THE NEW FOUND REPUBLICAchievements | Reforms | Downfalls
MANUEL QUEZON • Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina (August 19, 1878 – August 1, 1944) served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states). Quezón is considered by most Filipinos to have been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (1897– 1901). • Quezón was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a national election, and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National Language".
ACHIEVEMENTS• He studied law at the University of Sto. Tomas • The “ Star of Baler “ shone as the First President and passed the bar examinations in 1903. He of the Commonwealth after his brilliant became the fiscal of his home province and was performance as the First Senate President. He soon elected governor. was steadfast in his vision to deliver the masses from the shackles of colonialism which• In the 1907 election, he ran for the Philippine intensified his efforts to secure independence Assembly under the Nacionalista Party, won by for his country. Such vision culminated in the a large majority, and became the majority floor establishment of political stability within the leader. framework of the 1935 Constitution, the• In 1909, he was elected Resident Commissioner formulation of policies to ensure the social well- to Washington, D.C., a post he held until 1916. being of the people, and the adjustment of the His most significant achievement was the national economy to the challenges of passage of the Jones Act that provided for the independent nationhood. He was a dynamic grant of Philippine independence. Filipino leader and a true friend of the poor and the oppressed whom he loved and cared so• He was elected senator in 1916 and eventually well. Quezon is one of the most illustrious sons became Senate President. He headed the first Independence Mission to the U.S. Congress, and our country has ever produced. brought home the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934.
REFORMS• Government Reorganization• Social justice program• Economy• Agrarian reform• Educational reforms• Womens suffrage• National language• Council of State
DOWNFALL The Commonwealth Government was interrupted by the Japanese invasion of 1941. Quezon and his government were forced to go into exile in the U.S. He died on August 1, 1944, in New York. LEGACY: A province, a city, a bridge, a private university in Manila and many streets are named after him. The highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Tomb of President Manuel Quezon, Philippines is the Quezon Service Cross. HeInside Quezon Memorial, Quezon City is also memorialized on Philippine currency. He appears on the Philippine twenty peso bill. He also appears on two commemorative one peso coins, one alongside Frank Murphy and another with Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
JOSE P. LAUREL • José Paciano Laurel was born on March 9, 1891 in the town of Tanauan, Batangas. His parents were Sotero Laurel, Sr. and Jacoba García. His father had been an official in the revolutionary government of Emilio Aguinaldo and a signatory to the 1898 Malolos Constitution. • While a teen, Laurel was indicted for attempted murder when he almost killed a rival suitor of his girlfriend. While studying and finishing law school, he argued for and received an acquittal. • Laurel received his law degree from the University of the Philippines College of Law in 1915, where he studied under Dean George A. Malcolm, whom he would later succeed on the Supreme Court. He then obtained a Master of Laws degree from University of Santo Tomas in 1919. Laurel then attended Yale Law School, where he obtained a Doctorate of Law.
ACHIEVEMENTS• He was elected by the National Assembly as President of the Republic on September 25, 1943 and inducted on October 14, 1943. This unicameral assembly was created through the sponsorship of the Japanese authorities.• Laurel’s controversial Presidency during the Japanese Occupation (1943 - 1945) overshadowed his achievements as legislator, jurist, writer, and administrator in the pre-war struggle for independence. As an elected senator and later delegate to the Constitutional Convention, he distinguished himself for his advocacy of women’s suffrage and his sponsorship of the Bill of Rights of the Constitution. He also became an associate justice of the Supreme Court.
