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ISA11 - Elisabeth Goodman: Exploratory Design


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Procurando novas abordagens para velhos problemas? Indo para um campo novo? Trabalhando para melhorar produtos e serviços que já existem? Começar um trabalho de design através de pesquisa pode trazer insights muito importantes para o trabalho de criação de novos produtos e serviços.

Este workshop vai ensinar técnicas exploratórias e inspiracionais de pesquisa em design, de jogos a testes culturais. Além dos aspectos práticos de planejamento e execução da pesquisa, iremos discutir as implicações de cada método para designers, clientes e usuários finais.

Published in: Design, Technology, Education

ISA11 - Elisabeth Goodman: Exploratory Design

  1. 1. EXPLORATORY DESIGN RESEARCHInteraction Design South America 2011Elizabeth Goodman, University of California, Berkeley
  2. 2. SCHEDULE  Introductions  The nature of exploratory research  Our project for today  Asking initial questions  Method 1: “Walking tour”  Lunch  Discussion  Method 2: Probes  Method 3: Co-creation  Method 4: Games
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONS What’s your first name? What is your job? What would you like to learn at this workshop?
  4. 4. ABOUT MEUrban exploration interfaces and games User research handbook geolocated chattingCommunity garden studies Ethnography of interaction design
  5. 5. What’sTHE NATURE exploratory?OF EXPLORATORYDESIGN RESEARCH What’s research?
  6. 6. The researcher uses these methodsnot to answer precisely framed questions, but in order to generate the questions themselves, in directions he or she does not control:in order to find the blind spots. “Mapping the Experiential Context of Product Use” Pieter Jan Stappers, FroukjeSleeswijkVisser, a nd Ianus Keller
  7. 7. DIMENSIONS of EXPLORATION inspiration behavior “Art” meaning “Engineering” information
  8. 8. DESK RESEARCH  Make things  Read a lot  Talk to many experts  Question assumptions !!!Photo:Lalo de Almeida for The New York Times
  9. 9. CLUES TO A GOOD PROJECT “Doing my I’s and O’s” Jargon/slang “He’s a troll” Evocative imagery“We never do that here” Absolutes“That’s not punk rock” Group definition and exclusion “Skydiving is crazy” Accusations of insanity or stupidity Tricks of the Trade Basics of Qualitative Research Howard Becker Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin
  10. 10. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Think Do Use Know Feel Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders, 2002
  11. 11. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Think Say Do Use Do Know Feel Make Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders, 2002
  12. 12. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Surveys Think Say Interviews Do Diaries Use Do Observation Probes/games Know Feel Make Co-creation Dream “From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches” Elizabeth Sanders
  13. 13. LOOKING FOR RELATIONSHIPSBetween people, places, and objects Say Surveys Think Say Interviews Do Diaries Use Do Observation Probes/games Know Feel Make Co-creation Dream From User-Centered to Participatory Design Approaches Elizabeth Sanders
  14. 14. The key is looking carefully at what peopleactually do in various situations and asking ourselvesquestions such as these…Why has someone placed this object here?What are those people doing and why are they groupedlike that?Why is it that people apparently avoid being here?Curiosity will reveal meaning behind thesenonspectacular interactions that take placearound us all the time. Thoughtless Acts? Observations on Intuitive Design Jane Fulton Suri and IDEO
  15. 15. OBSERVATION FRAMEWORK Activities: What are people doing? Environments: Where is the action happening? Interactions: What operations are being carried out? Objects: What things are being put to use? Users: Which people are involved? “Ethnography in the field of design” Christina Wasson (Doblin)
  16. 16. EXPERIENTIAL ENCOUNTERS Traces Workarounds Paths Feelings Territories Goals Talk
  17. 17. OBSERVATION: TO MAKE/KEEP  Notes  Photos/Drawings  Maps  Souvenirs
  18. 18. OBSERVATION Belo Horizonte Pick a spot as a group Inside or outside hotel Stay there for at least 15 minutes • Don’t hide, but try not to stand out – especially if you are taking photographs • If anyone asks, you’re “doing this for a class assignment” • If people ask you to leave, move along. • Even if it’s boring – especially if it’s boring — stay in the place you chose for at least 15 minutes. Ask yourself: why do you think this boring? What’s happening during the “boring parts”?  Lunch
