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Sandy Bornholdt

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  • Questioning

    1. 1. Questioning - Important or Unimportant in the teaching and learning process? Compiled by Sandy Bornholdt The Question iiissss…
    2. 2. What do you think? . The question is… Why are there so many little questions in school when Marie Curie spent her whole life on one big question?
    3. 3. Jamie McKenzie on… Questioning Without strong questioning skills, you are just a passenger on someone else's tour bus. You may be on the highway, but someone else is doing the driving. Powerful questions - Smart Questions , Essential Questions, are the foundation for Information Power , Engaged Learning and Information Literacy . The question is why politicians learn not to answer questions while I must learn how to answer them . We are fighting a long school history of topical research. For decades students have been sent to the library to "find out about" some topic. This tradition has led to information gathering but little analysis or thought.
    4. 4. Socrates on… Questioning <ul><li>Thinking is not driven by answers but by questions </li></ul><ul><li>Every intellectual field is born out of a cluster of questions to which answers are either nedded or highly desirable </li></ul><ul><li>Questions define tasks, express problems and delineate issues. Answers signal full stop in thought </li></ul><ul><li>Only when an answer generates a further question does thought continue its life </li></ul><ul><li>The quality of the questions students as determines the quality of the thinking they are doing. </li></ul><ul><li>No questions = no understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial questions = superficial understanding </li></ul>The question is… why questions have to be answered fast in school when philosophers take years to answer them. They not only sit in silence: their minds are silent as well
    5. 5. So000 Which Questions Matter? Most important thinking requires one of these three Why? requires analysis of cause-and-effect and the relationship between variables How? basis for problem-solving and synthesis Which? requires thoughtful decision-making The question is… how come the teacher asks all the questions when I'm the one who needs to know things. There have always been plenty of questions in schools, but most of them have come from the teacher, often at the rate of one question every 2-3 seconds.
    6. 6. Essential Questions <ul><li>Are central to our lives, common to all and contestable </li></ul><ul><li>Touch our heart and soul </li></ul><ul><li>Are the heart of the search for truth </li></ul><ul><li>Probe the deepest issues </li></ul><ul><li>Are at the centre of all the other types of questions </li></ul><ul><li>Lend themselves to multidisciplinary investigations </li></ul><ul><li>May take a life time to answer </li></ul><ul><li>Answers cannot be found </li></ul><ul><li>Engage children in real-life problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>reside at the top of Bloom’s Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Answers to essential questions cannot be found </li></ul><ul><li>Engage students in real life , problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Usually lend themselves to multidisciplinary investigations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to be unpacked with subsidary questions </li></ul>The question is… why I'm supposed to have the answers to all my parent's questions when they can't answer mine. The greatest novels, the greatest plays, the greatest songs and the greatest paintings all explore essential questions in some manner
    7. 7. The question is… why scientists ask ten questions for every answer they get but I have to answer seven out of ten to pass. So What does this mean for teachers in our schools? <ul><li>Information-savvy schools should adopt a basic questioning toolkit and then blend it explicitly into each curriculum area where such skills belong. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask open-ended questions </li></ul><ul><li>Reword questions to eliminate yes/no responses </li></ul><ul><li>Use precise language </li></ul><ul><li>Practice “wait time” </li></ul><ul><li>Call on students randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge all responses </li></ul><ul><li>Withhold criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to student answers non-judgmentally, otherwise students may play a game called “Please the Authority” </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase more often than praise </li></ul><ul><li>Rephrase rather than repeat </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for reflection and for “thinking aloud </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for productive interaction - Think / pair/ share </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage question asking </li></ul><ul><li>Teach children to ask essential questions and help them to unpack them using subsidiary questions. </li></ul>When students begin to label the different kinds of questions, they learn to select different kinds of questions to perform different kinds of thinking.
    8. 8. Strategies for Filling the Thinking Toolbox - some practical ideas <ul><li>Use a Question matrix / taxonomy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Question matrix, rainbow fish eg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Start a new unit with “Wonderings & questions” about the topic then catagorise the questions. Identify which are most interesting/least interesting, easiest/hardest to answer in order to form your typology of questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Put your classroom questioning typology to work with your homework </li></ul><ul><li>The interview & Questioning the main character </li></ul><ul><li>Label thinking questions with timeframes, then ask to draw pictures of how their minds jumped and moved and considered </li></ul><ul><li>The book report </li></ul><ul><li>The Tourist in Trouble </li></ul><ul><li>Problem Solving & math's </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-writing </li></ul><ul><li>On stage </li></ul><ul><li>Research projects </li></ul><ul><li>Test taking strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent & Creative Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Key words & question stems </li></ul><ul><li>The climate </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Socratic questioning techniques </li></ul>The question is… why I must find answers to already answered questions when I have questions that have not yet been answered. Critical thinking gives one a comprehensive view of how the mind functions (in its pursuit of meaning and truth) and Socratic questioning takes advantage of that overview to frame questions essential to the quality of that pursuit.
    9. 9. The question is… why can't I be in charge of the questions? Philosophy 4 Children – A community of Inquiry <ul><li>P4C questions follow the CCC rule – Contestable, common and central </li></ul><ul><li>P4C builds on wonder and curiosity </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy is thinking dedicated to the improvement of thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>It is open-ended, rigorous, critical and creative </li></ul><ul><li>It strengthens thinking and reasoning skills and builds self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical values are integrated into philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>Irrespective of age, practice in oral reasoning translated directly into better thinking skills and virtues, such as: patience, reasonableness, and openness </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical inquiry often requires slowing down the pace, paying attention to precise meanings and careful definitions which promotes more insight and better knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Skills learnt in community of inquiry are transferable </li></ul><ul><li>It does not involve introducing another subject, but invites us to rethink how we can change some of our subject teaching to involve more cognitively demanding interaction with the children </li></ul>Sadly, most studies of classroom exchanges in the past few decades report that student questions have been an endangered species for quite some time. (Goodlad, Sizer, Hyman, etc.)
    10. 10. Strategies for - Philosophy 4 Children <ul><li>Use picture books, a video, a photo, or even a painting to stimulate deep thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Children start off by sitting so that they can all see each other and can equally share the story </li></ul><ul><li>Give children “thinking time” Think/Pair/Share to think of questions about the story. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce words that help children to express their thoughts eg: what puzzles them or what do the find strange about … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children talk freely about their questions </li></ul><ul><li>Children picture what they are thinking in their minds and draw it. </li></ul><ul><li>Share questions with group, recording children's exact words with the names written next to the questions they have posed. </li></ul><ul><li>Children vote, choose a question from the list that forms the starting point for dialogue </li></ul>The question is… why is the question the answer?
    11. 11. Questioning - Important or Unimportant in the teaching and learning process? What do you think? The goal of critical thinking is to establish a disciplined level of thinking, a powerful inner voice of reason, to monitor, assess and reconstitute – in a more rational direction – our thinking, feeling, and action. Socratic discussion cultivates that inner voice by providing a public model for it. Seinfeld video