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The Study of Visual Learning on Students' Performance in PSV Education:
Encouraging Students to Use Interactive Media while Producing Painting
By
IZZA ATHIRA BINTI AB JALIL
2013789163
ED702
Content
CHAPTER 1
1.0 Introduction............................................................................................3
1.1 Background of Study.............................................................................3
1.2 Statement of Research..........................................................................5
1.3 Research Objectives..............................................................................6
1.4 Research Questions...............................................................................6
1.5 Research Hypothesis............................................................................6
1.6 Operational Definitions..........................................................................7
1.6.1 Visual Learning.............................................................................7
1.6.2 Painting.........................................................................................7
1.6.3 Interactive Media..........................................................................8
1.7 Limitations of the Study.........................................................................8
1.8 Significance of the Study.......................................................................9
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
Everyone processes and learns new information in different ways. Each person
prefers different learning style and techniques under various different circumstances.
Understanding how to learn in any style can help maximize in studying by
incorporating different techniques to custom fit various subjects, concepts and
learning objectives. Using multiple learning styles and multiple intelligence by
Gardner (2006) for learning with Prensky's (2006) Technology Adaption and
Adaption Four phase is a relatively new approach to expand learning opportunities.
One of the learning styles is visual learning, which is, a dominant learning style in art
education. Visual learning which teaching and learning style associated with images
to develop ideas, data and other information. Common characteristic of visual
learning are uses visual objects such as graphics, charts, pictures and seeing
information that interpret in well usage of body languages and able to memorize and
recall various information.
Visual art or Pendidikan Seni Visual (PSV) is a chosen subject at the level of Sijil
Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) for the literature and art students in most school in
Malaysia. Students begin to take this subject from Form 1 in middle school and since
standard five in primary school, as it is a compulsory subject at this level. Its
curriculum involves fine art, visual communication, design and traditional art. PSV is
an art education that has planned educational system and measurable performance
to meet individual needs. PSV also seeks to shape the generation of literate culture
and the arts include perspectives in exploration, production process, the meaning of
art as a whole and in the aspect of criticism (PPK hal.V). This requirement of needs
can be obtained through activities involving art, knowledge and skills about the
process, techniques and media as well as creation of value to shape the students'
personality to be the better generations of Malaysia as stated by National Philosophy
of Education (1988).
According to Feldman (1996), arts education is an effort that involves teaching and
learning to make and understand art, as well as to know the world and ourselves. Art
as per meaning is an activity involves painting, sculpture, crafts and etc.
1.1 Background of Study
This paper focuses on art activity that PSV offered since primary school that is seni
catan or painting and the relation to learning style that is more effective and
supportive in order of students' performances and confidence using paint. This paper
also focusing on teaching that is carried out by relating various art elements and
different from traditional teaching methods that only use chalk and blackboard as a
media presentation. According to Herbert Read, art is a form of production that gave
rise to the appearance of happiness, enjoyment and aesthetic pleasure. Aesthetic
pleasure is distinguished from both sensual pleasure and intellectual pleasure, the
enjoyment of emotional element in response to works of art and natural.
With advance technology and developed 21st century learners nowadays changing
what is traditional to somewhat hi-tech is more than an option. In this paper we would
consider and see possibilities to enhance students reception and cognitive learning
style to constructivism approach in media technology or added interactive tool in their
PSV learning. Technology media and interactive tool as a tool that helps in
communication process, as to unleash many learning potential (Heinich, 2002) and it
is a physical way that allows a message to be delivered via teaching and learning
(Reiser and Gangne, 1983).
Thus in this paper communication, exploration of learning styles that will enhance
visual learning in painting activity and approach and how does painting in teaching
and learning can help in conducting more effective, fun and fulfill PSV needs will be
studied with added technology and interactive media.
1.2 Statement of Research
According to Prof. Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan
Idris, as an educator should be able to assess or re-examine certain areas of art that
are always updated in line with current needs. He lined out the arisen issue of
Objektif 4 sukatan pelajaran Pendidikan Seni Visual Sekolah Menengah : Using a
variety of skills, techniques and technology to invent and produce a quality craft and
visual art products.
