Ferdinand Marcos


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Ferdinand Marcos

  1. 1. By: Kim Pamela Co #9 Janine Chua #8 Kimberly Yu #34 I-Compassion
  2. 2. Ferdinand Marcos was the son of a politician, he practiced as a trial lawyer before serving under Manuel Roxas, the first Introduction president of the independent Philippines. He was himself elected president in 1966. In his first term, he made progress in agriculture, industry, and education.
  3. 3.  Certain habits/behaviors of the people contribute to the obstacles to modernization. 1. Ethic of “utang na loob” . 2. Colonial mentality . 3. In-group harmony and coherence .  A spirit of self-sacrifice for the progress of the nation was needed.  “Sa ikauunlad ng bayan, disiplina ang kailangan” .
  4. 4. The specific areas of the New Society envisioned by Pres. Marcos for reform: 1.Peace and Order 2.Land Reforms 3.Educational Reforms 4.Labor Reforms 5.Government Reorganization 6.Economic Reforms 7.Social Services
  5. 5. 1. Peace and Order Martial law – to restore peace and order Criminals were either captured and detained or killed 2. Land Reforms Exploitation of the poor and landless peasants by their landlords Presidential Decree No. 2 - proclaiming the “whole country as a reform area” Presidential Decree No. 27 – abolishes tenancy By the end of martial law in 1981, 532, 153 tenant-farmers had become owners of rice and corn lands in 45 provinces.
  6. 6. 3. Educational Reforms Marcos believed that education was a very important role towards the goal of the “New Society”. President Marcos vowed that his administration “shall educate our children, our men and women, and ourselves.” Education Development Decree of 1972 – defines a more responsive role for the education system
  7. 7. 4. Labor Reforms First Labor Day Presidential Decree No. 21 – fast and just settlements of disputes through the National Labor Relations Commission Presidential Decree 99 – minimum wages for household helpers Presidential Decree No. 143 – “Blue Sunday Law” (mandatory rest for every worker once a week) Presidential Decree No. 148 – eliminates anti-employment provisions of the Woman and Child Labor Law Presidential Decree No. 197 – More effective apprenticeship program
  8. 8. 5. Gov’t Reorganization Presidential Decree No. 1 – “Integrated Reorganization Plan (dismiss corrupt officials) (a total of 6, 655 employees were dismissed) 6. Economic Reforms Year Annual rate of Growth Pre-War 3.3% GNP Growth Post-War 5.5% Rate 1978-1979 6.1% 1979-1980 5.4% 1980-1981 4.9%
  9. 9. Pre-War (1920- Post-War (1946- 1978-1980 1940) 1970) Rice Rice Coconut Corn Corn Centrifugal Sugar Sugar Sugar Lumber/Plywood 6 Key Industries of the Coconut Coconut Copper/Iron Philippines Abaca Logs Fruits/Vegetables Tobacco Copper Miscellaneous products Presidential Decree No. 3 – appropriating funds for public works involving rehabilitation and capital development
  10. 10. 7. Social Services The Marcos Administration extended social services available to the people, focusing on the people affected by poverty Aim – to make the people self-reliant and productive 1.Health and Nutrition 2.Family Planning 3.Housing and Human Settlements
  11. 11. We became the top exporters of rice Liberal credit and extension work was the “secret” of Masagana 99 Pre-War (1920- Post-War (1946- 1978-1980 Educated agricultural technicians 1940) 1970) Provided farmers with full creditRice Rice support Coconut After 3 years,Corn Philippines experienced its highest the Corn Centrifugal Sugar productivity increase in rice production (1976-1985) 6 Key Industries Sugar Sugar Lumber/Plywood Masagana 99 uplifted the lives Coconut of the Coconut of the farmers Copper/Iron Philippines Mobilized government resources to help the farmers in rural Abaca Logs Fruits/Vegetables areas (helicopters, etc..) Tobacco Copper Miscellaneous products
