22. and understanding about visual arts by going beyond the production of the art objects to the artistic forms, historical and cultural background, and critical and aesthetic aspects of the art objects. Ralph Smith in 1966 supported the idea of a synthesis of comprehensive art discipline writing about aesthetics, art history, artistic creation, and art criticism (Dobbs, 1998). In addition, the seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development held at the Pennsylvania State University in 1965 and A Nation at Risk report in 1983 supported such a curriculum. Moreover, the State’s visual arts frameworks have adopted more comprehensive art disciplines such as, aesthetics, history, creation, and performance as basic curriculum content in visual arts. Because there is no written art curriculum, art units and learning activities are selected by the class teachers, according to their preference, which will not ensure the scope and sequence plan (DiBlasio, 1987). Discipline- based art education (DBAE) is a comprehensive art approach based on four art disciplines, art-making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics, which all together could be applied in teaching art in a comprehensive way. With its written curriculum and exemplary lessons, DBAE makes learning a continuous, systematic, and sequential process having specific educational objectives for each grade level, according to the students’ appropriate age and ability. The literature indicated that schools that applied DBAE showed improvement in their art programs and art teachers became active members involving in school planning. According to Wilson (1997): Evaluators found that schools that once had weak visual arts programs have since developed strong ones. In other schools, visual arts programs have moved from their customary place at the margins of the school curriculum to its core. Art teachers who were accustomed to working by themselves are now working as key members of school planning teams with the intent on broadening school instruction programs. 7 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  23. 23. And principals are using DBAE initiatives to organize entire elementary school curriculum, (p. 11) In his study “The effects o fmodified discipline-based art instruction on mainstreamed students' attitudes, achievement and classroom performance in a public school system”, Gray (1992) concluded that discipline-based art education enhanced the mainstreamed students’ understanding, making, approaching, and evaluation of art. In another study, Severance (2005) used critical-thinking skills and DBAE theory to teach parents and fifth grade students in designing an art museum show focusing on art careers. Severance confirmed that: We incorporate critical-thinking skills and use discipline-based art education (DBAE) theory. These components enable our art programs to present art as it fits in with all other academic areas and our culture. We now do a better job explaining why art is important. These improvements can be furthered with the following generational activities, (p. 24) Arkansas State elementary schools depend on the state visual arts framework to guide teaching art. The Arkansas visual arts standards include disciplines such as, art production, art history, and aesthetics. This study attempted to examine Arkansas elementary art teachers’ knowledge and attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of DBAE, art production/ studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics to examine their acceptance of the DBAE approach. The literature did not indicate a recent evaluation of Arkansas elementary teachers’ implementation of the state visual arts standards. There are studies that evaluated Arkansas schools’ art programs regarding their implementation of the National Art Education Association standards, which were used in the schools before the year 1987 when Arkansas developed its visual arts standards. Stafford (1985) indicated that Arkansas high school art programs met 61% of the National Art Education Association 8 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  24. 24. standards. The schools in Central regions of the state had the highest percentage of meeting the standards, while the schools in the Southeast regions of the state had the lowest. Teague (1986) in his study that evaluated Arkansas middle school art programs concluded that Arkansas schools met 55% of National Art Education Association standards and that the most art programs were studio-based. The second major objective of this study was examining to what extent Arkansas elementary art teachers implement the state visual arts standards content in their teaching and what additional objectives they think are important to be added to the standards. Research Questions This study addressed two major research questions with associated sub- questions: 1) What were the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the four discipline foundations of discipline- based art education (DBAE): art making/ studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism? ❖ Were there differences between Arkansas elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward each foundational art discipline of DBAE based on the following independent variables: • Education degree • Having degree in teaching art • Level of professional reading • Level of confidence regarding their knowledge of art making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics • Level ofjob satisfaction 9 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  25. 25. 2) To what extent do Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers implement the State visual arts standards in their instructions? ❖ Were there differences between Arkansas elementary art teachers’ implementation of the state visual arts standards based on the following independent variables: • Year of teaching experience • Education level • Whether they have degrees in teaching art • Self-efficacy of their knowledge about teaching art • Level ofjob satisfaction Research Hypotheses It was hypothesized that there were differences between Arkansas art teachers’ attitudes toward the discipline- based art education (DBAE) based on the following independent variables: • Education degree • Having degree in teaching art • Level of professional reading • Level of confidence regarding their knowledge of art making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics • Level ofjob satisfaction 10 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  26. 26. In addition, this research study hypothesized that there were differences between Arkansas art teachers’ implementation of the State visual art standards in their instruction due to the following independent variables: • Year of teaching experience • Educational degree • Having degree in teaching art • Self-efficacy of their knowledge about teaching art • Level ofjob satisfaction Definitions of Terms • Aesthetics: refers to a scanning process that “helps students learn to evaluate the basis upon which to make informed judgments about art” (Dobbs, 1992, p. 75). • Arkansas State Visual Arts Standards: these are the three standards that set expectations of what K-12 grade students will learn in Arkansas art classes. • Art criticism: “Entails describing, interpreting, evaluating, and theorizing about works of art for the purpose of increasing understanding and appreciation of art and its role in society... therefore, art criticism includes the use of language, thoughtful writing, and talk about art through which we can better understand and appreciate art, artists, audiences, and the roles of art in culture and society” (Dobbs, 1998, p. 32). • Art History: refers to teaching students about the art objects’ historical, social, and cultural contexts (Dobbs, 1992). 11 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  27. 27. • Art making/ studio art: “The process of responding to observations, ideas, feelings, and other experiences by creating works of art through the skillful, thoughtful, and imaginative application of the tools and techniques to various media” (Dobbs, 1998, p. 27). • Attitude: Is the degree to which a person likes or dislikes an object (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980). • Discipline- based art education (DBAE): is a comprehensive approach to instruction and learning in art with a written and sequential organized curriculum consisting of lessons drawing their content from four foundational art disciplines: art making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics (Dobbs, 1992). • Foundational disciplines: are art making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics that form the DBAE content. • Job satisfaction: “a pleasure or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience” (Locke, 1976, p. 1304). • Self-efficacy: “Is the judgment of one’s capability to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainment” (Bandura, 1997, p.3). Summary Educational conferences and reports recommended comprehensive art curriculum that provide students with adequate knowledge and skills. Discipline-based art education (DBAE) was developed in 1984 to provide such curriculum. DBAE is a comprehensive art approach supported with a sequentially organized written curriculum consisting of four foundational art disciplines: art making, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. 