HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TODAY         THIRD YEAR         Textbook
HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TODAYTHIRD YEARTextbookPhilippine Copyright 2009 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Prin...
P R E FA C E      Discoveries in science and technology in recent years have had a profound impact onour society. We are n...
TABLE OF CONTENTSUNIT 1      INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRYChapter 1   Chemistry, Technology, and Society1.1         Your Daily...
UNIT 4       COLLOIDSChapter 6    Colloids and Their Properties6.1          Components and Classification of Colloids ........
11.3           Chemical Formula Writing .....................................................................................
INTRODUCTION TO                                                                                 Unit                      ...
Chapter              1                     CHEMISTRY, TECHNOLOGY,                    AND     SOCIETY     Chemistry is a br...
Your body is a living chemical factory. The food you eat is broken down into nutrientsthat your body needs. These nutrient...
1.2 CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRIES AND TECHNOLOGY      Chemistry is very much a part ofthe modern world. Our society has been    ...
Fig. 1.2 Different products of chemistry                    ACTIVITY 1.2 New Construction MaterialsMaterials   pen, questi...
2. For each material used in modern houses, research on the following:           a. its characteristics compared to those ...
5. Petroleum from the Middle East and other Asian countries is distilled and        processed to produce kerosene, gasolin...
ACTIVITY 1.3 Chemical Processes in Manufacturing    Materials        pen, paper    Procedure       1. Visit an industrial ...
Chemistry and Technology      Chemists are involved in various endeavors. They work in laboratories in the academe,in gove...
of plants or acts through the soil. Other types of herbicides, such as sodium chlorate, killexisting vegetation and act th...
Over the years, chemical instruments and equipment have improved tremendously.Some features include faster resolution of d...
plants, animals, and even microorganisms such as fungi. Research chemists help isolateor synthesize, purify, and character...
Fig. 1.4 Examples of genetically modified organisms     Structural materials for buildings, machines, industrial reactors a...
Question      After doing your interview, would you be interested in taking a profession related      to chemistry? Explai...
Fig. 1.5 A patient undergoing radiotherapy to treat cancer     Research in nuclear chemistry (a subbranch of physical chem...
1.5 CHEMICAL RESEARCH STUDIES IN THE PHILIPPINES      The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) administers several ...
Our inventors, scientists, members of the academe, and industry experts have allcontributed to the development of other pr...
Foreign luminaries in chemistry include the following:     1. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier of France − He was known        as...
6.   Joseph John Thomson − He discovered electrons.    Fig. 1.147. Eugene Goldstein − He discovered protons.              ...
1.7 CAREERS IN CHEMISTRY     Chemistry is involved in a wide array of disciplines. There are many fields orprofessions rela...
The diagram below enumerates numerous professions that apply principles in chemistry.             Field/Subject           ...
Chapter ReviewI.   Enriching Your Science Vocabulary     Fill in each blank with the correct word. Choose from the words i...
Chapter                2              COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT,                         AND T ECHNIQUES     ...
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  1. 1. HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TODAY THIRD YEAR Textbook
  2. 2. HIGH SCHOOL SCIENCE TODAYTHIRD YEARTextbookPhilippine Copyright 2009 by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INCAll rights reserved. Printed in the PhilippinesEditorial, design, and layout by University Press of First AsiaNo part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any meanselectronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or any information storage andretrieval systems, without permission in writing from the copyright owner. Exclusively distributed by DIWA LEARNING SYSTEMS INC 4/F SEDCCO 1 Bldg. 120 Thailand corner Legazpi Streets Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel. No.: (632) 893-8501 * Fax: (632) 817-8700 ISBN 978-971-46-0101-7REVIEWEREvelyn L. Josue has a bachelor’s degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of SantoTomas and master’s degree in Teaching Chemistry from the University of the Philippines–Diliman. She has earned a diploma in Education major in Curriculum Development fromthe Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia and a diploma in Education on Research andInstruction from Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan. She is a science education specialistIV at the University of the Philippines–National Institute for Science and MathematicsEducation Development.
  3. 3. P R E FA C E Discoveries in science and technology in recent years have had a profound impact onour society. We are now able to communicate easier with the use of the Internet and cellularphones. We have found ways to replace damaged body parts through prostheses and organtransplants. People are continually developing new medicines to treat diseases that wereonce fatal. Scientists have been able to clone animals, find alternative fuel sources, explorethe far reaches of outer space, and develop better materials for construction. Even the waywe entertain ourselves has been affected by discoveries in science. With all these fascinating discoveries, it is important that you understand the scientificprinciples behind such advancements. The High School Science Today series has beendeveloped with two objectives in mind: to explain key scientific concepts clearly and accuratelywithin a context of unifying themes; and to introduce you to the technology and researchtechniques which have resulted from the application of these scientific concepts. The topics in each textbook are organized to keep key science concepts in clear view.In each chapter, you will find discussions on specific technological breakthroughs and theimplications these developments have on our global community. Understanding science requires that you observe the things around you, performexperiments to solve problems, and explain the reasons for your observation. Each textbookcontains activities that will help you develop the skills necessary in learning science conceptsmeaningfully. These activities will provide you with hands-on learning experiences. You willbe asked to predict, hypothesize, describe, make models, form conclusions, calculate, andmeasure with accuracy and precision. As such, High School Science Today will enable you to keep pace with theever-evolving world of science and technology. We invite you to take this journey with us—into the future and beyond.