FAILURES• Economy. During Laurels tenure as President, hunger was the main worry. Prices of essential commodities rose to unprecedented heights. The government exerted every effort to increase production and bring consumers goods under control. However, Japanese rapacity had the better of it all. On the other hand, guerrilla activities and Japanese retaliatory measures brought the peace and order situation to a difficult point. Resorting to district-zoning and domiciliary searches, coupled with arbitrary asserts, the Japanese made the mission of Laurels administration incalculably exasperating and perilous.• Food shortage. During his presidency, the Philippines faced a crippling food shortage which demanded much of Laurels attention. Rice and bread were still of availability but the sugar supply was gone. Laurel also resisted in vain Japanese demands that the Philippines issue a formal declaration of war against the United States. There were also reports during his presidency of the Japanese military carrying out rape and massacre towards the Filipino population.• KALIBAPI. Telling of Laurels ambivalent and precarious position is the following anecdote. In 1944, Laurel issued an executive order organizing the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) as the sole political organization to back the government. An attempt was made to organize a womens section of the KALIBAPI, and Laurel hosted several women leaders in Malacañang Palace to plead his case. After he spoke, a university president, speaking in behalf of the group, responded, "Mr. President, sa kabila po kami". ("Mr. President, we are on the other side.") Laurel joined the others assembled in hearty laughter and the KALIBAPI womens section was never formed.
RETIREMENT & DEATH• Laurel considered his election to the Senate as a vindication of his reputation. He declined to run for re-election in 1957. He retired from public life, concentrating on the development of the Lyceum of the Philippines established by his family.• During his retirement, Laurel stayed in a 3-story, 7-bedroom mansion dubbed as "Villa Pacencia", erected in 1957 at Mandaluyong and named after Laurels wife. The home was one of three residences constructed by the Laurel family, the other two being located in Tanauan and in Paco, Manila (called "Villa Peñafrancia). In 2008, the Laurel family sold "Villa Pacencia" to Senate President Manny Villar and his wife Cynthia.• On November 6, 1959, Laurel died at the Lourdes Hospital, in Manila, from a massive heart attack and a stroke. He is buried in Tanuan.
SERGIO OSMENA• Sergio Osmeña was born in Cebu to Juana Osmeña y Suico, who was reportedly only 14 years of age when she gave birth to him. Owing to the circumstances of his birth, the identity of his father had been a closely guarded family secret.• Though an illegitimate child – Juana never married his father – he didnt allow this aspect to affect his standing in society. The Osmeña family, a rich and prominent clan of Chinese Filipino heritage with vast business interests in Cebu, slowly warmed up to him as he established himself as a prominent figure in local society.
ACHIEVEMENTS• Osmena was a notable figure in the struggle for independence. A lawyer, he espoused the cause of independence through peaceful means as editor of the Cebu newspaper El Nuevo Dia (New Day), which he founded in 1900. He served as fiscal of Cebu and Negros Oriental. He was appointed governor of Cebu in 1904 and elected to the same post in 1906.• In 1907, he was elected as representative of Cebu and later became speaker of the first Philippine Assembly. In 1922, he was elected as senator. He headed important government missions to the U. S.• Osmena returned to the Philippines on October 20, 1944, together with Gen. Douglas MacArthur. In February 1945, he took the reins of government.
REFORMS• Restoration of the Commonwealth• Government reorganization• Rehabilitation of the Philippine National Bank• Peoples court• United Nations Charter• Foreign Relations Office• International banking• Bell Trade Act
POST-PRESIDENCY & DEATH• After his defeat in the election, Osmeña retired to his home in Cebu. He died of old age at the age of 83 on 19 October 1961 at the Veterans Memorial Hospital in Quezon City. He is buried in the Manila North Cemetery, Manila. A statue of President Osmeña in front of the Osmeña Museum in Cebu City.
MANUEL ROXAS• He was popularly known as the “First President of the Third Republic.” He won the elections by a slim margin. He was inaugurated on July 4, 1946, the day the U.S. government granted political independence to its colony.• Roxas was born in Capiz (now Roxas City), studied law at UP and graduated with honors in 1913. He topped the Bar examinations in the same year, was employed as private secretary to Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano, and taught law in 1915-1916.