12 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  28. 28. DBAE content does not contradict the states’ visual arts frameworks because they have objectives that serve the four foundational art disciplines. This study was designed to examine Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitude toward the DBAE foundational art disciplines as well as to determine the extent to which Arkansas K-4 grade art teachers implemented the state visual art standards. 13 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  29. 29. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE This chapter provides the review of the literature related to this study. It starts with a historical background including the major educational reform movements and studies in the 20th century that contributed to creating the current visual arts curriculum in the United States. It also provides an overview of DBAE regarding its roots, development, content, as well as its current status in states and educational districts that apply DBAE in their schools. This chapter concludes with an explanation of the content of the Arkansas State Visual Arts Frameworks K-4 grades and art teachers’ certification. The 20thCentury Educational Movements and Studies that Contributed in developing the Status of American Art Education Art Education at the Opening ofthe 20th Century At the beginning of the 20th century, the purpose of teaching art was for appreciation and creativity (Kern, 1987). The emphasis on drawing instructions related to craft and industrial purposes that characterized art education in the United States started to shift to teaching more inclusive education, such as appreciation, design, and crafts. This was a sign of a split between art education and vocational education that greatly influenced art education’s practices during the industrial revolution in the 19th century (Efland, 1990). The 1927 Cleveland Board of Education’s report stated that teaching art in school was for appreciation values: 14 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  30. 30. Art like music is taught with an eye to its appreciation values. Observation and experience show that he who has tried to create beauty gains from the experience a livelier appreciation of the works of others. For this reason drawing is generally taught throughout the school system. (Efland, 1983, p. 39) Art education broadened its educational goals to include goals such as solving problems of living related to the individual, which started to replace realization and appreciation of beauty in art as the purpose of art education. Art education was to help individuals understand their lives and communicate with others through cooperative activities. Hopkins and Burnett (1936) confirmed that the purpose of art education: Is to aid the individual to improve his daily living by helping him to discover in it more and varied insights, deeper feeling, and broader understandings. This means beginning with the individual where he is in his thinking, desiring, and appreciating, and working with him in the realization of his purposes, (p. 13) Another purpose of art education serves the field of social attitudes and abilities of the individual. “An individual who has little communication with other individuals lives a poor life.... But with increased contacts comes the necessity to leam how to work together, to cooperate toward common ends.” (Hopkins & Burnett, 1936, p. 14) Art Education before World War II (1930s) Art teaching was affected by the child psychology studies in the late 19th and beginning of 20th centuries. Child drawing studies found that children’s drawing abilities depended on a process of lawful development, which initiated calls for investigating the traditional art teaching methods; and new methods of teaching art soon appeared. Earl Bames (1903) in two volumes of articles explained the findings of his studies that involved a large number of school boys and girls. He analyzed the children’s minds and thinking by studying their drawing. His articles included studies of the pictorial evaluation of a man, children’s attitudes toward problems of perspective, analysis of the 15 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  31. 31. illustration of stories made by children, and evidences of the quality difference of the children’s thinking driven from drawings. Results of Barnes’s studies described children’s drawings and indicated that children preferred symbolic drawing rather than representing objects as they appear. As a result of these studies, more attention to learners’ interests and needs as well as connecting art activities to the learner’s daily life characterized art teaching in the 1930s. According to Gearhart (1938), art education: Develops the child’s use and awareness of art in his daily life.... The emphasis on art is on its contribution to the child’s well-balanced outlet in work as well as in play. Opportunity is offered for varied experience based on child’s interests and needs, (p. 38) Art education in school became a subject consisting of units of instructions with lessons that relate to other educational subjects in the school curriculum such as history, geography, science, languages, mathematics, industrial arts, social studies, and music. Leon Winslow (1939) in his book The Integrated School Art Program advocated integrating art in the curriculum to serve a broadly cultural education along with the humanities and natural science in elementary and secondary school programs. Winslow insisted on integrating art as a general rather than a special subject in the school program. For art instruction, he recommended that the subject of art consists of unit instructions and each unit consists of correlated lessons that serve the unit subject. The unit should include general information derived from the subjects of the curriculum, such as history, geography, science, and music, and technical information derived from the subject matter or what we call today art elements, such as line, mass, and color, as well as structural principle of design with construction, rhythm, harmony, and balance (Winslow, 1939). 16 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  32. 32. In the 1930s the importance of art appreciation, which had been considered as an important purpose of teaching art in the teens and twenties, started to decline. It was replaced with self-expression and its use in everyday living (Efland, 1983). Art education after World War II After 1945, art education emphasized the child’s development and individuality as central issues. This was in part a result of theorists’ educational thoughts, such as Viktor Lowenfeld who advocated free expression as a vital way for the child’s healthy growth and development. In his book “Creative and Mental Growth” Lowenfeld successfully provided descriptions for the child developmental basis helping in understanding the child’s art. He clearly described these stages and provided examples of children’s drawings and paintings. In addition, he suggested appropriate art activities for every developmental stage. In addition, he provided different educational purposes, such as child development, individual development, aspects of growth, and developmental stages, which should be taken into consideration when designing classroom and school exhibits (Lownefeld, 1957). Discipline OrientedArt Education The definition of discipline derived from the sciences means having an organized body of knowledge, specific methods of inquiry, and a community of scholars who generally agree on the fundamental ideas of their field (Efland, 1990). In 1960, the psychologist Jerome Bruner argued that the content of any subject could be taught to students at any age when defining the appropriate structure of the discipline and presenting its principles in a form that fits and appeals to the students (Stankiewicz, 2000). Bruner argued that the adult practitioners in every particular field should be used 17 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  33. 