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSUNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRYChapter 1 Chemistry, Technology, and Society1.1 Your Daily Life with Chemistry ........................................................................... 21.2 Chemistry in Industries and Technology ........................................................... 41.3 Contributions of Chemistry to Other Fields of Science .................................... 111.4 Branches of Chemistry and Their Applications .................................................. 141.5 Chemical Research Studies in the Philippines.................................................... 161.6 Outstanding Filipino and Foreign Chemists ...................................................... 171.7 Careers in Chemistry ........................................................................................... 20Chapter 2 Common Laboratory Apparatus, Equipment, and Techniques2.1 Glassware Used in Chemistry Laboratory .......................................................... 232.2 Other Types of Laboratory Equipment .............................................................. 27Chapter 3 Measurement3.1 Precision and Accuracy (Significant Figures) ..................................................... 363.2 Scientific Notation ............................................................................................... 413.3 Conversion of Units of Measurement................................................................. 433.4 Measurement of Volume and Density ................................................................ 493.5 Measurement of Temperature............................................................................. 50UNIT 2 MATTERChapter 4 Composition of Matter4.1 States of Matter ................................................................................................... 564.2 Pure Substances and Mixtures ............................................................................ 584.3 Types of Mixtures ................................................................................................ 594.4 Elements and Compounds .................................................................................. 624.5 Metals, Nonmetals, and Metalloids .................................................................... 644.6 Classification of Compounds............................................................................... 674.7 Acids, Bases, and Salts ......................................................................................... 694.8 Separation Methods for Mixtures ....................................................................... 73UNIT 3 NATURE OF SOLUTIONSChapter 5 Solutions and Their Properties5.1 Characteristics of a Solution ............................................................................... 805.2 Process Involved in a Solution ............................................................................ 825.3 Solubility and Strength of a Solution ................................................................. 845.4 Factors Affecting Solubility and Rate of Dissolution ......................................... 855.5 Colligative Properties of a Solution .................................................................... 875.6 Concentration of Solutions ................................................................................. 935.7 Applications of Solutions .................................................................................... 98
  5. 5. UNIT 4 COLLOIDSChapter 6 Colloids and Their Properties6.1 Components and Classification of Colloids ........................................................ 1046.2 Properties of Colloids .......................................................................................... 1096.3 Colloids in Living and Nonliving Things ............................................................. 1136.4 Colloids in Food and Industrial Processes .......................................................... 115UNIT 5 GAS: A STATE OF MATTERChapter 7 The Gaseous State and Its Behavior7.1 General Properties of Gases ................................................................................ 1227.2 Kinetic Molecular Theory .................................................................................... 1277.3 Boyle’s Law ........................................................................................................... 1307.4 Charles’s Law ........................................................................................................ 1337.5 Guy-Lussac’s Law ................................................................................................. 1367.6 Combined Gas Law .............................................................................................. 1377.7 Other Laws on Gas Behavior ............................................................................... 1387.8 Diffusion............................................................................................................... 1477.9 Phases and Interactions....................................................................................... 150Chapter 8 Gases and Their Importance8.1 Some Useful Gases ............................................................................................... 1538.2 Safety Cautions in Handling Gases ..................................................................... 1568.3 Applications of Gas Laws..................................................................................... 1588.4 Gas-related Pollution ........................................................................................... 159UNIT 6 THE BASIC UNIT OF MATTERChapter 9 Atoms9.1 Development of the Atomic Theory .................................................................... 1669.2 Fundamental Particles of an Atom ..................................................................... 1729.3 Atomic Model ....................................................................................................... 1749.4 More on Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons........................................................ 1769.5 Radioisotopes and Their Applications ................................................................ 1819.6 Energy Levels ....................................................................................................... 1849.7 Spectrum Analysis ............................................................................................... 187UNIT 7 THE ELEMENTSChapter 10 Periodic Trends of Elements10.1 Origin of Chemical Symbols ................................................................................ 19410.2 Development of the Periodic Table ..................................................................... 19610.3 Periodicity and the Chemical Behavior of Elements .......................................... 19910.4 Periodicity and Properties of Elements .............................................................. 20710.5 Electronic Configuration and Distribution ........................................................ 21110.6 Elemental Groups in the Periodic Table ............................................................. 21610.7 Elements and Their Uses ..................................................................................... 229UNIT 8 CHEMICAL BONDSChapter 11 Nature of Chemical Bonds11.1 The Bonding Process ............................................................................................ 23811.2 Bond Types ........................................................................................................... 240
  6. 6. 11.3 Chemical Formula Writing .................................................................................. 24511.4 Chemical Bonds, Material Properties, and Uses of Substances........................ 25111.5 Intermolecular Forces of Attraction ................................................................... 252UNIT 9 CHANGES IN MATTERChapter 12 Applications of the Changes in Matter12.1 Types of Changes in Matter ................................................................................ 25812.2 Importance of Changes in Matter ....................................................................... 26112.3 Composition of Chemical Equations .................................................................. 26312.4 Types of Chemical Reactions ............................................................................... 266Chapter 13 Chemical Equations13.1 Mole Concept ....................................................................................................... 27413.2 Law of Definite Composition .............................................................................. 27713.3 Stoichiometry....................................................................................................... 280UNIT 10 MATTER AND THERMODYNAMICSChapter 14 Matter and Energy14.1 Exothermic Reaction vs. Endothermic Reaction................................................ 28814.2 Law of Conservation of Energy ........................................................................... 29014.3 Factors Affecting Rates of Reaction .................................................................... 29214.4 Applications of Energy in Matter........................................................................ 300UNIT 11 ORGANIC AND BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRYChapter 15 Carbon Compounds15.1 The Element Carbon ............................................................................................ 30615.2 Hydrocarbons ....................................................................................................... 30815.3 Hydrocarbon Derivatives..................................................................................... 312Chapter 16 Carbon Compounds and Their Uses16.1 Some Biologically Important Carbon Compounds ............................................ 31616.2 Industrial and Agricultural Technologies Using Organic Compounds ............. 31916.3 Organic Fuels and Their Effects on the Environment ........................................ 327UNIT 12 MORE ON BIOCHEMISTRYChapter 17 Biochemical Substances17.1 More on Carbohydrates ....................................................................................... 33417.2 More on Lipids ..................................................................................................... 33817.3 More on Proteins ................................................................................................. 34017.4 Nucleic Acids ........................................................................................................ 343Chapter 18 Chemistry and Health18.1 Food and Nutrition .............................................................................................. 34918.2 Food Preservatives and Additives ....................................................................... 351Glossary 357Bibliography 360Index 361
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION TO Unit 1CHEMISTRY Have you ever asked yourself what makes a particular brand of soft drink taste better thananother brand? Or have you ever wondered why serious diseases, such as tuberculosis and leprosy,can be readily cured these days? Everything in this world deals with one of the important fields ofscience, that is, chemistry. Chemistry answers questions such as: “What are materials made of?How are the molecules of a material arranged in different phases? How do the properties of thematerial change?” This unit invites you to take a closer look at this branch of science. You will learn howchemistry affects the lives of people and the world they live in and how it is applied in other fieldsof science, such as biology and physics. This unit will also teach you how to apply the scientificmethod in the study of chemistry.