It is about time this subject equipped with the appropriate technology and media in its
role to improve various skills among the students as stated in the syllabus objectives.
Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education provides three computers to
the field of visual communication, and in particular for the visual arts subjects in
general education for each school.
As for painting activity that mostly conducted in PSV learning, the usage of
technology for this activity is minimal hence the output of learning is not optimum.
The question is how does this technology helps in students' PSV performance, and
how does the application that provided in the computer fulfill the need of PSV itself?
The students' understanding and appreciation on art can be triggered well or does it
just another tool to provide and 'satisfy' the urges or needed technology nowadays.
1.3 Research Objectives
Research objectives of this study are:
i. To investigate the usage of multiple intelligence to improve and enhance
visual learning in PSV
ii. To study the relation of students' confidence and performance using paint in
PSV with effective learning style.
iii. To investigate whether teaching PSV in different from traditional teaching
method as a presentation can be achieved aesthetic pleasure as well as art
appreciation in students.
1.4 Research Questions
Research questions of this study are:
i. How does different approach in learning style can improve and enhance
visual learning in PSV?
ii. How does effective learning style can relate to students' confidence and
performance using paint in PSV?
iii. How does PSV different traditional teaching method can influence the
achievement of aesthetic pleasure and art appreciation in students?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
H1: With improved and enhanced visual learning style, the students can achieve
more desirable performance in PSV
H2: With built up confidence using paint in PSV learning, students will show more
interest and expression while teaching and learning is being conducted.
H3: With different and advanced media for PSV learning, students will unlock more
learning potentials and outcome as well as developed art literacy and appreciation.
1.6 Operational Definition
1.6.1 Visual Learning
According to Howard Gardner (Multiple Intelligence), one of the learning style is
visual learning, which learning style involves the use of visual and observed things.
These include pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films and
flash cards etc. According to research, students or learners better remember
information when it is represented and learned both visually and verbally. Visual
learners are individuals who think in pictures rather than words; they have a different
brain organization and learn better visually. They learn all-at -once, and when the
light bulb goes on, the learning is permanent (Linda Kreger Silverman, 1999). In one
definition visual learning consists of seeing visual, big picture at once first before the
details taken place.
1.6.2 Painting
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to
a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with
a brush but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be
used. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces
as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and
may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well
as objects.
In PSV paintings or catan fall for a second technique and activity that the syllabus
provided after drawing. According to Sukatan Pelajaran Kurikulum Bersepadu
Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) PSV, this field emphasizes the development of imagination,
creativity and self-expression. Painting activities include exploration of art and
recognize the impact of range of tools, materials and applications. Activities will
introduce a range of basic skills and techniques in the design process.
1.6.3 Interactive Media
Media are vehicles for transmitting (Media Psychology, Stuart Fischoff, 2005). While
media is a way of transmitting, interactive media is a method of communication in
which the program's outputs depend on the user's inputs, and the user's inputs in
turn affect the program's outputs. Interactive media engage the user and interact with
him or her in a way that non-interactive media do not. Websites and video games are
two common types of interactive media. Movies and most TV shows are generally
not considered interactive media; however, shows that require audience participation
could be considered interactive media. An essential feature of interactivity is that it is
mutual: user and machine each take an active role. Most interactive
computing systems are for some human purpose and interact with humans in human
contexts (Alan Dix, 2004).
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The first limitation of this study is the lack of prior research studied on the topic
locally. Citing prior research studies helps lay foundation for understanding this
research. PSV is locally conducted and the curriculum is different from the other
country's curriculum, as for comparison it may help but in order to find locally
comparison and other objective based that has to be carried in this research locally is
limited. There is a research conducted locally for instance Pendidikan Seni Visual
(PSV3107) that discussed the importance of ICT in PSV but it only focusing on the
usage of the tool not the implication and the relation to students' performance in PSV
in general especially in painting activity.