33. as models for students, “the students should be introduced to the ways of thinking, the concepts, and the typical activities of the adult in a particular field” (Smith, 1996, p. 208). Bruner’s philosophy was introduced to art education in 1962 in the Arts and Humanities Program that funded 17 conferences on arts to form a discipline oriented art education curriculum. There was an agreement that art is a discipline that has its own structure and goals that should be to help engage in disciplined inquiry in art. After these conferences, there was a movement to create a discipline oriented art education. As a result of that movement, the focus in art education shifted from self-expression to a focus on the discipline and what should be taught (Efland, 1990). Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) Discipline-Based Art Education’s Definition and Development In the 1980s there were calls for improving the quality and status of education. The well-known report “A Nation at Risk” in 1983 that warned that American public schools do poorly and that American students are falling behind compared to students of other countries (Delacruz & Dunn, 1996). The report indicated that “Our once unchallenged preeminence in commerce, industry, science, and technological innovation is being overtaken by competitors throughout the world” (The U.S. Department of Education, 1983, A Nation at Risk section, para. 1). In 1984, the Getty Center for Education in the Arts, now called the Getty Education Institute for the Arts, sponsored a comprehensive approach called Discipline-based art education (DBAE) derived from four art disciplines: art production, art history, art criticism, and aesthetic (Dobbs, 1998). DBAE aimed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of art beyond the making of art and utilitarian purposes that characterized the teaching of art. 18 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  34. 34. According to Dobbs (1998), “comprehensive approach to art education is markedly different from the approach taken in most U.S. schools for most of the twentieth century.” (p. 17). He added, since its appearance, art in school curriculum “followed the predictable path of utilitarian necessity” and he gives examples: In the nineteenth century the evolution of the American work ethic placed a premium on drawing skills, whether for the purpose of acquiring job skills to work in a factory, to sketch portraits, or simply to encourage good penmanship and hand-eye coordination, (p. 17) The term discipline-based art education first appeared in 1984 in an article by Dwain Greer. In his article Discipline-Based Arts Education: Approaching Art as a Subject Study, Greer (1984) stated that “I have simply provided an identifying label for an approach to teaching art: I call it discipline-based art education”, (p. 212). However, the DBAE seeds had been in the field of education decades before. According to Duke (1988): The idea of DBAE was first developed during the 1960s by a group of leading art educators, including Manuel Barkan of Ohio State University and Elliot Eisner of Stanford University. But theory had not been completely developed or integrated with actual practice in the classroom, (p. 8) The ideas and philosophies that formed DBAE existed in the field and were tVi actively discussed in the literature throughout the last quarter of the 20 century (Dobbs, 1998). Jerome Bruner called for a major curriculum reform that shifted focus of education from teaching facts to understanding and problem solving (Efland, 1990). Bruner’s philosophy was introduced to art education by Barkan, who believed that the art curriculum should help students to have art experiences related to art criticism and art history by exposing the students to a wide range of art activities. He claimed that these experiences and knowledge are vital for students’ creation and understanding of art. 19 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  35. 35. Barkan’s ideas were discussed in a conference held at Pennsylvania State University indicating that schools should provide students with a wide range of art activities (Dobbs, 1997, p. 19). In 1965, the seminar in Art Education for Research and Curriculum Development held at the Pennsylvania State University recommended that art disciplines such as art history and criticism should be included in art teaching as well as studio study (Efland, 1984). In 1966, Ralph Smith called for a synthesis of the discipline and child-centered conception of art education writing about aesthetics, art history, artistic creation, and art criticism, and finally established the Journal o fAesthetic Education encouraging a comprehensive view of arts education. In the same time, research studies and articles were investigating and discussing the students’ perception, talk about art, responses to artworks, and other subjects about the consequences of curriculum (Dobbs, 1998). In the early 1980s, there was a trend to reform the old state curriculum frameworks encouraging comprehensive approaches. The Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) in Los Angeles developed an art program for the elementary grades including content and visual resources focusing on art production, art history, and art criticism. The trend of a comprehensive art approach was adopted by the National Art Education Association’s “Quality Goals Statement” that required a comprehensive modification in conceptions of art education goals, learners, teacher training, instructional resources, and other aspects of art curriculum. Then, books and articles were published in response to the need for comprehensive art education. In addition, textbooks and a variety of instructional resources and materials designed according to the elements of the approach started to appear in the market to be used by art teachers in schools. Although 20 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  36. 36. these commercial products supported the comprehensive art approach, it was not enough for the needs of art specialists and general classroom teachers. Finally, the professional effort to develop a comprehensive art approach was provided by the Getty Education Institute for the Arts outlining its view in a publication titled Beyond Creating: the Place for Art in America’s Schools in 1984 reinforcing the concept of discipline-oriented art curriculum and later developed by Gilbert Clark, Michael Day, and Dwaine Greer to discipline-based art education, providing a comprehensive art approach derived from four disciplines: art-making, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics (Dobbs, 1997). According to Leilani Duke (1984): The Getty Center for Education in the Arts did a year long examination of public schools’ visual arts programs finding that those programs characterized with emphasis on art production excluded teaching about the cultural and historical contributions of art or how to value, analyze, and interpret works of art. Another finding was the absence of written, sequential, and substantive curricula that produce the content and process of art and provide for cumulative learning. (McLaughlin & Thomas, 1984, pp. iii-iv) Therefore, DBAE was developed to provide students with comprehensive art knowledge and understanding. Eisner (2002) indicated that DBAE aims to help students acquire high-quality arts performance by developing the students’ skills and imagination needed for enhancing their ability to talk about the qualities of the art and their understanding about the historical and cultural context in which art is created. Discipline-based art education is not a curriculum rather it is a comprehensive approach. According to Elliot Eisner “because DBAE is not a curriculum, conceptual clarity about its aims, components, and their meaning is particularly important.” (Dobbs, 1998, p. x). Dobbs (1998) indicated that DBAE: Is not a curriculum in the sense of being a stipulated series of learning arranged in a prescribed manner. Rather, it is a conceptual framework or set of principles and an 21 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  37. 