  8. 8. Chapter 1 CHEMISTRY, TECHNOLOGY, AND SOCIETY Chemistry is a branch of science that deals with the properties, structure, andcomposition of matter and the changes it undergoes. Its scope covers all materials found inour environment, whether natural or synthetic. The study of chemistry began in ancient Egypt and Greece, where people preparedchemical compounds for medicine, perfumes, and cosmetics. During the medieval times,some people became obsessed with the idea of converting ordinary basic metals to gold.These people came to be known as alchemists and their craft as alchemy. The alchemistsnever succeeded in their goal. However, they discovered new tools and ways of workingwith chemicals and preparing new compounds. It is from their work that modern chemistrydeveloped. 1.1 YOUR DAILY LIFE WITH CHEMISTRY Many of the processes and changes you encounter every day involve chemistry.Chemistry is concerned with the different processes that occur in the human body. The foodyou take in consists of different chemical substances that your body needs. The process ofdigesting food involves the use of chemicals such as acids. Chemistry helps in maintainingproper blood flow, respiration, and all the other processes that take place in the humanbody. Fig. 1.1 The process of respiration2 High School Science Today III
  9. 9. Your body is a living chemical factory. The food you eat is broken down into nutrientsthat your body needs. These nutrients are carried by your blood and distributed to thevarious organs, tissues, and cells of your body. In the cells, the nutrients are used to buildnew living materials and to produce energy for your various activities. As the human population continues to grow, there is a need to build more homes.Builders use weather-resistant construction materials such as alloys. Alloys arehomogeneous mixtures of two or more elements, one of which is a metal. These materials,which are more durable and cost-effective, are used to construct houses. The medicine and health care items you see in a drugstore are products of chemistry.Drug manufacturers apply chemistry principles to produce them. Activity 1.1 will help you identify the chemical principles involved in your dailyactivities. ACTIVITY 1.1 Chemistry in Daily Life Materials pen, notepad Procedure 1. Make a list of your daily activities (e.g., exercising, eating, and cooking). 2. Tabulate the chemical processes and substances involved in each activity. DATA TABLE 1.1 Activity Chemical Processes Involved Chemical Substances Involved Eating Breakdown of food particles into Food, digestive enzymes, water simpler substances (digestion) 3. Present your table to the class. Discuss how each chemical process you listed affects your life. Question What is the value of knowing the chemical principles involved in your various activities? Introduction to Chemistry 3
  10. 10. 1.2 CHEMISTRY IN INDUSTRIES AND TECHNOLOGY Chemistry is very much a part ofthe modern world. Our society has been TECHNO FRONTIERSgreatly influenced by technology. Newmaterials are produced as a result of Artificial Flavors in Foodadvances in the study of the structure Did you know that the flavor of anyand composition of materials. New types substance is determined by the complexof equipment have also been invented to combination of chemicals? Coffee, for instance, has 800 different substances that produce itshelp the study of chemistry. distinctive taste. Drinking it hot stimulates the nerves in your tongue and nose, enabling you Chemistry has played an important to identify the flavor compounds present in it.part in the development of new materials. It Basically, scientists liquefy food samples andhas helped produce fabrics with properties analyze these in a machine called chromatographand characteristics suited to people’s needs to determine what chemical components produce their respective flavors.and conditions. The clothes you wearconsist of materials taken from plant fibers How are flavored substances made? Oneor animal skin. Examples of these fibers are way is by concentrating extracts, for example, by boiling maple sap to make maple syrup.cotton, piña, abaca, silk, wool, and natural Another way is by isolating naturally occurringleather. Other fabrics are synthetic or man- chemicals from plants, such as extractingmade, such as rayon and nylon. menthol from mint. These flavors are called “natural” since they are derived from living Chemistry has also contributed things. However, chemists have formulatedmuch to the fields of engineering and artificial flavors by synthesizing compounds with chemical structures similar to those ofmanufacturing. Cements, paints, glass, naturally occurring flavor molecules.and iron nails are some of the productsof chemistry in these areas. Some ofthese products are derived from minerals and rocks. Newly discovered and inventedconstruction materials help in building structures that meet the demands of the present. For example, in the construction of buildings, products such as iron and steel, cement,ceramics, marble, glass and fiberglass, plastic and Formica, wood, and fiberboard servevarious purposes. The individual structures and properties of the materials out of whichthey are made were carefully studied to suit the purpose that the makers had in mind. However, there are instances when scientific discoveries arise by accident. Theseaccidental discoveries are instances of serendipity in chemistry. An example is the discoveryof Teflon. This waxy, opaque material is used in making machine parts and nonstickcookware.4 High School Science Today III
  11. 11. Fig. 1.2 Different products of chemistry ACTIVITY 1.2 New Construction MaterialsMaterials pen, questionnaire, reference materialsProcedure 1. Interview some residents in your community about the kinds of construction materials used in building their houses. As much as possible, include as your interviewees those who live in traditional Filipino houses, such as wooden houses and bahay na bato. Prepare questionnaires beforehand. Include Table 1.2 in your questionnaires. Note the example given. Furthermore, ask your interviewees to explain their choices of building materials. TABLE 1.2 MATERIALS USED IN BUILDING HOUSES Traditional Houses Modern Houses Roof Nipa Galvanized iron Post Wall Floor Window Plumbing Ceiling or wall insulator Introduction to Chemistry 5