  12. 12. Encourages economical growth Farmers were given technical and financial aid as well as other incentives Good Effects: •Economic growth rate increases from 5% to 6- 7% (1970-1980) •The GNP increases from P55 billion (1972) to P193 billion (1980) Bad Effects: Year Annual rate of Growth •Debt from the International Monetary Fund Pre-War 3.3% (IMF) and the World Bank rises from US$2.3 Post-War 5.5% GNP Growth billion (1970) to US$24.4 billion (1983) 1978-1979 6.1% Rate •An estimated 10% of the GNP is being 1979-1980 5.4% pocketed. 1980-1981 4.9%
  13. 13. Buildings: •Hospitals •Specialty Hospitals – Philippine Heart Center, Lung Center, Kidney Institute, Philippine Children Hospital •Schools •Power Plants – geothermal plants, hydroelectric plants •An International Airport •Housing Projects •Restorations – Intramuros, Luneta Park, etc… •Philippine International Convention Center •Makiling Center for the Arts (National Arts Center) •Malacañang ti Amianan (Laoag) •Nayong Pilipino •Museum for Native Art (Tacloban) •Palace In the Sky (Tagaytay) •Government Buildings
  14. 14. Bridges: •San Juanico Bridge (Samar and Leyte) Toll-Ways: •Manila North Diversion Road Roads and Highways: •Marcos Highway (Baguio) These achievements gave the Philippines a taste of economic prosperity throughout the 1970’s
  15. 15. It was an open-door policy mainly on trade and cultural relations Started trading with countries with Russia and China and other socialist countries It was a “cautious open-door policy” Built up relationships with countries who were enemies with the United States Being the “Iron Butterfly”, Imelda Marcos, with her charm, went on foreign trips to open trade relationships, exchange culture and get financial assistance.
  16. 16. 1973 Constitution •Republic Act No. 6132 – “1970 Constitutional Convention Act •Presidential Decree No. 73 – date of the plebiscite •General Order No. 20 – postponing the plebiscite •Proclamation No. 1102 – Constitution was ratified (organized by Marcos through Presidential Decree No. 86) Batasang Bayan and the IBP (Interim Batasang Pambansa •Presidential Decree No. 995 – created the Batasang Bayan Political Achievements
  17. 17. 1980 and 1981 Amendments •1973 Constitution •Retirement age = 70 •Modified parliamentary system 1984 Amendments •1973 Constitution •Abolished Executive Committee •Vice President “constitutional authoritarianism” as understood and practiced in the New Society Political Achievements
  18. 18. Economic Prosperity during the 1970’s and the early 1980’s Farmers had “price support” and financial support Self-sufficient in rice exports “Kilusang Kabuhayan at Kaunlaran” Overseas Filipino Workers Development of Infrastructures
  19. 19. New Society – Educational Reforms, Labor Reforms, Land Reforms Social Services Housing Projects Martial Law – maintained peace and order
  20. 20. Although Marcos was branded as dictator, corrupt, human rights violator by fictional tales passed on from generation to generation and his achievements were Conclusion expunged subtly by the manipulation of mass media and vindictiveness of the administration that succeeded him, the impacts of his interventions remained and are undeniably germane part of our country’s system.
  21. 21. Sources •http://philippines-archipelago.com/history/marcos_regime.html •http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/2646931/ferdinand_marcos_and_the_martial_law.html •http://michaelborja.wordpress.com/2009/11/18/more-marcos-accomplishments/ •http://www.philippinecountry.com/philippine_history/marcos_time.html •Ferdinand Marcos and the Philippines: The Political Economy of Authoritarianism by Albert F. Celoza •http://www.harpweek.com/09Cartoon/BrowseByDateCartoon.asp?Month=November&Date=18 •http://countrystudies.us/philippines/28.htm •http://joseangelito-angeles.tripod.com/marcos.htm