ACHIEVEMENTS• His political career started when he was • The short-lived Roxas administration appointed as a member of the Capiz (1946 - 1948) embarked on a course that municipal council. In 1919, he was elected resulted in what were considered as his as governor of Capiz. He was elected as greatest achievements, namely: the congressman in 1922, and in 1935, he was ratification of the Bell Trade Act; the chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional inclusion of the Parity Amendment in the Convention. He was elected as a senator Constitution; and the signing of the 1947 in 1941 and eventually became Senate Military Bases Agreement. president.
REFORMS• Economy• Reconstruction after the war• Agrarian reform• Amnesty proclamation• HUKS outlawed• Treaty of General Relations One of the last pictures of President Manuel Roxas.• United States military bases• Parity Rights Amendment
CONTROVERSIES• His administration was marred by graft and corruption; moreover, the abuses of the provincial military police contributed to the rise of the left-wing (Huk) movement in the countryside. His heavy-handed attempts to crush the Huks led to widespread peasant disaffection.• The good record of Roxas administration was marred by two failures: the failure to curb graft and corruption in the government, as evidenced by the Surplus War Property scandal, the Chinese immigration scandal and the School supplies scandal; and the failure to check and stop the communist Hukbalahap movement.
DEATH• Roxas did not finish his term that was expected to end by 1950 because he died of myocardial infarction. On the night of April 15, 1948, Roxas died at Clark Field, Pampanga. In the morning of his death Roxas delivered a speech before the US Thirteenth Air Force, in which he said: “ If war should come, I am certain of one thing–probably the only thing of which I can be certain–and it is this: That America and the Philippines will be found on the same side, and American and Filipino soldiers will again fight side by side in the same trenches or in the air or at sea in the defense of justice, freedom and other principles which we both loved and cherished. ”• After the speech, he felt dizzy and was brought to the residence of Major General E.L. Eubank, where he died that same night.• On April 17, 1948, two days after Roxas death, Vice-President Elpidio Quirino took the oath of office as President of the Philippines, per line of succession.
ELPIDIO QUIRINO• Elpidio Quirino was a native of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur although born in Vigan, Ilocos Sur to Don Mariano Quirino of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur and Doña Gregoria Mendoza Rivera of Agoo, La Union.• Quirino spent his early years in Aringay, La Union. He studied and graduated his elementary education to his native Caoayan, where he became a barrio teacher. He received secondary education at Vigan High School, then went to Manila where he worked as junior computer in the Bureau of Lands and as property clerk in the Manila police department. He graduated from Manila High School in 1911 and also passed the civil service examination, first-grade.• Quirino attended the University of the Philippines. In 1915, he earned his law degree from the universitys College of Law, and was admitted to the bar later that year. He was engaged in the private practice of law.
ACHIEVEMENTS• His political career started with his election as a representative of Ilocos Sur in 1919, then as a senator in 1925, and again reelected in 1931. President Quezon appointed him as secretary of finance and then secretary of the interior in the Commonwealth Government. As Roxas’ Vice President, he served concurrently first as secretary of finance and later as secretary of foreign affairs.• The Quirino administration (1948 - 1953) focused on two objectives: 1) to regain faith and confidence in the government; and 2) to restore peace and order. He was more successful in the second objective – breaking the back of the Hukbalahap Movement in Central Luzon.• In addition, he was credited with sponsoring the growth of industrial ventures, expanding irrigation, improving the road system, and setting up the Central Bank and rural banking. It was also during his term that the RP-US Mutual Defense Treaty was approved on August 30, 1951.
REFORMS• Amongst all his reforms & policies the most notable of all is : – Social Program. President Quirino, almost immediately after assuming office, started a series of steps calculated to effectively ameliorate the economic condition of the people. After periodic surprise visits to the slums of Manila and other backward regions of the country, President Quirino officially made public a seven-point program for social security, of which: • Unemployment insurance • Old-age insurance • Accident and permanent disability insurance • Health insurance • Maternity insurance • State relief • Labor opportunity – President Quirino also created the Social Security Commission, making Social Welfare Commissioner Asuncion Perez chairman of the same.This was followed by the creation of the Presidents Action Committee on Social Amelioration, charges with extending aid, loans, and relief to the less fortunate citizens. Both the policy and its implementation were hailed by the people as harbingers of great benefits.