  12. 12. 2. For each material used in modern houses, research on the following: a. its characteristics compared to those of the corresponding materials used in traditional houses b. the history of its discovery or invention and other uses Questions 1. In what ways do materials used in modern houses better satisfy the requirements in house construction? 2. What role has chemistry played in the improvement of construction materials? In this activity, you have learned that the invention of new materials, which satisfymore challenging conditions in the present environment, helps people live a modernlifestyle. Continuing scientific research has resulted in new and improved methods of chemicalanalyses and industrial processes. These developments have, in turn, reduced productioncosts, improved the quality of goods, and in some cases even minimized waste andenvironmental pollution. The following are examples of the beneficial application of chemical processes andanalyses: 1. Sometime in the 1970s, foreign countries rejected peanut butter exported by the Philippines, charging that this contained aflatoxin, a toxic substance that develops from fungal contamination. Many of our manufacturers and exporters suffered big financial losses as a result. Since then, peanut butter manufacturers have been more conscious of the quality of peanuts that they use. Chemists, for their part, have developed fast detection tests and testing kits for aflatoxin. 2. Cooking and other forms of food processing involve chemical changes. An example is converting cassava, camote, or ube tubers into the more delectable cassava cakes, camote or ube pies or chips, and ube candies. The application of heat altered and improved the texture and appearance of the tubers. Other food products have been fortified with vitamins and minerals to make them more nutritious. 3. Aloe vera extract is a popular ingredient in medicines, shampoos, soaps, hair conditioners, and body lotions. Other herbs and natural scents have been incorporated in air fresheners, deodorants, washing liquids, fabric softeners, tissue paper, and detergents. 4. Special paper for photocopiers and fax machines, color films that can be processed and printed within an hour, and newspapers with colored pictures are all products of technology. Detergents, insecticides, bathroom tissue, ball pens, fruit concentrates, cosmetics, instant noodles, and wash-and-wear apparel are also products of modern chemical technology.6 High School Science Today III
  13. 13. 5. Petroleum from the Middle East and other Asian countries is distilled and processed to produce kerosene, gasoline, diesel oil, bunker fuel, asphalt, and the like. Gasoline can bring both good and harm. Although it serves us well as fuel for vehicles, when it is used in old engines, inefficient or incomplete combustion can release exhaust gases such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and sulfur oxide. These gases are highly hazardous to health and property and they cause air pollution. There are different researches being conducted to improve the processing of gasoline so that the amount of harmful exhaust gases released is reduced. Another problem arising from the use of petroleum is the accumulation of lead in the environment. Lead is used as an additive in gasoline to ensure better engine performance. This element has been found to cause physical abnormalities in unborn children. It can also harm adults who have been exposed to it for a long time. Chemists in petroleum firms have discovered substitutes for lead. Unleaded gasoline is now used as an environment-friendly alternative. However, recent chemical research has shown that these substitutes also have possible toxic effects on people. Thus, chemical research on environment-friendly fuel additives continues. 6. New chemical processes have paved the way for the development of more environment-friendly products, such as the improved types of refrigerants. Refrigerants are compounds used in a heat cycle which go through a change in phase from gas to liquid, and vice versa. In the past, the refrigerants we used contained chemicals such as chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs. CFCs are composed of the elements carbon, fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. When CFCs reach the ozone layer of the atmosphere, ultraviolet radiation from the sun’s rays breaks down the CFCs, freeing chlorine, which contributes to the destruction of the ozone layer. The ozone layer protects us from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. The depletion of the ozone layer has directly contributed to the increase in the incidence of skin cancer. Refrigerants that are free of these harmful substances have been developed since. 7. Chemists have also formulated compounds that make plastics decompose over a period of time. These new types of plastics are biodegradable, which means that microbes can decompose them into simpler compounds. In Activity 1.3, you will learn how chemical principles are applied in themanufacturing industry and how they can affect an industry and a community. Introduction to Chemistry 7
  14. 14. ACTIVITY 1.3 Chemical Processes in Manufacturing Materials pen, paper Procedure 1. Visit an industrial plant or a manufacturing factory in your community. Interview a chemist or chemical engineer in the factory. 2. Choose one product manufactured by the factory to focus on. Ask your interviewee the following: a. the raw materials used to make the product b. the processes involved in the manufacturing of the product and the chemical principles involved in each step c. how quality control of the product is carried out d. the waste products produced by the manufacturing process and how these waste products are disposed of 3. Prepare a simple schematic diagram of the manufacturing process. 4. Conduct research and additional interviews as needed to find out how the manufacturing process affects the environment and the lives of the people in the community. 5. Report your findings to the class. Questions 1. What are the roles of the chemists in the factory you visited? 2. Why is quality control important? 3. Are the waste products of the manufacturing process properly disposed of? Explain. 4. Do you think the presence of manufacturing plants in your community offers more advantages than disadvantages? Explain. The activity has provided you with a glimpse of industrial products and processesthat help improve human life. These products and processes significantly contribute to theupliftment of living standards, but they also create certain problems. It is important thatthese products and processes be used in the best way possible, so that humans and theenvironment can fully benefit from them. Do you also want to engage in product manufacturing someday? What products wouldyou like to make? What processes will have to be carried out to make these products? Tellhow these processes will affect living things and the environment.8 High School Science Today III