  19. 19. OBSERVATION Discussion In your groups, pick 3 of your As other people most interesting or surprising talk, write down: what observations. Pick one person PEOPLE, ACTIVITIES, to present your 3 observations. or TOOLS would be You have 10 minutes. interesting to explore further? Tell us about them! Each group has 3 minutes.
  20. 20. OUR PROJECT FOR TODAYImagine that you have been askedto explore tourism in BeloHorizonte in order to design a newproduct or service. Where wouldyou start?
  21. 21. Image: Mena Design ResearchCULTURAL PROBESEncourage imaginative personal reflectionthrough structured, but playful, activities
  22. 22. About CULTURAL PROBESPhotos: J Deruna/Flickr
  23. 23. Making aCULTURAL PROBE Photo: GCBB/Flickr ASK PEOPLE TO ACTIVITIES  IMAGINE possibilities, dreams,  Photography nightmares  Drawing  Mapping  CONNECT emotions and memories  Listing to places and products  Collecting  INVITE fantasy, humor, whimsy ON THEIR OWN, USING A KIT YOU GIVE THEM
  24. 24. CULTURAL PROBE Tasks“Put a red dot “Tell us about “Write a letter “Draw youron things you your dreams as to your future path to school.dislike and take soon as you self about your life Where do youa photo.” wake up.” now.” feel safest?” Stickers Voice recorder Postcard Maps “Cultural Probes” Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti
  25. 25. TOOLS FOR Camera Postcard CULTURALPhoto: GCBB/Flickr PROBES  Postcards  Stickers  Maps  Cameras Stickers  Voice recorders Maps  Card decks … et cetera!Photo: J Deruna/Flickr
  26. 26. CULTURAL PROBES HOW-TO1. Design the probe kit2.Give it to people3.Wait for them to return it4.Interpret for inspiration!
  27. 27. PROBES are not DIARIES
  28. 28. CULTURAL PROBE EXERCISEIn your groups, invent 3 activitiesfor a cultural probe of tourism inBelo Horizonte. – Who is the audience for your probe?You have 15 minutes.
  29. 29. CULTURAL PROBE DISCUSSIONEach group has 3 minutes topresent their ideas, with 3minutes for group comments.
  30. 30. CULTURAL PROBE TIPSEmbrace personal Promise design interpretations inspiration, notSchedule follow-up informational interviews to discuss recommendations with participants “Cultural Probes and Uncertainty” Bill Gaver, Andrew Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker.
  31. 31. Photos: Felipe SarmientoCO-CREATION with participants
  32. 32. Diabetes journey map: Gloria MurilloWhat is CO-CREATION?Generative techniques that allow Activities that involvepeople to tell stories about their non-designers in the design processexperiences using creative playwith objects
  33. 33. CO-CREATION TOOLKIT  Image collection  different subjects and styles, some more literally related, some more figurative or poetic  Cut-outs of paper, fabric, foam in geometric shapes  Scissors and glue  Colored markers Stickers from Wayne Chung
  34. 34. CO-CREATION PRINCIPLES Prompt discussion about ACTIVITIES dreams, fears, beliefs  “Day in the life”  Timelines/cycles Ask people to express  Autobiographies thoughts and emotions  Spatial maps  Mood boards/collages Support creativity  Sticker-placing with ambiguous prompts  Model-making Focus on describing experiences rather than identifying features Don’t reward polish or demand artistic skill
  35. 35. CO-CREATION EXERCISEMake a timeline of your BeloHorizonte trip thus far.Then, discuss it with a partner.
  36. 36. CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 1 1. Take a sheet from the big pad and draw a horizontal line across it. This is your journey to BH. 2. Now, take a look at the objects we have given you. Take any of them that seem to represent those steps and start gluing them along the line. You don’t have to use all the shapes – just use what makes sense to you. Use the pens to add any explanations or details that will complete the picture of your journey. Feel free to use the scissors to cut new shapes if you like. You have 10 minutes.
  37. 37. CO-CREATION EXERCISE Part 2 1. Ask your partner to explain their journey map to you. You might ask: – What does each shape mean? – Why did you pick that shape? – What did you learn about your journey in making this map? … or anything else. 2. After 5 minutes, it will be your partner’s turn to ask questions. Each person will have 5 minutes to talk.
  38. 38. CO-CREATIONTIPS Spatial map of a kitchen activity FroukjeSleesjwikVisserSchedule as a group Can be taken literally, workshop or as part for information, or as of interviews a source of inspiration.Using the same people Works well with to evaluate prototypes cultural probes later gives consistency
  39. 39. BREAK – 15 MINUTES
  40. 40. GAMES and PLAY