37. approach to teaching and learning in art based upon disciplines that contribute to the making and understanding of art. (p. 6) In addition, Young and Adams (1991) describe DBAE as “unifying approach or concept rather than as a narrowly prescribed curriculum or specific method of teaching” (p. 99). Foundational Disciplines ofDBAE The content of DBAE consists of four foundational disciplines or areas. The discipline as defined by Wilson (1997) is a field of study that has a recognized body of knowledge or content, a community of professionals who study the discipline and a set of characteristic procedures and behaviors that facilitate exploration and inquiry. According to Dobbs (1992), discipline-based art education (DBAE) is a comprehensive approach to instruction and learning in art with a written and sequentially organized curriculum consisting of lessons drawing their content from four foundational art disciplines: art production enabling students to use their abilities to develop artworks; art criticism helping students to analyze, interpret, and evaluate qualities of artworks; art history providing students with knowledge and understanding of the role of art in society; aesthetics helping students to understand the nature and quality of art to be able to make and justify judgments about it. Art making Art making is using tools and techniques in skillful and imaginative ways in response to ideas, feelings, and observations to create artistic objects (Dobbs, 1998). By making art, students can explore and experience many aspects including: o Applying a wide range of art materials, tools, equipment, and techniques and becoming familiar with them 22 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  38. 38. o Learning about tradition of craftsmanship and developing respect and utilitarian ways of materials o Learning attitudes and feelings of artists toward their work o Acquiring the personal qualities and skills required for successful artistry, such as persistence, patience, and self-criticism o Learning artistic techniques and solutions to express ideas and feelings in visual form o Understanding the motivations and attitudes of artists by learning their lives and appreciating their contribution to the society o Appreciating the cultural histories from which the artists draw ideas and inspiration to create their works. (Dobbs, 1992, pp. 71-72) Art history Art history provides students with knowledge about the art objects’ historical, social, and cultural contexts helping the students to understand the historical order of the art movements and stylistic traditions (Dobbs, 1998). The study of art history is important for students to understand and appreciate art and to make connections between artworks from different historical eras. Eisner (1965) stated that adults who had not been introduced to art history in their school education found it difficult to appreciate contemporary art, found it difficult to discuss artworks they saw in art exhibits, and could not relate the new artworks with the artworks of the past. Aesthetics In DBAE, aesthetics is a scanning that focuses on the visual appearance of works of art. Aesthetics, therefore, could be a tool that initiates the process of art criticism. It 23 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  39. 39. helps students learn and evaluate the basis upon which to make judgments about art. Aesthetics seeks answers for the definition of art, beauty, and how to support or justify judgments about art (Dobbs, 1992). “Aesthetic scanning” is a method developed by Harry Broudy to help students understand art and Dwaine Greer used it in teaching aesthetics in DBAE (Erickson, 1986). It is a scanning process that focuses on the visual appearance of works of art. Aesthetics, therefore, could be a tool that initiates the process of art criticism. According to Dobbs (1992), aesthetics helps students learn and evaluate the basis upon which to make judgments about art. It seeks answers for the definition of art, beauty, how to support or justify judgments about art. Aesthetics scanning helps the learner to visually see what is in works of art in four properties. First are the sensory properties that help learners identify the visual elements of the works of art including lines, shapes, values, textures, colors, and spaces. Second are the formal properties or art principles that describes how the work of art elements are organized, how they work together to shape the whole work and express ideas, the repetition and emphasis of elements that characterize the work, and how the elements are distributed in the work. Third are the technical properties that identify the tools, equipment, and art techniques the artist used to make the work. Fourth are expressive properties that discuss the expressive characteristics of the work and how it sounds. Students learn that the elements of the work of art give a variety of feelings. For example, wavy lines and blue color give a feeling of relaxation (Dobbs, 1992). Smith (2002) developed four phases of aesthetics learning according to the student’s school grade. The first phase starts from kindergarten to the 3rdgrade during 24 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  40. 40. which “the teachers try to develop an elementary sense of art and exploit the well-known propensity of young children to delight in the sensory and dramatic qualities of things” (p. 13). The second phase starts when the student from 4th to 6thgrade during which “Aesthetic instruction becomes more narrowly focused. The emphasis is on perceiving a work’s conventional manifold of properties, for example, subject, form, content, expressiveness, and style” (p. 14). The third phase of learning aesthetics starts when the student is in grades 7 to 9 in which learning aesthetics “incorporates and builds upon the phases of exposure, familiarization, and perceptual training” (p. 14 ). Smith indicated that students in this phase develop the ability of connecting art with the stream of time. The fourth phase starts when the student is in grades 10-12 during which the student can “cultivate an appreciation of the qualities of masterworks and ultimately to formulate a rudimentary philosophy of art” (p. 14). Art criticism Art criticism means description, analysis, interpreting, and evaluating of works of art for the purpose of understanding and appreciation of art. Art criticism seeks answers for the works of art’s perception and description, what they mean through analysis and interpretation, and finally, what their worth and value is through judgment. Through art criticism, students are involved in a process of comparing and contrasting works to one another, and considering the social and cultural contexts in which the works were produced (Dobbs, 1992). Art criticism, according to Feldman (1970), is “more or less informed organized talk about art” (p. 50). Stinespring (1992) confirmed that: Art criticism can be used to illustrate the problems presented by the DBAE concept, which is based on the assumption that there are disciplines with methodologies that 25 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  41. 41. can be reasonably defined and that are conducted by clearly credentialed professionals who serve as role models, (p. 21) According to Eisner (1987), teaching art criticism in the classroom should include discussion about the artwork in terms of the way the forms are organized, the feelings derived from the images, and making comparisons between the artworks. How to Teach the DBAE Four Content Discipline Foundations There is no certain proportion of instructional time devoted to each one of the DBAE four art disciplines. Dobbs (1998) stated that: The proportions of instructional time and attention allocated to the individual art disciplines may vary with the nature and scope of the individual lesson and local circumstance, such as the training and interests of the teachers, or availability of resources such as art reproductions or an art museum in the community, (p. 82) Although there is no time proportion formula for each discipline, the lesson should be “balanced to reflect the multiple interests involved, that alternative perspectives be available, and that a variety of resources might be utilized” (Dobbs, 2004, p. 707). In addition, Greer (1984) confirmed that “discipline-based instruction also reflects balanced attention to all four components of the discipline of art, which reinforce one another as they are taught concurrently” (p. 217). DBAE aimed to “formalize art education so it conforms to the curricular mode of other school subjects” (Swanger, 1990, p. 437). One of DBAE features is that it has written lessons that plan the learning activities for each grade level. The written lessons avoid learning redundancy and ensure that students acquire new art knowledge and skills in each grade level. According to Dobbs (1992): New teachers are apprised by a written DBAE curriculum as to what is required in the district and what students have previously experienced. Another way to make the point is to remember that we want students to have twelve years of art education, not one year of art education twelve times, (p. 23) 26 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  42. 