  15. 15. Chemistry and Technology Chemists are involved in various endeavors. They work in laboratories in the academe,in government research agencies, and in many industries. They may also hold jobs involvingthe marketing and purchasing of chemicals, chemical instruments, and related products.They know the composition of materials used in manufacturing various products. They useapparatus to obtain and analyze information about natural or synthetic materials. Theyanalyze sources of pollution and formulate ways to prevent or minimize pollution. Theyknow how to recycle, reuse, or treat wastes. They conduct various chemical research studiesand projects to address different problems involving chemistry. Technology is the application of scientific principles. Chemical technology, therefore,is the use of chemical principles to improve processes or produce new materials. Chemistsconduct studies to continuously upgrade existing technologies. Technology, however, hasaccompanying risks. To ensure safety, all possible hazards must be identified and assessed.Necessary measures must be taken to counteract them. There must be continuous researchto find out if the disadvantages outweigh the advantages offered by such technology. Products of technology influence not only the fields of science, but also the differentaspects of human life. These influences may be felt directly or indirectly. Fertilizers are natural or synthetic chemical substances or mixtures that are used toreplenish the soil with nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and other elements that plants haveused up. The elements sulfur, magnesium, and calcium are also among the elements presentin fertilizers, but they are of secondary importance. Although fertilizers are important tomodern agriculture, overuse of fertilizers can also have harmful effects on plants and soilquality. The leaching of fertilizer elements into bodies of water can lead to water pollution. New polymeric products with revolutionary uses continue to be discovered bychemists. The usefulness of these polymers has increased considerably with the additionof plasticizers, extenders, fillers, pigments, antioxidants, and other additives. Thepolymerization process has given rise to many products, including fiberglass insulationbinders, electrical insulation casings, paint resins, and wet-strength paper polymers. Various types of chemicals are now widely used as pesticides. Synthetic pesticidesare chemicals manufactured mostly from petroleum. Among the most important ofthese substances are the organophosphorus compounds, which are made up of carbon andphosphorus. These have been proven to be highly effective against a wide range of insectpests. Organophosphorus compounds, in general, quickly decompose into nontoxicsubstances. Therefore, their residues in treated soil, plants, or livestock do not cause anyharm. However, these pesticides are effective only for a relatively short period of time.More frequent applications of these chemicals may be necessary. Chemicals called herbicides are used to kill weeds and other unwanted or harmfultypes of plants. Some of these act against all kinds of plants, while others are highlyselective. A third type of herbicide differs not only in its selectivity and type of plantstargeted, but also in its mode of action. This type is either absorbed through the leaves Introduction to Chemistry 9
  16. 16. of plants or acts through the soil. Other types of herbicides, such as sodium chlorate, killexisting vegetation and act through the soil to prevent any further growth over a longerperiod. Most of these chemicals are organic. Some are derived wholly or in part frompetroleum sources and frequently use petroleum-based solvents. The effect of harmful chemicals on the environment is a worldwide problem. Globalatmospheric changes such as the El Niño phenomenon, ozone depletion, and the greenhouseeffect have been traced to the release of harmful substances into the atmosphere. Chemistsdiscuss, explain, and analyze these phenomena in local and world conferences. Together with microbiologists, chemists also study the effects of the release ofbiotechnologically engineered microorganisms into the environment. On the other hand,the results of biotechnological research in various parts of the world have benefited variousfields such as agriculture, food science, and medicine. A medical-waste disposal system that was first introduced in the United Stateshas been adopted in Metro Manila hospitals. It is called the stericycle medical-wastecollection treatment and disposal system. It is worry-free and more sanitary thanour traditional method of treating medical waste. It helps protect medical professionalsfrom the possible spread of disease-causing microorganisms. The ETD or electrothermaldeactivation is the method used to treat these wastes. It employs an oscillating fieldof deeply penetrating, low-frequency radio waves. It heats the wastes to around 90°C,destroying the causative agents of disease, but not the plastic container of the waste. It hasno air emission, no liquid discharges, and no chemicals to treat, store, or discard. It reduceswaste residue by 95% in volume. The final end-products are disposed of in a landfill. Fig. 1.3 Different chemical instruments and equipment10 High School Science Today III
  17. 17. Over the years, chemical instruments and equipment have improved tremendously.Some features include faster resolution of data, easier preparation of samples, and moreaccurate results. As a result of chemical research, industries have also progressed quitefast, producing numerous useful products for homes and offices, transportation andcommunication, etc. We now have monorails and bullet trains, compact disks (CDs), analogdisks, musical instruments, and fast-recording handy photo cameras. These are only someof the numerous inventions and innovations that have resulted from chemical research. Work on Activity 1.4 and point out the different research undertakings that havegiven us useful products. ACTIVITY 1.4 Research Studies in Chemistry Materials worksheets, ballpen Procedure 1. Identify a product developed from the following: a. polymers b. organophosphorus compounds c. herbicides d. waste 2. Research on the history of invention and commercialization or mass use of the following products of chemical technology. a. fertilizers b. drugs c. preservatives d. dairy products Question Would you recommend that a new technology be commercialized as soon as it is invented? Explain your answer. 1.3 CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHEMISTRY TO OTHER FIELDS OF SCIENCE Principles in chemistry are readily applied in many other fields of science. Oneexample is the field of health sciences and medicine. Medicinal chemists and pharmacistswork as part of an interdisciplinary team for discovery and formulation of new drugs.The primary ingredients of these new drugs may be natural compounds taken from Introduction to Chemistry 11