FAILURES & DOWNFALL• However, much as he tried to become a good president, Quirino failed to win the peoples affection. Several factors caused the unpopularity of his administration, namely: – Unabated rampage of graft and corruption in his government, as revealed in the Tambobong-Buenavista scandal, the Import Control Anomalies, the Caledonia Pile Mess and the Textbook Racket; – Wasteful spending of the peoples money in extravagant junkets abroad; – Failure of government to check the Huk menace which made travel in the provinces unsafe, as evidenced by the killing of former First Lady Aurora Quezon and her companions on April 28, 1949 by the Huks on the Bongabong-Baler road, Baler, Tayabas (now part of Aurora province). – Economic distress of the times, aggravated by rising unemployment rate, soaring prices of commodities, and unfavorable balance of trade. Quirinos vaunted "Total Economic Mobilization Policy" failed to give economic relief to the suffering nation. – Frauds and terrorism committed by the Liberal Party moguls in the 1947, 1949 and 1951 elections.
POST-PRESIDENCY & DEATH• Following his failed bid for re- election, Quirino retired from politics to private life in 1953. He offered his dedication to serve the Filipino people, he became the Father of Foreign Service.• He died of a heart attack on February 29, 1956. He was buried at Manila South Cemetery in Makati. Photograph of President Truman in the Oval Office, evidently receiving a cane as a gift from the President of the Philippines, Elpidio Quirino, as another man (probably the Filipino Ambassador to the U.S., Joaquin Elizalde) looks on.
RAMON MAGSAYSAY• Ramón del Fierro Magsaysay (31 August 1907 – 17 March 1957) was the seventh President of the Republic of the Philippines, serving from 30 December 1953 until his death in a 1957 aircraft disaster.• An automobile mechanic, Magsaysay was appointed military governor of Zambales after his outstanding service as a guerilla leader during the Pacific War. He then served two terms as Liberal Party congressman for Zambales before being appointed as Secretary of National Defense by President Elpidio Quirino.• He was elected President under the banner of the Nacionalista Party. He was the first Philippine President born during the 20th century.
ACHIEVEMENTS• He was largely famous for his success in the peace campaign. He defeated Quirino in the 1953 presidential elections by an unprecedented margin of votes.• Popularly known as “the guy,” Magsaysay was born in Iba, Zambales. He took up mechanical engineering at UP but ended up with a commerce degree from Jose Rizal College. He took a job as a mechanic in the bus company Try-Tran and rose to become its branch manager. He attained fame as an able guerilla leader in World War II and was subsequently named by MacArthur as military governor of Zambales during the liberation. He was elected twice as a congressman after the war. He was instrumental in having the U.S. Congress pass the G.I. Bill of Rights, which accorded benefits to the Filipino war veterans. But his national prominence resulted from being appointed defense secretary in the Quirino administration, successfully fighting the Huks, and for being the friend of the common tao.• Many regard Magsaysay as the President whose heart truly bled for the common man. He toured the barrios, opened up Malacanang to the public, solicited and acted upon their complaints, built artesian wells and roads. He had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954, providing greater protection to tenants.