42. The Getty Education Institute for the Arts published lesson examples to describe ways of implementing the discipline-based art education approach in art instruction helping art teachers to pursue new ideas and evaluate their lessons’ objectives. By describing program objectives and clear goals for practice, a written curriculum provides the structure necessary for confident pursuit of new ideas and strategies. A written curriculum also creates a surer basis for evaluation, which is important for both curricular accountability and program development. Unless strategies and objectives are clearly stated and understood, it is difficult to assess how well they have been realized or to identify areas for improvement. (McLaughlin & Thomas, 1984, p. 6) Stephen Dobbs (2004) stated that DBAE considers art like other academic subjects in terms of the need for a written, sequential curriculum that helps students move from one grade-level to another with age-appropriate learning tracks and reinforced lessons, without repetition, incrementally building the overall goals including the skills, knowledge, and understandings. In DBAE, the four foundational disciplines are equally valued (Dobbs, 1998). Through exploring these disciplines, students study visual arts in a coherent and consequential way and know and understand art from different sources. The four content areas of discipline based art education are important for a complete understanding of art, including its historical and cultural contexts, which help students to interpret and analyze works of art. According to McLaughlin and Thomas (1984): The inclusion of these four content areas in art instruction is important because each develops knowledge and skills that contribute importantly not only to children’s more complete understanding of art, but to their ability to draw facts and inferences about the cultural and historical contexts from which the arts spring and analyze and interpret the powerful ideas that the arts communicate, (p. iv) 27 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  43. 43. DBAE Evaluation According to Wilson (1997), between 1988 and 1994 evaluators visited more than 100 elementary schools that implemented DBAE. He indicated that it was obvious that DBAE art programs were successful. Wilson confirmed that, “The evaluators could tell within a few minutes of their arrival whether or not they were at a DBAE elementary school” (p. 140). Wilson (1997) stated that the walls of the DBAE elementary schools and classrooms displayed many students’ works of art that showed the influence of artist works. In the art classroom, students studied and discussed ideas, subjects, styles, and the quality of artworks. The students’ exhibitions were accompanied with students’ critical and historical writing about artists’ work and their works showing the relationship and connection between their works and the artists’. Art teachers worked cooperatively and communicated with people from other fields such as museum educators, artists, art critics and professors, which reflected the quality of education they provided to their students. Wilson indicated that the art teacher working with other fields’ members, “Together they have planned programs that have symbolically removed classroom walls, virtually bringing the art world into classrooms. At the same time students have gone into the art world to receive an authentic education in the arts.” (Wilson, 1997, p. 11) In a study titled “Attitude toward andfrequency o f use o f discipline-based art education among John Paul Getty Institute trained educators”, Triche (2004) examined teachers who trained in the John Paul Getty Institute regarding their attitudes toward and frequency of use of DBAE. The study revealed that the teachers were motivated and 28 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  44. 44. confident in their ability to provide art instruction to students. The teachers who have been oriented about DBAE indicated that they could teach art better and also helped other teachers to teach effectively. Dwaine and Silverman (1988) evaluated elementary teachers’ implementation of DBAE in their schools after they attended a summer professional development program at the Getty Institute for arts. Dwaine and Silverman (1988) concluded that “when classroom teachers have a comprehensive curriculum to guide their efforts, they can teach the arts more effectively. Furthermore, the more in service a teacher receives, the more effectively he or she teaches a discipline-based perspective.” (p 14) Students in DBAE classes engage in art making activities and make connections between the art objects and human cultural heritage. These learning activities “contribute to developing both perceptual and cognitive skills. Studying art comprehensively also contributes significantly to building the storehouse of images and concepts which make all experience meaningful” (Silverman, 1989, p. 54). Finally, Dobbs (1998) stated that “DBAE has made significant strides in the 1980s and 1990s toward achieving the more significant role for art in schooling for which so many of its practitioners have always hoped.” (p. 120) DBAE considers art like other academic subjects in terms of the need for a sequential written curriculum that helps students move from one grade-level to another with age-appropriate learning tracks and reinforced lessons (Dobbs, 2004). DBAE insures the continuity of art learning in a systematic and sequential art instruction maintaining a formalized written curriculum having specific educational objectives. Teachers who select art units and learning activities according to their preference will not 29 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  45. 45. ensure the scope and sequence plan (DiBlasio, 1987). In addition, DBAE provides specific art knowledge, concepts, and techniques that make it possible for teachers to evaluate the outcomes of what is being taught (Greer, 1986). Eisner confirmed that DBAE is based on facts and theories about the ways children learn what should be learned, and how lesson instruction can be organized (Black, 1996). DBAE aimed to “formalize art education so it conforms to the curricular mode of other school subjects” (Swanger, 1990, p. 437). Dobbs (1998) stated that the lessons of DBAE written curriculum are to have a clear statement of learning ideas and behaviors that the lessons focus on, descriptions of the significance of learning, basic questions, and alternative activities. In addition, the written curriculum includes instructional materials, provides readings to give students additional background information of what is being learned, and offers assessment procedures to help teachers evaluate the learning. Arkansas State Visual Arts Standards The national visual art standards require art programs to teach more art disciplines. The National Standards for Arts Education development by the Consortium of National Arts Education Associations, published in 1994, established content and achievement expectations for K-12 students considering aesthetic, history, creation, and performance as basic curriculum content in visual arts (Dreeszen, Craig, & Comp, 2001). DBAE content fits with most visual art standards. Dobbs (1992) stated that the state frameworks for curriculum guidelines increasingly “require exposure and experiences in the various art disciplines. While these comprehensive approaches go by 30 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  46. 46. various names, they have much in common with DBAE and are often conceptually identified with it.” (p. 66) Arkansas visual arts strands of the fine arts curriculum frameworks were designed to guide the art curriculum in grades K-12. They set specific students’ learning expectations that explain what students in grades K-4, 5-8, and 9-12 should know and be able to do in the art classroom during a school year. There are three content standards, and each one depends on the other in a reciprocal way that represents a cycle process for art making and responding to art. Thus, every standard has the same level of importance and each standard needs the other to complete the process. The participants in this study are K-4 grade art teachers; therefore, the content standards K-4 are provided (See Appendix D). In content standard One, (K-4), the students are expected to develop concepts and ideas through the processes of inquiring, exploring, and discovering a variety of references such as, historical, cultural, social, environmental, and personal references. Content Standard Two (K-4) aims to develop students’ creativity skills by manipulating a wide variety of media, techniques, processes, and tools to develop original works of art and design. Finally, content Standard Three (K-4) sets learning expectations through a process of rediscovering and responding to artworks and concepts of self, of others, of environment, and cultures. (Arkansas Department of Education, 2001, Fine Arts Curriculum Framework section). As indicated earlier, the literature did not indicate a recent evaluation of Arkansas visual arts standards’ implementation in the state elementary schools. This study aims to examine Arkansas elementary art teachers’ level of visual arts standards implementation 31 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  47. 