  18. 18. plants, animals, and even microorganisms such as fungi. Research chemists help isolateor synthesize, purify, and characterize these chemical compounds. Afterward, a team ofdoctors and nurses performs chemical, microbiological, and clinical tests on rats and otherlaboratory animals. In these tests, data on the efficacy and safety of the drugs are gathered.If the results are favorable, the new drugs are then tested on selected patients. Only afterthese new drugs have passed all tests will they be approved for use in regular patients. Strong plastic containers for blood or dextrose and opaque plastic bottles for drugshave helped improve the packaging of pharmaceutical products in terms of safety andsanitation. Synthetic rubber foams for hospital beds, inflatable rubberized mattresses,disposable syringes, and gloves for doctors and nurses are some of the products developedin the field of medicine. In the field of agriculture, fertilizers and pesticides have been developed using theprinciples of chemistry. These agricultural chemicals make plants grow faster, bear morefruits, and resist pests and help prevent plant diseases. The raw materials from plants,insects, or animals are synthesized with the same chemical structure. These raw materialsare then improved, purified, or used as naturally extracted. Additional chemical reactionsmay be carried out to produce the final composition of the fertilizer, soil enhancer, orpesticide. One of the biggest global problems today is the shortage of food in many parts ofthe world. Research in food technology and nutrition has revealed alternative sources offood, such as high-protein yeast cells (HPYC). Some studies have also shown how agricultural practices can be improved so thatfarmers can increase crop yield, cultivate plants over a shorter period of time, and ensurethat these are pest-resistant and highly adaptive to weather changes. The InternationalRice Research Institute (IRRI) in Los Baños, Laguna has conducted numerousexperiments to produce high-quality and highly productive rice varieties. Since the last few decades, chemists have been teaming up with biologistsand geneticists to produce genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in the field ofbiotechnology. A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic materialis altered using genetic engineering techniques, generally known as recombinant DNAtechnology. In recombinant DNA technology, DNA molecules from different sources arecombined into one molecule to create a new set of genes. This DNA is transferred into anorganism, resulting in modified traits of this organism. Chemists’ research studies haveresulted in GMOs, which are more disease-resistant and pest-resistant, leading to bettervarieties of economically important organisms.12 High School Science Today III
  19. 19. Fig. 1.4 Examples of genetically modified organisms Structural materials for buildings, machines, industrial reactors and tanks, bridges,roads, dams, jets, missiles, satellites, telecommunication facilities, etc., are all preparedusing the theories, principles, and laws of chemistry and applying them in combination withthose of physics and engineering. Some of these materials can withstand high temperaturesand pressures, even in outer space or during earthquakes and other natural calamities. Newmaterials in telecommunications have resulted in much faster transmission of information. Before a college student can graduate with a degree in engineering, agriculture,nutrition, home economics, medical technology, physics, criminology, nursing, amongother courses, he or she must take up a certain number of units in chemistry. ACTIVITY 1.5 Chemistry Everywhere Materials pen, questionnaire Procedure 1. Interview one of the following: a. agriculture engineer b. doctor c. pharmacist d. medical technologist e. civil engineer 2. Ask the interviewee the following: a. What is the nature of your job? b. What major products or services does your company offer? c. How does the knowledge of chemistry help in your job? Introduction to Chemistry 13
  20. 20. Question After doing your interview, would you be interested in taking a profession related to chemistry? Explain. Clearly, chemistry has a valuable impact on other fields of science. Chemical researchstudies that explore the applications of chemistry must therefore be encouraged andsupported by the citizenry and the government. 1.4 BRANCHES OF CHEMISTRY AND THEIR APPLICATIONS Chemistry has helped achieve milestones in other physical sciences and biologicalsciences. Many advances in chemical technology have been applied to other sciences as well.Medicine, engineering, agriculture, and the food sciences are some of these fields. Chemistry has five branches, namely, inorganic, organic, analytical, physical, andbiochemistry. Inorganic chemistry studies all other elements except carbon. Organicchemistry is concerned with compounds of carbon, hydrogen, and their derivatives.Analytical chemistry emphasizes the development of precise methods of analyzing thechemical components of substances. Physical chemistry covers chemical reactions, the energyassociated with them, the nature of various states and phases of matter, and the structuresof molecules, atoms, and subatomic particles. Biochemistry, which is the chemistry of life,includes the study of living systems and life processes at the molecular level, the raw materialsthat living organisms feed on, the products of these organisms, and the mechanisms by whichlife processes are accomplished. These branches of chemistry contribute to the discovery ofvarious applications to meet most of humankind’s practical needs. The pasteurization of milk is an application of biochemical research. Pasteurizationis the process of heating liquids to destroy bacteria, protozoa, molds, and yeasts. Newpreservation techniques have made it possible to store liquid milk in packages that needlittle or no refrigeration. Research has also enabled milk producers to add vitamins andminerals essential for growth that are not found in ordinary cow’s milk. Most of us havegrown up drinking processed milk (whole or nonfat milk), which has a longer shelf life.Nutritionists, however, have emphasized that mother’s milk contains nutrients that stillmake it best for babies. Biochemistry has also been instrumental in the formulation of drugs for treatment ofmany human ailments, including serious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, and malaria.Some illnesses that used to be incurable are easily cured today. An example is the eradicateddisease called the bubonic plague. It is a curable disease by modern standards because ofthe availability of medicines produced as a result of experiments and research studies. Therehave been rare cases of this type of outbreak in modern times.14 High School Science Today III