  41. 41. Urban transportation roleplaying game by AlidehGhanpourWHAT MAKES A GAME?Defined Constraints + Defined Objectives (Points optional) Homo Ludens Man, Play and Games Rules of Play Johan Huizinga Roger Caillois Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman
  42. 42. GAMES are not GAMIFICATION
  43. 43. USING GAMES TO ASKQUESTIONSTACTICS PATTERNS  What-ifMake a new game  Role-playing  Buying and sellingUse an existing game  Matching/grouping  CollectingModify a research activity  Races to make it more game-like … et cetera “Participatory Design: “Design Games” The Third Space in HCI” Donna Spencer Michael Muller
  44. 44. Technique 1 FREELISTING ASK Constraints List all the words  Under __ minutes you can think of that  In teams describe…  No points given for words shared with Take as many other teams photographs as you can of…. Outcome  The most items receives a prize
  45. 45. Technique 2 THE MAGIC IF Ask Constraints What would your day be like  Reversal of the usual if…  Exaggeration of what exists now How would you respond if…  Absence of something you expect Where would your life  Presence of something improve if… new
  46. 46. Technique 3 ROLEPLAY (Bodystorm) Try Constraints Act out an activity that  Under __ minutes relates to your topic, using  In teams everyday objects as props. Outcome How does your body feel?  Empathize with Where do you encounter an potential users. obstacle? What causes the obstacle? Consider how you  Identify appropriate could change the situation sites for intervention. to remove it.  Generate ideas for new interactions.
  47. 47. Technique 4 REFRAMING Ask Constraints Make a superhero for the  Under __ minutes situation. What are his/her  In teams special powers? Design the costume. Outcome  Present the stories to Pitch a TV show about the the group lives of the people you’re interested in. Is it a comedy? A  People vote for the drama? Give it a name and best idea describe the major characters.
  48. 48. ACTING OUT Part 1Pick an activity relevant to tourism.Choose people to act out all the roles in the situation. – If there are more people than roles, replay the scene with other people in the same roles. – If you need a prop, make one out of paper or use an available object as a substitute.Choose one person to act as the note-taker.
  49. 49. ACTING OUT Part 2Now, act it out! Move your body as the people in thesituation move, and say what you remember them saying.If you feel a problem, obstacle, or moment of joy in the roleyou are playing, say “FREEZE!” and tell the note-takerabout it. Then keep going.If you have time, try to solve the problems that youdiscovered while acting.You have 15 minutes to play.
  50. 50. EXPLORATORYANALYSISASK Where were/are the blind spots in your approach? What would change this TOOLS situation for the better?  WRITE Thick/rich description of What other situations are action relevant to this research?  IDENTIFY recurring problems and responses Where are the digital  MAP Cycles of activity tools? Do you care?  Presence/absence  FOLLOW linear processes, growth What other questions  LIST Ecologies of tools do you have now?
  52. 52. FINAL DISCUSSION Is there anything you’d like to talk more about? Anything that I didn’t mention? Any thoughts you’d like to share?
  53. 53. THANKS!More questions and comments?, +egoodmanwww.confectious.netA complete list of references is atthe end of this presentation. The presentation isavailable (for workshop members only, please)at:
  54. 54. PROMPTS
  55. 55. PROMPTS
  57. 57. DESK RESEARCH SOURCES Flickr memes: “Day in the Life”; “What’s in your bag” Forums and blogs Read academic papers from the ACM: Non-fiction books, of course Textbooks and educational materials Memoirs and oral histories
  58. 58. REFERENCES Asking Questions Tricks of the Trade Howard Becker Basics of Qualitative Research Anselm Strauss and Juliet Corbin
  59. 59. REFERENCES Observation Ethnography in the field of design. Christina Wasson Participant Observation James P Spradley IDEO Thoughtless Acts Flickr Pool
  60. 60. REFERENCES Co-creation Understanding anyone’s social network in 60 minutes Paul Adams Maketools Elizabeth Sanders ID-StudioLab Delft information and many helpful publications “Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI” Michael Muller
  61. 61. REFERENCES Cultural probes “Cultural Probes” Bill Gaver, Tony Dunne, and Elena Pacenti “Cultural Probes and the value of uncertainty.” Bill Gaver, Andy Boucher, Sarah Pennington, and Brendan Walker Flickr Design probes group
  62. 62. REFERENCES Games Man, Play and Games Roger Caillois Homo Ludens Johan Huizinga 40 Social Mechanics for Social Games RaphKoster “Participatory Design: The Third Space in HCI” Michael Muller Rules of Play Katie Salen and Eric Zimmerman “Design Games” Donna Spencer