47. in their art instruction. In addition, it aims to provide additional standards objectives according to the elementary art teachers’ opinions. Arkansas State Teacher Accreditation In January 1, 2002, Arkansas used a performance based system that provided requirements for teacher license. The system required beginning teachers with less than one year of teaching experience to have a minimum of bachelor’s degree and to complete Praxis I, II, and III in order to be licensed teachers. Praxis I tests the teachers’ basic skills in reading, writing, and mathematics. Praxis I tests are taken before entering or at the beginning of a teacher preparation program. Praxis II provides tests that measure teachers’ subject area content knowledge and teaching skills. These tests are taken either while the teacher is enrolled in or toward the end of his/her preparation program. Praxis III includes more advanced tests that assess the teachers in their own classroom settings, and is required to change an Arkansas Initial Teaching License to a Standard Teaching License. Praxis III is done by: • Using written description of the class and subject matter • Utilizing a trained State Certified Assessor’s direct observation of the teacher’s classroom practices • Using structured interviews around the classroom observation In addition, to be licensed a teacher must successfully meet the required criminal background check. After completing the previous requirements, the teacher is eligible for an initial teacher license valid for less than one year and no more than three years during which the teacher is considered in a time of Induction. During the induction, the novice teacher is assigned to a trained mentor to support his/her practice and professional 32 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  48. 48. growth. When the novice teacher’ teaching meets the mentoring requirements, Praxis III performance assessment is scheduled. A standard teaching license is issued upon successful completion of the Praxis III. All teachers are required to have 60 hours of professional development per year (Arkansas Department of Education, 2001, Initial licensure section). Competency areas The teacher competency documents states what that teacher should know and be able to do in the subject or area for which the teacher is seeking license. For teachers seeking licenses for teaching art, the state visual arts standards should be understood by the teachers in terms of the knowledge, disposition, and performance of each standard. Standard One: Teachers should understand the central concepts, tools of inquiry, and structures of discipline(s) included in standard one. In addition, teachers also should be able to create learning experiences to transfer these aspects to the students in a meaningful way linking the disciplines to other subjects. Standard Two: Teachers should be able to plan appropriate curriculum to serve students, the content, and the course objectives. Standard Three: The teachers should be able to plan instruction according to human growth and development, learning theory, and the students’ needs (Arkansas State Department of Education, 2001, Competency area- art section). 33 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  49. 49. Summary In the opening of the twentieth century the focus of art education started to shift from the industrial purposes to more inclusive education such as appreciation (Efland, 1990). Art education started to include more variety of goals such as, solving problems relating to the individual living by discovering more and varied insights and understanding in his/her daily life (Hopkins & Burnet, 1936). In addition, studies on child drawing provided more understanding of the children’s artistic abilities development. As a result, the traditional art teaching methods were investigated and new methods appeared. In 1960, Bruner’s ideas helped in shifting the focus of education to more comprehensive goals of understanding and problem solving. Barkan introduced Burner’s philosophy to art education which became more comprehensive by including art experiences related to art subjects as art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. In 1980s, comprehensive modifications in the conceptions of art education’s goals, learners, teacher training, and other aspects of art curriculum were required by the National Art Education Association. The professional effort to provide a comprehensive art approach was provided by the Getty education Institute for the Arts in 1984 when it developed the discipline-based art education (DBAE) approach and supported it with research studies and teacher training programs. DBAE aims to provide students with comprehensive understanding of art education by exposing them to experiences in four art disciplines, art making/studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. The National Visual Arts Standards require art programs to be more comprehensive by including more art disciplines such as aesthetics, art history, creation, 34 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  50. 50. and performance. Therefore, the relationship between DBAE and the states’ frameworks is reciprocal where DBAE was influenced by the state’s visual arts frameworks that require a comprehensive approach to art and has influenced and changed many states’ arts frameworks. This study aimed to examine Arkansas K-4 grade art teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of DBAE, art making/studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. This study also attempted to explore to what extent they implemented Arkansas visual arts frameworks. 35 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  51. 51. CHAPTER III METHODS Chapter III presents the methodology and procedures that were used in this study to attain the study goals. This chapter includes: the research rationale, participants, procedures, instrument, validation of the instrument, and measures used to analyze the data collected. Research Rationale The objectives of this research were to gather attitudinal data concerning the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the four discipline foundations of the DBAE and the extent of their implementation of the Arkansas elementary school visual arts standards content in their lessons’ instructions. Teachers’ attitudes toward DBAE are important for the successful implementation of DBAE in schools, “in order for a discipline-based art program to succeed, such a view must also be accepted by teachers and principals” (Greer, 1984, p. 217). Moreover, additional objectives that the Arkansas elementary art teachers may think need to be added to the state visual arts standards were investigated in the study. Appendix B showed a survey instrument with 56 items developed to gather data for this study. Participants The sample of this study consisted of 288 K-4 grade elementary art teachers drawn from a population of 570 of Arkansas State K-4 grade elementary art teachers. For statistical purposes the sample was divided into five sets according to each participant’s 36 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  52. 