  21. 21. Fig. 1.5 A patient undergoing radiotherapy to treat cancer Research in nuclear chemistry (a subbranch of physical chemistry) has led tomethods through which we can probe the human body without surgery. Variousimaging techniques employing color-sensitive chemicals enable medical technologiststo do the said methods. Some of these techniques use safe amounts of radioactivesubstances, such as cobalt-60, to detect diseased cells. Technetium-99 is used to detectbrain tumors; it is found to localize more in brain tumors than in normal brain cells.A brain scan indicates the presence, size, and location of cancerous cells. This kind ofdiagnostic test detects ailments even long before the symptoms arise. Organic chemistry has resulted in products obtained from petrochemicals and theirderivatives. Special synthetic derivatives of petroleum are used in the production ofplastic containers. Petroleum-based products used for fuel are constantly being improvedto reduce air pollution. For cars, trains, trucks, and buses, there are new products made of organiccompounds that provide safety and convenience. We now have polyurethane bumpersthat are capable of absorbing much of the impact during collision. The brake linings ofvehicles are made of phenol formaldehyde resins, a tough and chemically resistant solid.As such, brake linings can withstand more friction, resulting in longer use. High levels ofoctane, another organic compound, are also added to fuels to improve the performance ofcar engines. The spacesuits of astronauts and the metals, adhesives, and textiles used insidespaceships are made of specially formulated materials. They have high melting points.This means that they can withstand extremely high temperatures and friction. In inorganic chemistry, new kinds of steel, such as alloys, have been found useful asmetal molds for chemical instruments and machine parts. Telecommunication wires aremade of modern materials such as fiber optics. These materials can have a large amountof information within seconds. Introduction to Chemistry 15
  22. 22. 1.5 CHEMICAL RESEARCH STUDIES IN THE PHILIPPINES The Department of Science and Technology (DOST) administers several offices andagencies involved in scientific research. One of its activities is plant research involvingthe development of new food products, such as corn-mango, corn-soy, squash, andother combinations that are marketed as nutricrunchies. These snacks, which contain450–499 kilocalories (kcal) of energy, are good for active and growing children. The DOSTalso develops certain processes to produce baby food blends (corn-soy-shrimp powder,banana-peanut mix, mongo-camote-sesame, germinated rice-cowpea blend, etc.), fishprotein concentrate, noodles, and bouillon cubes from fish proteins. One of the councils under the DOST is the Philippine Council for Advanced Scienceand Technology Research and Development (PCASTRD). It is tasked to develop nationalcapability in advanced technology. The PCASTRD has dynamically focused its effortson development projects in the areas of material science, biotechnology, electronics,instrumentation and controls, information technology, and photonics technology. The Philippine Council for Industry and Energy Research and Development(PCIERD), another DOST council, is tasked to plan, monitor, and promote scientificand technological research projects for applications in industry, energy, utilities, andinfrastructure. The PCIERD gives financial and technical assistance to selected scienceand technology activities. Some successful chemical researches that were conductedunder PCIERD grants were 1. development of alginates (sodium salt used as thickeners) from Sargassum seaweeds (for food and textile use); 2. development of a casting technique for aluminum bronze; 3. fabrication of complementary equipment for gemstone cutting and polishing machines; 4. pilot plant production of lysine (an amino acid); 5. derivation of antibodies from a single individual or cell for rapid screening of aflatoxin in food products and animal feeds; 6. production of penicillin G from a high-yielding strain, Penicillium chrysogenum 30T; and 7. Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)–New Zealand Energy Program on natural gas utilization (NGU) for the transport sector.16 High School Science Today III
  23. 23. Our inventors, scientists, members of the academe, and industry experts have allcontributed to the development of other products through their research undertakings.Annual conventions and science fairs in various parts of the country introduce us to theresults of these research projects. 1.6 OUTSTANDING FILIPINO AND FOREIGN CHEMISTS In 1976, Filipino scientists were officially organized into the National Academy ofScience and Technology (NAST). The best and brightest scientists in the country becamemembers of this premier Philippine scientific society. One of the first 10 academicians of NAST who were selected from among 107 distinguished Filipino scientists and technologists was Alfredo C. Santos, PhD. He was chosen for his contributions to the chemistry of natural products and pharmacology of Philippine medicinal plants. He was also named 1978 National Scientist in the field of physical chemistry. His original experiments on numerous alkaloids that he isolated from Philippine medicinal plants earned him the President Magsaysay Distinguished Service Star in 1954. Fig. 1.6 In 1979, another famous Filipino organic chemist,Bienvenido O. Juliano, PhD, joined the NAST. He was named oneof the country’s Ten Outstanding Young Men (TOYM) in the fieldof science in 1964. He finished his doctoral degree in organicchemistry at the Ohio State University in Columbus, Ohio, USA.By the age of 42, more than a hundred scientific articles that heauthored had been published in local and international journals.His research studies dealt with starch and proteins in relation tothe grain quality of rice. Fig. 1.7 In 1980, the NAST admitted seven new members. One of them was a well-known biochemist and author of organic and biochemistry books used in Philippine universities. Clara Y. Lim-Sylianco, PhD, a University of the Philippines professor, did significant research on mutagens, antimutagens, and anticarcinogenic chemicals found in different fruits and vegetables. She held the UP Endowment Professorial Chair in Chemistry from 1974 to 1977. She obtained her doctorate degree in biochemistry and organic chemistry from the University of Iowa. Fig. 1.8 Introduction to Chemistry 17