The second limitation of this study is the potential of PSV teachers that incompetency
in using interactive media and other technology based media as the changes in
presentation media. According to Prof. Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan from Universiti
Pendidikan Sultan Idris, every procedures, changes of curriculum and approach in
improving PSV education, whatever the reason, the immediate need to do is set the
standards of achievement and learning skills for each level of visual arts education is
so clear and to guide the teacher in performing its duties. A study was made by
Mohd Nasir (2003) on the effectiveness of teaching and learning of visual arts
education KBSR found most teachers have little knowledge about goals and
objectives, knowledge about the syllabus, the clarity of the contents and the ability to
explain the objectives of the operation of the teaching and learning of Visual Art
Education KBSR. 49.3% (33) never received specific training in the arts while
serving. As a result, they do not understand the intricacies of this subject.
The third limitation of this study is longitudinal effects. Investigating and exploring
different learning styles may consume a lot of time, hence the study emphasized on
visual learning as a major learning style and process. May it only for visual learning
style, to improve and improvised the learning style to achieve desirable outcome that
can be parallel with the topic and issues that arisen in this study also consuming a lot
of time.
1.8 Significance of the Study
Firstly, the study emphasized on visual learning style, which is the major teaching
and learning style conducted in PSV. To improve and unleash students' potential in
this subject further, visual learning need to be examined and enhanced as so the
outcome could be more effective and supportive in terms of students' performances.
As painting is one of the activities that widely used and practiced in PSV subject, the
approach to stimulate students' conscience in art literacy and appreciation can be
conducted more effectively. Students will unlock their expressions, and deliver much
more emotion as well as understanding if this approach is cooperated with interactive
media. Activities produce art can help students to think sensibly about creating visual
images, to help them learn to create an image that has the expressive power,
coherence and insight.
Secondly, the approach of using different from traditional teaching method as a
presentation media in PSV is important to enhance learning outcomes especially
when engaging with 21st century learner their development is more demanding and
intriguing than the previous century learner. To make the teaching and learning more
effective, fun as well as informative, advanced approach needs to be taken and
practiced. While the teaching and learning take places the information will be
transferred from the deliver to the acceptor, and while this communication happen
the visual learning is developed with verbal elements, the receptor of the students
will be more active and they will participate actively and show more interest in PSV.
For this the four important things we do with art that as well as highlighted by Prof.
Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan that includes we produce, we see it, we understand that
art is in the culture and art criticism will budding in students.

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The Study of Visual Learning on Students' Performance in PSV Education

  • 1. The Study of Visual Learning on Students' Performance in PSV Education: Encouraging Students to Use Interactive Media while Producing Painting By IZZA ATHIRA BINTI AB JALIL 2013789163 ED702
  • 2. Content CHAPTER 1 1.0 Introduction............................................................................................3 1.1 Background of Study.............................................................................3 1.2 Statement of Research..........................................................................5 1.3 Research Objectives..............................................................................6 1.4 Research Questions...............................................................................6 1.5 Research Hypothesis............................................................................6 1.6 Operational Definitions..........................................................................7 1.6.1 Visual Learning.............................................................................7 1.6.2 Painting.........................................................................................7 1.6.3 Interactive Media..........................................................................8 1.7 Limitations of the Study.........................................................................8 1.8 Significance of the Study.......................................................................9
  • 3. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.0 Introduction Everyone processes and learns new information in different ways. Each person prefers different learning style and techniques under various different circumstances. Understanding how to learn in any style can help maximize in studying by incorporating different techniques to custom fit various subjects, concepts and learning objectives. Using multiple learning styles and multiple intelligence by Gardner (2006) for learning with Prensky's (2006) Technology Adaption and Adaption Four phase is a relatively new approach to expand learning opportunities. One of the learning styles is visual learning, which is, a dominant learning style in art education. Visual learning which teaching and learning style associated with images to develop ideas, data and other information. Common characteristic of visual learning are uses visual objects such as graphics, charts, pictures and seeing information that interpret in well usage of body languages and able to memorize and recall various information. Visual art or Pendidikan Seni Visual (PSV) is a chosen subject at the level of Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) for the literature and art students in most school in Malaysia. Students begin to take this subject from Form 1 in middle school and since standard five in primary school, as it is a compulsory subject at this level. Its curriculum involves fine art, visual communication, design and traditional art. PSV is