52. school region. The sample was also divided into different sets of three categories according to the teachers’ years of teaching experience, level of reading about teaching art, level of confidence knowledge regarding teaching art, and level of job satisfaction. In addition the sample was divided into two categories regarding educational degree and whether or not the participants had degrees in teaching art. These categories were used as independent variables to examine if they had significant effects on the participants’ attitudes toward DBAE and their implementation of the state visual arts standards. Procedures and Data Collection To collect data for this study these procedures were taken: • The survey was sent to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in the University of Arkansas to get the approval that the survey meets the policies and procedures of studies that involve human subjects. • Prior to distributing the study questionnaires to the research study sample, five copies of a pilot survey were mailed to five K-4 grade elementary art teachers in Fayetteville, AR. Each survey had a cover letter asking the art teachers about the clarity of the survey and the time that would take a participant to answer its items. • The participants’ mailing addresses were obtained from the Arkansas State Department of Education website. The total number of the questionnaires to be sent to the participants was 570 copies or one questionnaire for each elementary school in the state. • The participants’ mailing addresses were saved in a Word document and typed directly on the envelopes to avoid multiple use of one mailing address and to insure that all participants received a copy of the questionnaire. 37 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  53. 53. • Each survey included two cover letters. The first one was directed to the school principal asking him/her to give the survey to the art teacher or the regular classroom teacher who taught art education at the school (See Appendix A). The second letter was directed to the art teacher explaining the research purpose and goals and asking him/her to participate in the study (See Appendix B). The letter also encouraged the participant for honest answers and indicated that the data will be used for research purposes and that the participants’ names were not required. Instrument A survey questionnaire consisting of 56 items was developed to gather the data for this study (See Appendix C). The participants’ characteristics are provided in items 1-8 that seek demographical data regarding participants’: • Gender • Years of teaching • School region • Education degree • Degree in art • Job Certification • Employment status. Items 9-12 asked for data concerning the participants’ knowledge and confidence regarding teaching art including: • The range of in-service training hours per school year directed toward art education 38 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  54. 54. • Reading of art education journals • Level of reading about teaching art • The teachers’ confidence level about teaching art • Satisfaction with being an art teacher. Items 13-24 in the survey were used to collect data about the participants’ background in the four discipline foundations of discipline-based art education (DBAE) including: • The teachers’ confidence level regarding their knowledge of each foundational discipline, • The teachers’ implementation of each discipline in their lesson instruction • Whether or not they would like to take courses in each discipline. Data investigating the participants’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of DBAE were collected by items 25-28. Items 29-55 were used to examine the participants’ levels of implementation of the state visual arts standards in their lesson instructions (See Appendix D). Finally, item 56 was an open ended question asking the participants to suggest additional important objectives to be added to the Arkansas state visual arts standards. Variable List There were two dependent variables, attitude and implementation, that served the study’s two major questions. Each dependent variable had associated independent variables. 39 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  55. 55. Attitude: The teachers’ attitude consisted of four dependent variables which investigated the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of discipline- based art education (DBAE): art making/ studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. Art teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines were obtained in questions 25, 26, 27, and 28 and measured by a 5-point Likert-type scale (i.e., 1-SD = strongly disagree, 2-D = disagree, 3-N = no opinion, 4-A = agree, 5-SA = strongly agree). There were five independent variables associated with the dependent variable of attitude. This study determined the statistically significant difference in the participants’ means of attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of DBAE based on the following factors: Educational degree: Educational degree was obtained from item 4 according to the participants’ self reports that consisted of four points, less than bachelor, bachelor, master, and other. Whether or not the participants had degrees in teaching art: obtained in item 5 by a yes/no question. Level ofprofessional reading: Represented in item 10 in a 3-point Likert-type scale, never, rarely, and often. Level of confidence regarding their knowledge of studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics: This variable was addressed in items 13, 16, 19, and 22. This variable was measured by a 3-point Likert-type scale indicating three levels of confidence (i.e., high, moderate, and low). 40 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  56. 56. Participants’satisfaction of being art teachers: The participants’ satisfaction of being art teachers was obtained in item 12 and measured by a three-point Likert-type scale with a three levels of satisfaction (i.e., high, moderate, and low). Implementation: The implementation was the second dependent variable that determined to what extent the state visual arts standards were implemented in the participants’ lesson instructions. The art teachers’ level of implementing consisted of 9 items for standard one, 9 items for standard two, and 9 items for standard three. The means of implementation of the state visual art standards were obtained in questions from item 29 to item 55 and measured by a 5-point Likert-type scale where 1 represented the lowest implementation and 5 represented the highest implementation. There were four independent variables used in this study to determine if there were significant differences between Arkansas elementary art teachers implementation of the state visual arts standards based on: Years of teaching experience: Years of teaching experience was addressed in item 2 depending on the participants’ self reports in the demographic section according to three ranges of years of teaching experience, 1-7, 8-15, and 16 or above. Educational degree: Educational degree was obtained in item 5 based on the participants’ self reports in the demographic section indicating four levels, less than bachelor, bachelor, master, and other. Having a degree in art: obtained in item 5 by a yes/no question. 41 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  57. 57. Self-efficacy regarding the participants’knowledge of the art subject: Self- efficacy was obtained in item 11 and measured by a three-point Likert-type scale (i.e., high, moderate, and low). Participants’satisfaction of being art teachers: The participants’ satisfaction of being art teachers was addressed in item 12 and measured by a three-point Likert-type scale, high, moderate, and low. Pilot Study Before sending the study survey, it was important to send several copies of the survey to some participants just for practicing the survey. According to Mitchell and Jolley (1992), a pilot study helps researchers to discover whether the participants perceived the survey content as the researcher intended, whether the survey instruction were clear, and whether the researcher provided the right amount of time for the research tasks. The survey was sent to 5 elementary K-4 art teachers to evaluate its clarity and design as well as the time that took the participant to complete the survey. The selection of those teachers was due to their school’s geographical location, which was close to the researcher who could conveniently contact them. The teachers’ recommendation and suggestions were consolidated and applied to the final version of the survey before distributing it to the study’s population. Based on the pilot study some items were eliminated from the survey, namely, items 13, 17, 21, and 25, which asked for the number of art making/studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics courses that art teachers took in their college study and professional development training programs, were eliminated from the survey because two art teachers who participated in the pilot study commented that it was difficult for them to recall the number of courses. It was 42 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  58. 