REFORMS• Presidents Action Body• Agrarian reform• HUKBALAHAP• SEATO• Defense Council• Laurel-Langley Agreement At Malacañang Palace, 1955. Clockwise, from top left: Senator Edmundo Cea, Former President José P. Laurel Sr., Senator Primicias, Senate President Eulogio A.• Bandung Conference Rodriguez, Sr., President Ramón F. Magsaysay, & House Speaker José B. Laurel Jr.• Reparations agreement
DEATH• Magsaysays term that was to end on 30 December 1957 was cut short by a plane crash. On 16 March 1957, Magsaysay left Manila for Cebu City where he spoke at three educational institutions. That same night, at about 1 am, he boarded the presidential plane "Mt. Pinatubo", a C-47, heading back to Manila. In the early morning hours of 17 March, the plane was reported missing. By late afternoon, newspapers had reported the airplane had crashed on Mt. Manunggal in Cebu, and that 36 of the 56 aboard were killed (the Tomb of President Magsaysay at the Manila North Cemetery. actual number on board was 25, including Magsaysay). Only newspaperman Néstor Mata survived. Vice- President Carlos García, who was on official visit to Australia at the time, assumed the presidency to serve out the last eight months of Magsaysays term.• An estimated 5million people attended Magsaysays burial on 31 March 1957.He was posthumously referred to by the people the "Idol of the Masses". He is the most recent Philippine head of state to die in- office. Monument at the crash site in Manunggal, Balamban, Cebu
CARLOS P. GARCIA• Carlos Polistico García (November 4, 1896 – June 14, 1971) was a Filipino teacher, poet, orator, lawyer, public official, political economist and guerrilla leader. He became the eighth President of the Philippines.• García was born in Talibon, Bohol to Policronio García and Ambrosia Polistico (who were both natives of Bangued, Abra).• García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.• Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".
ACHIEVEMENTS• García grew up with politics, with his father serving as a municipal mayor for four terms. He acquired his primary education in his native Talibon, then took his secondary education in Cebu Provincial High School. Initially, he pursued his college education at Silliman University in Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental, and later studied at the Philippine Law School (now Philippine College of Criminology) where he earned his law degree in 1923. He was among the top ten in the bar examination.• Rather than practice law right away, he worked as a teacher for two years at Bohol Provincial High School. He became famous for his poetry in Bohol, where he earned the nickname "Prince of Visayan Poets" and the "Bard from Bohol".• Garcia’s administration (1957 - 1961) was anchored in his austerity program. It was also noted for its Filipino First policy – an attempt to boost economic independence.
POST-PRESIDENCY & DEATH• After his failed re–election bid, García retired to Tagbilaran to live as a private citizen. On June 1, 1971, García was elected delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention. The convention delegates elected him as the President of the Convention. However, just days after his election, on June 14, 1971, García died from a fatal heart attack. He was succeeded as president of the Convention by his former Vice President, Diosdado Macapagal. Grave of Philippine President Carlos P. Garcia and his wife, First Lady Leonila Garcia at the Libingan ng mga Bayani• García became the first president to have his remains lie in-state at the Manila Cathedral and the first president to be buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.
DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL• Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.• A native of Lubao, Pampanga, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government. He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in his home province of Pampanga. In 1957 he became vice president in the administration of President Carlos P. Garcia, and in 1961 he defeated Garcias re-election bid for the presidency.
ACHIEVEMENTS• As president, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the countrys first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party.• He is also known for shifting the countrys observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day Filipino patriots declared independence from Spain in 1898.• During the Marcos administration, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy.
REFORMS• Major legislation signed – Republic Act No. 3512 – An Act Creating A Fisheries Commission Defining Its Powers, Duties and Functions, and Appropriating Funds Therefor. – Republic Act No. 3518 – An Act Creating The Philippine Veterans Bank, and For Other Purposes. – Republic Act No. 3844 – An Act To Ordain The Agricultural Land Reform Code and To Institute Land Reforms In The Philippines, Including The Abolition of Tenancy and The Channeling of Capital Into Industry, Provide For The Necessary Implementing Agencies, Appropriate Funds Therefor and For Other Purposes. – Republic Act No. 4166 – An Act Changing The Date Of Philippine Independence Day From July Four To June Twelve, And Declaring July Four As Philippine Republic Day, Further Amending For The Purpose Section Twenty-Nine Of The Revised Administrative Code. – Republic Act No. 4180 – An Act Amending Republic Act Numbered Six Hundred Two, Otherwise Known As The Minimum Wage Law, By Raising The Minimum Wage For Certain Workers, And For Other Purposes.
