SUMMARY Our relationship to our environment is fundamentally changing through embedded information technology and networking. Ubiquitous computing is the most common name for this change (though it has others: pervasive computing, ambient intelligence, the Internet of Things, etc.) It’s a result of: – Cheap processing – Cheap, pervasive networking – Low-power, but still powerful, embedded processors Which came together to create a tipping point (roughly speaking in 2005). People are using these technologies to compete by embedding information processing into a wide variety of everyday objects. In effect treating information as a novel material to design with.
SUMMARY Ubicomp adds a number of disciplines to traditional UX: industrial design, service design, product design, architecture, engineering. Cheap processing creates a broad UX shift from generic devices and software to specialized devices and software, while cheap networking moves services from local to remote. This creates two broad classes of network-connected devices: specialized appliances and generic terminals in different form factors (which the CE industry primarily focuses on). A larger shift is to service avatars which are devices and software that are tightly coupled to specific online services. People see through the devices and software to the service. Meanwhile, unique identification of physical objects leads to cloud-based information shadows for everyday things. These blur the lines between physical objects, digital objects and fundamentally change notions of ownership as product service systems replace everyday products with subscriptions. And this, in a nutshell, is The Internet of Things..
SYSTEMS ON A CHIP (SOCS) 16MIPS 640X480 24-BIT LCD VIDEO CONTROLLER USB 2.0 24 A/D CHANNELS (FOR AUDIO AND I/O) CAPACITIVE SENSING (FOR MULTI-TOUCH) 1 CM SQUARE $5 (IN QUANTITY) PIC24FJ256DA210 PRODUCT FAMILY
INTERESTING EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES NFC/RFID Content based retrieval Systems on a chip Picoprojectors GPUs Multitouch/Gestural interaction Smart materials Ultracapacitors Everything as a service
Scale Label Examples 1 cm covert RFID, nail polish, cochlear implant 10 cm mobile phone handset, portable media player, wallet 1 m personal chair, car, ATM, payphone, laptop 10 m environmental wall, door, chandelier 100 m architectural church clock, billboard, bus 1000 m urban street intersection, landmark, crowd
MANAGING TASK DISCONNECTS Task continuity – “Task continuity requires interfaces that support the transfer and recovery of state and activity context.” – “The ability to recover the last few actions that were performed on one device so that they can be taken into account while migrating the task to another device.” Knowledge continuity – “Knowledge continuity requires visual continuity, both graphical and textual, successful partitioning of data and functionality, and procedural consistency.” From Pyla et al (2006).