58. also expected that the participants would spend about 15 to 20 minutes to answer the survey questions. Measures Descriptive data analysis was used with the demographic data using frequencies and categories that divided the sample into groups according to the study questions. The participants’ attitudes toward the four discipline foundations of DBAE in the survey consisted of 4 items by which participants reported their attitudes on a 1-5 Likert-type scale where 1 represents the highest level of disagreement and 5 represents the highest level of agreement. The participants reported their implementation level of the state visual arts standards in their lesson instruction by answering 27 items in the survey on a 1-5 Likert-type scale where 1 represents the lowest level of implementation and 5 represents the highest level of implementation. Reliability and Validity The survey was reviewed by the research committee members. In addition, the survey was sent to five art teachers to review its content in terms of clarity and time that would take a participant to fill out the survey. According to the experts and the pilot study’s reviews, the survey was revised and some items were eliminated. Attitude dependent variables were measured separately regarding their association with the independent variables; therefore there was no need for calculating their internal consistency. Implementation dependent variables were measured together for each standard. The dependent variables were tested to determine if the change in the dependent variables 43 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  59. 59. is accounted for by the independent variables. The internal consistency of each standard’s was tested by Cronbach alpha. The Cronbach’s alpha for standard one was .84, which indicated that standard one items had a high reliability, more than 0.65. In addition, the Cronbach’s alpha for standard two showed a high reliability of alpha = .90. Finally, the Cronbach’s alpha indicated a high reliability of standard three items with alpha = .87. Table 1 Visual Arts Standards’Reliability Coefficient Scale Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha Visual Art Standard One 9 .840 Visual Art Standard Two 9 .896 Visual Art Standard Three 9 .840 Data Analysis Procedures An independent sample t test was used to determine the statistically significant difference in the mean of attitudes between two groups due to the participants’ educational level and whether or not a participant had a degree in teaching art. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the mean differences among two or more groups (Glass & Hopkins, 1996). One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test with an alpha level of .05 was used to determine if there were significant differences in the participants’ attitude means toward the four disciplines of DBAE based on selected 44 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  60. 60. independent variables, namely, professional reading level, level of confidence regarding their knowledge of studio art, art history, art criticism, and aesthetics, and job satisfaction level. In addition, an independent sample t test was used to determine the statistically significant differences in the groups’ mean of the three visual arts standards’ implementation due to the participants level of education (bachelor’s or master’s) and whether or not they have degrees in teaching art. Moreover, one-way ANOVA tests with alpha level of .05 were used to examine the significant differences between the participants’ implementation levels of the state visual arts standards in their lesson instructions due to (a) years of teaching experience, (b) educational level, (c) whether or not having a degree in teaching art, (d) self-efficacy of their knowledge about teaching art, and (e) level of job satisfaction. Tukey (HSD) post-hoc analysis was conducted with significant ANOVA test results to determine the significant differences that occurred among the groups’ means of attitude. Tukey’s HSD (honestly significant difference) test is the most widely used procedure to test hypotheses about all pairwise contrasts (Kirk, 1995). The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 14.0., was used to analyze the data. As a criterion for statistical significance a .05 alpha level (type one error rate) was used. Delimitation of the Study This study investigated the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary school art teachers’ attitudes toward the importance of the four foundations of the discipline- based art 45 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  61. 61. education (DBAE) and their implementation of Arkansas visual arts standards in their lesson instructions. This study was limited to: • The State of Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers • Results of the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes were limited to the discipline- based art education approach and its four foundational art disciplines: art making/ studio art, art history, aesthetics , and art criticism • Results of the Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers implementation of the Arkansas visual arts standards were limited to the Arkansas visual arts standards revised in 2001 46 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  62. 62. CHAPTER IV FINDINGS Chapter four provides an analysis of the study data providing the types of statistical tests used in the study and their results. Each research hypothesis was tested, and the statistical tests’ results determined the acceptance and rejection of hypotheses. The purpose of this research study was to explore Arkansas K-4 grade elementary art teachers’ attitudes toward the four foundational disciplines of discipline-based art education (DBAE), art making/studio art, art history, aesthetics, and art criticism. In addition, this study aimed to examine to what extent Arkansas fine art standards are implemented in the state elementary schools’ art rooms. Moreover, the study investigated the relationship between the dependent variables of attitude and implementation and other independent variables: namely, years of teaching experience, educational level, certification, having a degree in art, self efficacy toward the subject knowledge, and level of job satisfaction. Independent sample t test and one way ANOVA tests were used to determine the groups’ overall differences. Ten hypotheses were presented as five hypotheses for each major research question tested at .05 alpha level of significance using SPSS program version 14.0. Pilot Study Prior to distributing the study questionnaires, five pilot survey questionnaires were mailed to five elementary art teachers in Fayetteville, Arkansas. The purpose of this procedure was to get the art teachers’ feedback about the clarity of the questionnaire’s items and the time it would take a participant to answer the questions. With each questionnaire a pilot study two letters (See Appendix A and B) and a self addressed 47 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
  63. 63. envelope with a stamp were enclosed. The art teachers were given a week to complete and return the questionnaires. The five questionnaires were filled out and returned to the researcher with valuable feed back and comments. Two art teachers indicated that they could not answer items 13, 17, 21, and 25. These items asked for the number of courses that included art making/studio art, art history, aesthetics, and criticism, that an art teacher took in his/her professional training programs. The art teachers commented that they can not recall the number. “I should check my record” one art teacher said. Other than those four items, the rest of items were clear and easy to answer as indicated by the art teachers. The time took the art teachers to fill out the survey ranged from 8-25 minutes. As a result of the pilot study’s feedback, items 13, 17, 21, and 25 were eliminated from the study questionnaire because it was difficult, especially for art teachers with longer years of teaching experience, to recall the number of courses taken in the four art discipline. In addition, the expected time for filling out the survey was 15-20 minutes as shown in the questionnaire cover letter (See Appendix B). Data Collection A 56 item survey questionnaire was developed to collect data for this study. The questionnaire included items that sought demographic data providing characteristics of the participants including years of teaching experience, educational degree, whether or not they have a degree in art, reading level, knowledge confidence, and job satisfaction. The collected data from these items were used to categorize the study’s sample and create the five independent variables for the study’s dependent variables of DBAE attitude and 48 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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