Ma. Martha Manette A. Madrid, Ed.D. Professor Panpacific University North Philippines Urdaneta City, Pangasinan, Philippines email@example.com
To question well is to teach well. In the skillful use of questions, more than anything else, lies the ﬁne art of teaching. - Earnst Sachs
Questioning: A very simple and effective teaching strategy that can be applied to almost any situation. The heart and soul of training--the most widely used instructional strategy to facilitate learning. The essence of effective teaching because of the numerous purposes it serves, such as motivating learners intrinsically, assessing knowledge and skills, and reviewing content.
1. Factual Questions: Soliciting reasonably simple, straight forward answers based on obvious facts or awareness. These are usually at the lowest level of cognitive or affective processes and answers are frequently either right or wrong. Used to get information from the students and often test rote memory. Example: a. What is the title of the play about the Prince of Denmark? b. Which are the materials that conduct electricity? c. What time did you expose the plant to direct sunlight?
2. Clarifying Questions: Intend to provide clarity to both students and teachers. Such questions have important clueing effects and help students to revisit their earlier statements with alternative perspectives. Used to get information from the students and often test rote memory. Example: You mentioned possible thyroid problem contributing to Anna‟s symptoms. a. What do you mean by „thyroid problem‟? b. Can you give us an example?
3. Broadening or Extension Questions: Enlarge the existing theme, explore implications of the response and can be useful in opening up further possibilities. Such questions can be used to assess additional knowledge of the students. Example: Do you know of any other abnormality in Down syndrome?
4. Justifying Questions: Probe for assumptions and explore reasons. These questions require signiﬁcant comprehension and reasoning skills on the part of the students. ◦ Example: What are your reasons for such a diagnosis? How did you compute for the mean, median and mode?
5. Hypothetical Questions: Often come in handy during the later part of teacher-student interactions when the basic facts and concepts are already established. Example a. Suppose Anna has a ventricular septum defect and is taking diuretics to control her symptoms, how would you revise and rearrange the differential diagnosis of Anna‟s respiratory distress ? b. On reflecting over the entirety of the play Hamlet, what were the main reasons why Ophelia went mad? c. Why do wet clothes dry faster on a sunny day ?
6. Questions About Questions: Probe for reasons for the question. This allows the students to verbalize their reasoning and understanding of the events leading to their own questions. Example ◦ You asked Anna‟s mother whether Anna is taking any thyroid medications. Why did you ask that particular question? What are you thinking of?”
7. Redirecting Questions: Address the same question to several students and distribute responsibility. The beneﬁts of such questions include generation of a wider variety of responses and allowing the students to evaluate each others‟ contributions. This technique shifts the focus from teacher- student interactions to student-student interactions. Example: ◦ How can you reach the town an hour earlier?
Questioning is an integral part ofteaching and learning. The teacher’squestioning technique would depend onthe number of interactions that occurduring and immediately after a questionis asked.
1. Ask the question.2. Period of Silence.3. Simplify the question.4. Students answer.5. Period of Silence6. Discuss the answer.
Provide sufficient wait time -Wait time refers to the pause needed by the teacher after asking a question. This is the time when he waits an answer. Consider the level of difficulty of the question, the type of response required, the knowledge the respondents possess, and the intellectual ability of the respondents.
Know your style of questioning - Request a colleague to critique your own style as to: the kind of questions asked, the amount of wait time provided and the type of responses required. Knowing your errors in questioning would make it easy to effect the necessary changes. Too many “what” questions will be avoided.
Increase own repertoire of type of questions -Training in employing divergent, high level and open- ended questions improves one‟s questioning technique. Fully aware of the instructional objectives set for a particular lesson, a teacher would be able to frame more interesting and thought-provoking questions rather than memory types.
Consider the individual ability and interests of the students. - Select the brighter ones to respond to high level questions. An approving nod, a smile or praise for an answer given will encourage them to volunteer own ideas.
Ask some open-ended, not just “yes” or “no” questions ◦ What actions might have been taken by the Government before the country entered into all- out war?” Ask divergent questions (analyze, synthesize, evalu ate a knowledge and then project and predict an outcome)◦ “What are some possible ways to solve the problems of poverty ?”
Promote discussions among students. Answers to these types of questions are usually within a very finite range of acceptable accuracy. These may be at several different levels of cognition -- comprehension, application, analysis , or ones where the answerer makes inferences or conjectures based on personal awareness, or on material read, presented or known.
Ask provoking questions Require sophisticated levels of cognitive and/or emotional judgment. Students may be combining multiple logical and/or affective thinking process, or comparative frameworks. • Why and how might the concept of Piagetian schema be related to the concepts presented in Jungian personality theory, and why might this be important to consider in teaching and learning?
Discourage inappropriate questions Good questions during teaching: • Help students to participate actively in lessons •Provide an opportunity to students to express their ideas and thoughts •Allow students to hear divergent opinions from fellow students.
• When students to answer any question, askthem the following:•Is the question clear to you?•Do you want me to rephrase the question?•Which part of the question did you notunderstand?•Is the question too difficult for you?
The Art of Questioning:Fostering Higher Levels ofThinking in the Classroom
Science is a subject that tends to lend itself to questioning. Start each lesson with a question written on the board. This provides the students a purpose for learning. Spend time allowing the students to discuss the question, and wonder about the answer. Direct the students to ask more questions that will lead to the answer of the main question. Have the students decide how they can go about answering the question. With proper guidance, you will have the students believing that they created the lesson themselves.
When teaching math, make an effort to question students answers whether they are correct or incorrect. Consider having the students start a math journal, where they are allowed to write down the questions they come up with, and make time each week to discuss student questions. This will allow students to feel like they are a part of the learning process by directing your teaching towards their interests. In addition, always respond positively to student questions during your lessons. Telling them that their question is excellent and responding to it respectfully will encourage more students to ask questions.
Whenever reading with the students, ask questions. This is the best way to encourage students to improve their reading comprehension. When reading aloud to students, pause frequently and ask questions about what you are reading, what they think may be coming up next, why the character said something, and about how the character may be feeling. When the students are reading, have them keep a reading journal where they can write down anything they think of while they are reading. Students can write short comments as they identify with the character, or write a short memory that the story reminds them of. This ability to connect with the text will help the students recall the details of the story later.
The learner is able to recall, restate and remember learned information. ◦ Recognizing ◦ Listing ◦ Identifying ◦ Retrieving ◦ Naming ◦ Locating/finding ◦ Describing
The learner grasps the meaning of information by interpreting and translating what has been learned. ◦ Interpreting ◦ Exemplifying ◦ Summarizing ◦ Inferring ◦ Paraphrasing ◦ Explaining ◦ Classifying
The learner uses the information in a context similar to or different from the one in which it was learned. ◦ Implementing ◦ Carrying out ◦ Using ◦ Executing
The learner dissects the information or reduces it into its parts to better understand it. ◦ Differentiating ◦ Comparing ◦ Organizing ◦ Deconstructing ◦ Outlining ◦ Establish relationships
The learner exercises judgment based on an in-depth assessment and criticism of or reflection on the new information. ◦ Checking ◦ Critiquing ◦ Judging /justifying ◦ Testing ◦ Detecting ◦ Monitoring
The learner crafts new ideas or information, designs objects or concocts products based on information previously learned. ◦ Designing ◦ Constructing ◦ Planning ◦ Producing ◦ Inventing ◦ Devising