  • 4. an art education that has planned educational system and measurable performance to meet individual needs. PSV also seeks to shape the generation of literate culture and the arts include perspectives in exploration, production process, the meaning of art as a whole and in the aspect of criticism (PPK hal.V). This requirement of needs can be obtained through activities involving art, knowledge and skills about the process, techniques and media as well as creation of value to shape the students' personality to be the better generations of Malaysia as stated by National Philosophy of Education (1988). According to Feldman (1996), arts education is an effort that involves teaching and learning to make and understand art, as well as to know the world and ourselves. Art as per meaning is an activity involves painting, sculpture, crafts and etc. 1.1 Background of Study This paper focuses on art activity that PSV offered since primary school that is seni catan or painting and the relation to learning style that is more effective and supportive in order of students' performances and confidence using paint. This paper also focusing on teaching that is carried out by relating various art elements and different from traditional teaching methods that only use chalk and blackboard as a media presentation. According to Herbert Read, art is a form of production that gave rise to the appearance of happiness, enjoyment and aesthetic pleasure. Aesthetic pleasure is distinguished from both sensual pleasure and intellectual pleasure, the enjoyment of emotional element in response to works of art and natural. With advance technology and developed 21st century learners nowadays changing what is traditional to somewhat hi-tech is more than an option. In this paper we would consider and see possibilities to enhance students reception and cognitive learning style to constructivism approach in media technology or added interactive tool in their PSV learning. Technology media and interactive tool as a tool that helps in
  • 5. communication process, as to unleash many learning potential (Heinich, 2002) and it is a physical way that allows a message to be delivered via teaching and learning (Reiser and Gangne, 1983). Thus in this paper communication, exploration of learning styles that will enhance visual learning in painting activity and approach and how does painting in teaching and learning can help in conducting more effective, fun and fulfill PSV needs will be studied with added technology and interactive media. 1.2 Statement of Research According to Prof. Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, as an educator should be able to assess or re-examine certain areas of art that are always updated in line with current needs. He lined out the arisen issue of Objektif 4 sukatan pelajaran Pendidikan Seni Visual Sekolah Menengah : Using a variety of skills, techniques and technology to invent and produce a quality craft and visual art products. It is about time this subject equipped with the appropriate technology and media in its role to improve various skills among the students as stated in the syllabus objectives. Curriculum Development Centre, Ministry of Education provides three computers to the field of visual communication, and in particular for the visual arts subjects in general education for each school. As for painting activity that mostly conducted in PSV learning, the usage of technology for this activity is minimal hence the output of learning is not optimum. The question is how does this technology helps in students' PSV performance, and how does the application that provided in the computer fulfill the need of PSV itself? The students' understanding and appreciation on art can be triggered well or does it just another tool to provide and 'satisfy' the urges or needed technology nowadays.
  • 6. 1.3 Research Objectives Research objectives of this study are: i. To investigate the usage of multiple intelligence to improve and enhance visual learning in PSV ii. To study the relation of students' confidence and performance using paint in PSV with effective learning style. iii. To investigate whether teaching PSV in different from traditional teaching method as a presentation can be achieved aesthetic pleasure as well as art appreciation in students. 1.4 Research Questions Research questions of this study are: i. How does different approach in learning style can improve and enhance visual learning in PSV? ii. How does effective learning style can relate to students' confidence and performance using paint in PSV? iii. How does PSV different traditional teaching method can influence the achievement of aesthetic pleasure and art appreciation in students? 1.5 Research Hypothesis H1: With improved and enhanced visual learning style, the students can achieve more desirable performance in PSV H2: With built up confidence using paint in PSV learning, students will show more interest and expression while teaching and learning is being conducted.
