No one envisions readers lying in bed with a great book and having to get up, find a pencil, and jotting a question on a sticky note. 1. The teacher first explains the strategy2. Teacher Modeling- the teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes she uses when she reads3. Guided Practice- The teacher and students practice the strategy together; students share their thinking processes with each other during paired reading and the teacher gives feedback during conferences and classroom discussions.4. Independent Practice- students try to apply the strategy on their own and they receive regular feedback from the teacher and other students. 5. Application of Strategy- students apply a clearly understood strategy to a new genre/format. The demonstrate the effective use of a strategy in more difficult texts.
Expert Readers spontaneously think of questions, before, during, and after reading. They ask questions to clarify meaning, predict what will happen next, focus their attention on what is important and figure out what the author means.
Modeling- As suggested in Strategies that Work (p.82), teachers take a piece of adult text write questions on post-it notesScaffold- Listing/categorizing- Strategies that Work p 83-84- use with text with small amount of text on each pages
Think-Alongs- NC Reads (Core p.12)Topic vs. Detail STW p.134
In Strategies that Work, it is recommended that this strategy is first taught w/ nonfiction
Think-Alongs- NC Reads (Core p.12)Topic vs. Detail STW p.134
Perspectives- STW p. 137Open minds (NC reads- Core p.21
Comprehension– that’s what it’s all about: Teaching students HOW to interact with texts across the curriculum<br />Melissa Horn<br />Katie Laver<br />Jody Shaughnessy<br />
Proficient readers use a number of different cognitive strategies in the process of interacting with texts and constructing meaning. (Harvey and Goudvis, 2000)<br />Constructing meaning refers to building knowledge and promoting understanding. (Harvey and Goudvis, 2000)<br />What Research Says<br />
<ul><li>Engaged reading involves a complex set of cognitive, emotional, and visual processes that expert readers enact automatically. (Wilhelm, 2001)
The goal of reading research has been to recognize these processes so that these tools can be taught to students to help them improve their reading. (Voyager U, 2006)</li></li></ul><li>Questions<br />Think-Aloud<br />Uses Prior Knowledge<br />Infers<br />Visualizes <br />Determines What’s Important<br />Synthesizes<br />7 Thinking Strategies <br />
<ul><li>Explicit reading instruction means that we show students HOW we think when we read. </li></ul>Teacher Modeling ( I do, you watch)<br />Guided Practice (I do, you help)<br />Independent Practice (you do, I help)<br />Application of a Strategy (in real reading situations) (you do, I watch)<br />Gradual Release of Responsibility<br />
What is it?<br />Strong readers ask questions before, during, and after reading. <br />Why is it important?<br />The questions clarify our understanding and focus our reading. They also help us to move forward and dig deeper into the text. <br />Questioning<br />
At the modeling level:<br /><ul><li>Think- aloud
Teachers can model w/ a book that they are reading</li></ul>Scaffolding:<br /><ul><li>Read Aloud/Pause/ Write (Read aloud a text and pause at certain points to jot down questions)
Listing and Categorizing questions</li></ul>Questioning<br />
As students move toward independence:<br /><ul><li>“Thick and Thin questions” (great for use in the content areas with nonfiction)
Helps determine what students do and don’t do as they read. Reveals what strategies they use while reading and ways to improve. </li></ul>Think Aloud<br />
Say Something <br />Ask the Author<br />Hand Gestures (DVD)<br />Think Aloud Activities<br />
What is it? <br />Helping students recall information from their own experiences to make connections to texts. <br />Why is it important?<br />Making connections from the text to prior knowledge helps integrate new information with what is already known. <br />Uses Prior Knowledge<br />
“I Can Tell Because…”<br />Beginning to Make Connections: It Reminds Me of…<br />KWL Plus <br />Extended Reaction Guide<br />Uses Prior Knowledge Activities<br />
What is it?<br /><ul><li>Determining the important events, themes, key ideas as we read</li></ul>Why is it important?<br /><ul><li>Students need to see the “big picture” and not get bogged down with small details. They need support in sifting through details and deciding what is important to remember and what is not</li></ul>Determining What’s Important<br />
Modelingand Scaffolding:<br /><ul><li>Teaching students the features of Nonfiction text to help them pick up on cues for what is important
Reading for Answers to a Specific Question (nonfiction)
Readers create original insights, perspectives, and understandings by reflecting on texts and merging elements from text and existing schema.
Put the pieces together to see them in a new way.
Synthesizing can be compared to a journey. The student begins with prior knowledge of the topic, gains new knowledge about that topic from a variety of sources, combines and analyzes this information, and as a final destination makes an evaluation and forms an opinion. </li></ul>Synthesizes<br />
Why it’s important?<br />Enhances understanding and better constructs meaning. <br />What students say:<br />“When I synthesize my mind is changing, my ideas are changing, my thinking is changing.”<br />“When you synthesize you say in your head, I used to think this but now I’m thinking this.”<br />Synthesizing<br />
http://reading.ecb.org/teacher/synthesizing/syn_lessonplans.html<br />Creating a play<br />Three Little Pigs<br />Miss Pingels Synthesizing Activity<br />GIST<br />Double Journal Entries<br />Writing from a different person’s perspective<br />Synthesizing Activities<br />
Melissa.firstname.lastname@example.org<br />Katie.email@example.com<br />Jody.firstname.lastname@example.org<br />Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. 2007. Strategies that Work: Teaching Comprehension for Understanding and Engagement. <br />Beers, K. 2003. When Kids Can’t Read: What Teachers Can Do. A Guide for Teachers 6-12.<br />Wood, K. 2001. Literacy Strategies Across the Subject Areas.<br />Oczkus, Lori, 2009. Interactive Think Aloud Questions.<br />http://www.kbumreading.com/index.html<br />Laverk.wikispaces.com login: laverk password: SBBulldogs<br />Bibliography<br />