  24. 24. Foreign luminaries in chemistry include the following: 1. Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier of France − He was known as the father of modern chemistry. Fig. 1.9 2. John Dalton of England − He was an advocate of the atomic theory. Fig. 1.10 3. Svante August Arrhenius − He was the founder of physical chemistry. Fig. 1.11 4. Giuliana Tesoro − She is an Italian-American expert in the science and technology of polymers. Fig. 1.12 5. Marie Curie − She was a French chemist who discovered radioactivity. Fig. 1.1318 High School Science Today III
  25. 25. 6. Joseph John Thomson − He discovered electrons. Fig. 1.147. Eugene Goldstein − He discovered protons. 8. James Chadwick − He discovered neutrons. Fig. 1.159. Wilhelm Röentgen − He discovered the radiations emitted by materials. Fig. 1.16 10. Henri Becquerel − He observed the penetrating radiation given off by uranium. Fig. 1.1711. Ernest Rutherford − He explained the theory on radioactivity. Fig. 1.18 Introduction to Chemistry 19
  26. 26. 1.7 CAREERS IN CHEMISTRY Chemistry is involved in a wide array of disciplines. There are many fields orprofessions related to chemistry that you can pursue in the future. The following is a list ofspecialists or experts in chemistry and other related careers.Biochemists They employ the techniques and theories of chemistry to understand and study themolecular basis of life. Biochemists study the chemical effects of food, drugs, and hormoneson the body processes of living organisms.Analytical Chemists They identify the kind and quantity of a substance present in a material. Analyticalchemists are involved in quality control with respect to food, pharmaceutical, and industrialproducts.Forensic Chemists Their job usually includes examination of blood, hair, skin, cloth, paper, paint, or othermaterials that can be used to help solve a crime. They usually work in a police agency orinvestigation bureau. Accuracy and precision are essential to their line of work.Inorganic and Organic Chemists Inorganic chemists conduct research studies on substances without carbon. Theirmajor concerns are materials such as those found in mineral ore. On the other hand,organic chemists undertake research on substances whose primary component is carbon.Physical Chemists They deal with the physical properties of substances and the relationships involvingenergy and matter.Chemical Engineers Chemical engineers are involved in the development of processes and in the designand operation of plants where materials undergo physical or chemical changes.Pharmacists The collection, preparation, and standardization of drugs and medicines are majorparts of their work. They are responsible for preparing and dispensing medicationsprescribed by physicians, dentists, and veterinarians.20 High School Science Today III
  27. 27. The diagram below enumerates numerous professions that apply principles in chemistry. Field/Subject Occupation —Physicist —Biologist —Pure Sciences —Geologist —Meteorologist —Agronomist —Agriculture —Forester —Horticulturist —Chemical Engineer —Ceramic Engineer —Environmental EngineerChemistry —Engineering —Metallurgical Engineer —Applied Sciences —Nuclear Engineer —Sanitary Engineer —Mining Engineer —Industrial Engineer —Draftsman —Machinist —Technical —Photoengraver —Photographer —Spectroscopist —Dentist —Dietitian —Medical Technologist —Food Technologist Health Sciences —Physical Therapist —Pharmacist —Veterinarian —Toxicologist —Anaesthesiologist Fig. 1.19 Some chemistry-related careers Introduction to Chemistry 21
  28. 28. Chapter ReviewI. Enriching Your Science Vocabulary Fill in each blank with the correct word. Choose from the words inside the box. breakthrough process chemistry technology innovation 1. The organized knowledge that deals with changes in the structure, composition, and properties of matter is known as _______________________. 2. When a great discovery is made, such as the invention of a new wonder drug, we call it a _______________________. 3. The use of fiber optics in telecommunication wires is an example of _______________________. 4. The series of steps or methods of making an object is called _______________________.II. Assessing Your Knowledge Answer the following briefly. 1. Choose one chemical product or process. How does it affect your daily life and our society as a whole? 2. How important is the involvement of chemistry in other fields of science? Explain. 3. Cite and describe an example of chemistry’s involvement in each of the following fields: a. medicine b. agriculture c. engineering d. architecture22 High School Science Today III
  29. 29. Chapter 2 COMMON LABORATORY APPARATUS, EQUIPMENT, AND T ECHNIQUES The study of chemistry entails several experiments. These experiments will allow youto observe firsthand different chemical principles. These experiments require the use ofscientific equipment and apparatus, which you need to be familiarized with for you to performexperiments successfully. What are some of these laboratory equipment? Find out in thischapter. 2.1 GLASSWARE USED IN CHEMISTRY LABORATORY In this lesson, you will be introduced to glassware used in performing experimentsin chemistry. You will learn how to use them safely and properly in your laboratorypreparations and analyses, so that you may obtain precise and accurate results. The use ofthese types of glassware is crucial to the successful performance of experiments. You can use the following kinds of glassware as containers: test tube, beaker,Erlenmeyer flask, Florence flask, evaporating dish, and watch glass. Burettes, graduatedcylinders, and pipettes are used for measuring the volume of liquids. They come in varioussizes. Changes in color, texture, and physical state can be observed very clearly whentransparent glass containers are used. Laboratory glassware is made of borosilicate glass, which can withstand hightemperatures. This material also withstands chemical attack more efficiently than mostmaterials for glass manufacture. Because of these properties, it is widely used for laboratorywork, as well as serving dishes. Moreover, borosilicate glass can be shaped and blown byamateur glass blowers. It has an advantage over materials, such as plastics, because of itsextreme resistance to chemicals and its ability to undergo abrupt temperature changeswithout breaking. It is used by science researchers in experiments involving heat, which cancause ordinary glass and plastic to break or melt. Introduction to Chemistry 23

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