  • 7. H3: With different and advanced media for PSV learning, students will unlock more learning potentials and outcome as well as developed art literacy and appreciation. 1.6 Operational Definition 1.6.1 Visual Learning According to Howard Gardner (Multiple Intelligence), one of the learning style is visual learning, which learning style involves the use of visual and observed things. These include pictures, diagrams, demonstrations, displays, handouts, films and flash cards etc. According to research, students or learners better remember information when it is represented and learned both visually and verbally. Visual learners are individuals who think in pictures rather than words; they have a different brain organization and learn better visually. They learn all-at -once, and when the light bulb goes on, the learning is permanent (Linda Kreger Silverman, 1999). In one definition visual learning consists of seeing visual, big picture at once first before the details taken place. 1.6.2 Painting Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface (support base). The medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other implements, such as knives, sponges, and airbrushes, can be used. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, leaf, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects. In PSV paintings or catan fall for a second technique and activity that the syllabus provided after drawing. According to Sukatan Pelajaran Kurikulum Bersepadu Sekolah Rendah (KBSR) PSV, this field emphasizes the development of imagination, creativity and self-expression. Painting activities include exploration of art and
  • 8. recognize the impact of range of tools, materials and applications. Activities will introduce a range of basic skills and techniques in the design process. 1.6.3 Interactive Media Media are vehicles for transmitting (Media Psychology, Stuart Fischoff, 2005). While media is a way of transmitting, interactive media is a method of communication in which the program's outputs depend on the user's inputs, and the user's inputs in turn affect the program's outputs. Interactive media engage the user and interact with him or her in a way that non-interactive media do not. Websites and video games are two common types of interactive media. Movies and most TV shows are generally not considered interactive media; however, shows that require audience participation could be considered interactive media. An essential feature of interactivity is that it is mutual: user and machine each take an active role. Most interactive computing systems are for some human purpose and interact with humans in human contexts (Alan Dix, 2004). 1.7 Limitation of the Study The first limitation of this study is the lack of prior research studied on the topic locally. Citing prior research studies helps lay foundation for understanding this research. PSV is locally conducted and the curriculum is different from the other country's curriculum, as for comparison it may help but in order to find locally comparison and other objective based that has to be carried in this research locally is limited. There is a research conducted locally for instance Pendidikan Seni Visual (PSV3107) that discussed the importance of ICT in PSV but it only focusing on the usage of the tool not the implication and the relation to students' performance in PSV in general especially in painting activity. The second limitation of this study is the potential of PSV teachers that incompetency in using interactive media and other technology based media as the changes in presentation media. According to Prof. Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan from Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, every procedures, changes of curriculum and approach in
  • 9. improving PSV education, whatever the reason, the immediate need to do is set the standards of achievement and learning skills for each level of visual arts education is so clear and to guide the teacher in performing its duties. A study was made by Mohd Nasir (2003) on the effectiveness of teaching and learning of visual arts education KBSR found most teachers have little knowledge about goals and objectives, knowledge about the syllabus, the clarity of the contents and the ability to explain the objectives of the operation of the teaching and learning of Visual Art Education KBSR. 49.3% (33) never received specific training in the arts while serving. As a result, they do not understand the intricacies of this subject. The third limitation of this study is longitudinal effects. Investigating and exploring different learning styles may consume a lot of time, hence the study emphasized on visual learning as a major learning style and process. May it only for visual learning style, to improve and improvised the learning style to achieve desirable outcome that can be parallel with the topic and issues that arisen in this study also consuming a lot of time. 1.8 Significance of the Study Firstly, the study emphasized on visual learning style, which is the major teaching and learning style conducted in PSV. To improve and unleash students' potential in this subject further, visual learning need to be examined and enhanced as so the outcome could be more effective and supportive in terms of students' performances. As painting is one of the activities that widely used and practiced in PSV subject, the approach to stimulate students' conscience in art literacy and appreciation can be conducted more effectively. Students will unlock their expressions, and deliver much more emotion as well as understanding if this approach is cooperated with interactive media. Activities produce art can help students to think sensibly about creating visual images, to help them learn to create an image that has the expressive power, coherence and insight.
  • 10. Secondly, the approach of using different from traditional teaching method as a presentation media in PSV is important to enhance learning outcomes especially when engaging with 21st century learner their development is more demanding and intriguing than the previous century learner. To make the teaching and learning more effective, fun as well as informative, advanced approach needs to be taken and practiced. While the teaching and learning take places the information will be transferred from the deliver to the acceptor, and while this communication happen the visual learning is developed with verbal elements, the receptor of the students will be more active and they will participate actively and show more interest in PSV. For this the four important things we do with art that as well as highlighted by Prof. Madya Hj. Iberahim Hassan that includes we produce, we see it, we understand that art is in the culture and art criticism will budding in students.