NOTABLE MOVES• Sabah claim – President Diosdado Macapagal on the bridge of the USS Oklahoma City in 1962 – On September 12, 1962, during President Diosdado Macapagals administration, the territory of North Borneo, and the full sovereignty, title It was revoked in 1989 because succeeding and dominion over the territory were Philippine administrations have placed the ceded by the then reigning Sultan of claim in the back burner in the interest of Sulu, HM Sultan Muhammad Esmail E. pursuing cordial economic and security Kiram I, to the Republic of the relations with Kuala Lumpur. To date, Philippines. The cession effectively gave Malaysia continues to consistently reject the Philippine government the full Philippine calls to resolve the matter of authority to pursue their claim in Sabahs jurisdiction to the International Court international courts. The Philippines of Justice. Sabah sees the claim made by the broke diplomatic relations with Philippines Moro leader Nur Misuari to take Malaysia after the federation had Sabah to International Court of Justice (ICJ) as included Sabah in 1963. a non-issue and thus dismissed the claim.
NOTABLE MOVES• Maphilindo – In July 1963, President Diosdado Macapagal convened a summit meeting in Manila in which a nonpolitical confederation for Malaya, the Philippines, and Indonesia, Maphilindo, was proposed as a realization of Jose Rizals dream of bringing together the Malay peoples, seen as artificially divided by colonial frontiers. – Maphilindo was described as a regional association that would approach issues of common concern in the spirit of consensus. However, it was also perceived as a tactic on the parts of Jakarta and Manila to delay, or even prevent, the formation of the Federation of Malaysia. Manila had its own claim to Sabah (formerly British North Borneo),and Jakarta protested the formation of Malaysia as a British imperialist plot. The plan failed when Sukarno adopted his plan of konfrontasi with Malaysia. The Konfrontasi, or Confrontation basically aims at preventing Malaysia to attain independence. The idea was inspired onto President Sukarno by the Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI), or literally the Indonesian Communist Party. The party convinced President Sukarno that the Formation of Malaysia is a form of neo-colonization and will later affect tranquility in Indonesia. The subsequent development of ASEAN almost certainly excludes any possibility of the project ever being revived.
FAILURE & CONTROVERSY• The administrations campaign against corruption was tested by Harry Stonehill, an American expatriate with a $50-million business empire in the Philippines. Macapagals Secretary of Justice, Jose W. Diokno investigated Stonehill on charges of tax evasion, smuggling, misdeclaration of imports, and corruption of public officials.• Dioknos investigation revealed Stonehills ties to corruption within the government. Macapagal, however, prevented Diokno from prosecuting Stonehill by deporting the American instead, then dismissing Diokno from the cabinet. Diokno questioned Macapagals actions, saying, "How can the government now prosecute the corrupted when it has allowed the corrupter to go?" Diokno later served as a Senator of the republic.
POST-PRESIDENCY• Macapagal announced his retirement from politics following his 1965 loss to Marcos. In 1971, he was elected president of the constitutional convention that drafted what became the 1973 constitution. The manner in which the charter was ratified and later modified led him to later question its legitimacy. In 1979, he formed the National Union for Liberation as a political party to oppose the Marcos regime.• Following the restoration of democracy in 1986, Macapagal took on the role of elder statesman, and was a member of the Philippine Council of State. He also served as honorary chairman of the National Centennial Commission, and chairman of the board of CAP Life, among others.• In his retirement, Macapagal devoted much of his time to reading and writing. He published his presidential memoir, authored several books about government and economics, and wrote a weekly column for the Manila Bulletin newspaper.• Diosdado Macapagal died of heart failure, pneumonia and renal complications at the Makati Medical Center on April 21, 1997. He is buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.