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Philippine history julie@trisha


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Philippine history julie@trisha

  1. 1. Philippine History AMERICAN COLONIAL RULE : POLICY AND GOVERNANCE (1899-1907)
  2. 2. • Winning the ward did not guarantee that the Filipinos were willing to accept American colonial rule. From the every start, American policymakers and authorities realized that winning the hearts and mind of a conquered people was more important and certainly not easy to accomplish.
  3. 3. THE MILITARY RULE • After manila fell into the hand of the Americans the count was administered by the President of the United States through the military. • The president McKinley ordered The military commander General Wesley Merritt to establish a military government in the Philippines with Merritt as the first Military governor.
  4. 4. • In August 1898 he was Ordered to go to Paris to testify before the peace commissioner regarding the condition in the Philippines. • Merritt was succeeded by General ElweII Otis as military Governor. • Otis remained in his post up to may 1900 and was succeeded by general Arthur MacArthur who governed until May 1901.
  5. 5. AMERICAN POLICY IN THE PHILIPPINES • Toward the end of 1898 even before the conclusion of the treaty of Paris American policy regarding the Philippines was already clear. • There was no mistaking the fact the McKinley wanted the entire Philippines for the United States . • In order to help him formulate this policy McKinley created what is now known as the first Philippines Commission.
  6. 6. • This was called the Schurman Commission named After its chairman Dr. Jacob Gould Schurman President of Cornell University in New York. • For the Guidance of the schurman Commission McKinley issued his “Instruction.” • These instruction Clearly indicated that the authority of the United states should extended all over the Philippines in a peaceful manner.
  7. 7. • The Commission arrived in manila in March 1899. • Immediately it countered a investigation into the condition of the country. • For this Purpose it interviewed the highly-education and wealthy Filipinos the ilustrados. • A month after its arrival the Commission issued the following Recommendation to implement American rule : THE SCHURMAN COMMISSION
  8. 8. • (1) The enforcement of American sovereignty over the entire Philippines. • (2) Training for self-government of the Filipino compatible with the maintenance of order and with a wise just and economical administration of public affairs ; • (3) Protection of the civil rights of the Filipinos and ; • (4) the promotion of the welfare of the Filipinos.
  9. 9. THE TAFT COMMISSION The Taft commission was instructed by McKinley in 1900 to establish a government for the Filipinos and that the steps toward attaining this goal should be in accordance with the customs and traditions of the people. Taft Commission introduced in the Philippines the Free primary education that the English Language should be used as the medium of instruction.
  10. 10. • To summarize American Policy with regard to the Philippines was based on President McKinley’s instruction to the Schurman and the Taft Commission. • Un-like the fact-finding Commission the Taft Commission may be Described as an organizing commission.
  11. 11. • Early in March 1901 the Congress Of the United States Passed the Army Appropriations Act. • Senator John Spooner of Wisconsin inserted an amendment in the appropriations act which authorized the president of the United States to establish a civil government in the Philippines. THE CIVIL GOVERNMENT
  12. 12. • After the passage of the Army Appropriations Act the administration of the Philippines was passed on to the U.S Congress. • On July 4 1901 the Civil Government was inaugurated with William Howard Taft as the first civil Governor.
  13. 13. RESISTANCE TO TAFT’S POLICY • Governor Taft realized the enormity of his PROBLEMS particularly the peace and order situation in the country. Not all the provinces of the Philippines were pacified. • Guerrilla Fighting continued and reached its peak in 1899 to 1900. in Luzon and in the Visayas the Filipinos patriots were harassing the Americans.
  14. 14. • The guerrillas Appeared Peaceful by day were but at night they attacked the Americans wherever they were found. • The guerrillas stopped fighting when the problem of food supply arose. • There was famine because AGRICULTURE was neglected during the war and due to Rinderpest that Killed 90 % of the country’s main farm animal the Carabaos.
  15. 15. • The period in fact saw the passage of repressive laws like the Reconcentration Act which provide for the zoning of the inhabitants of a town known to have “thieves and outlaws”. • According to James Blount (1913) section 17 of general orders 100 authorized the military to starve unarmed and armed native on order for them to immediately recognize American military authority.
  16. 16. • To further explain the reconcentration policy of the American Military Blount mentioned :
  17. 17. • To those not familiar with reconcentration tactics it should be explained that reconcentration means this : you notify by proclamation and otherwise all person within an area that on and after a certain day they must all leave their homes and come within a certain prescribed zone or radius of which a named town as the center there to remain until further order,. . . Rice found in the possession of families outside the protected zone,. . . Be moved with them to the town (which was the protected zone) and that found apparently cached for enemy’s use should use confiscated and also necessary.
  18. 18. • According to Circular Order NO.19 issued on December 24, 1901 , “these rules were made in order to make the existing condition of war and martial law so inconvenient and unprofitable to the people that they will earnestly desire and work for the reestablishment of peace and civil government”.
  19. 19. Even before the fall of the Aguinaldo government, many wealthy and educated Filipinos were already Collaborating with the enemy. Filipino like Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera , benito legarda Felipe buencamino Cayetano Arellano and others were telling the Schurman Commission that the Filipinos were not prepared for self government BANISHMENT OF THE PATRIOTS
  20. 20. THE • PHILIPPINE BILL OF 1902 In 1902 the U.S congress passed a law known as the cooper law or the Philippines Act of 1902. the law boosted Governor Taft’s Administration. This law Approved all the acts of the President of the United States Relative to the Philippines It also provided for a bill of right which guaranteed Filipinos the right of free Speech free press and freedom to petition for the redress of grievances.
  21. 21. • After the Proclamation the civil Government under Taft decided to take the census of the Philippines. March 2 1903 was declared as Census Day. This was the First scientific the Spanish Friars During the Spanish regimes was deemed inaccurate and unreliable. THE CENSUS OF 1903
  22. 22. THE ELCTION OF 1907 • In accordance with the cooper Act or the Philippine Bill of 1902 the Filipinos could elect delegates to the Philippines Assembly two years after peace and order had been Proclaimed in the Country. The Filipino Political parties prepared for the coming election to the Assembly. The issue presented before the people was whether or not they wanted immediate independence as announced by the Nacionalista party or eventual independence as proclaimed by the Progresista Party.
  23. 23. THE FIRST PHILIPPINES ASSEMBLY • The Philippine Assembly which was to become the Lowe House of the Legislative body of the country and the Philippines commission being the upper House was inaugurated in the Opera House at Rizal Avenue on October 16 1907. the Assembly Elected its officers where Sergio Osmena who was only twentynine years old then was elected Speaker while Manuel L. Quezon was elected majority Floor Leader.
  24. 24. THE WORK OF THE ASSEMBLY • Under the able leadership of speaker Osmena the Assembly outlined its activities based on the following Goals: • (1) cooperating with the united States on the basis of mutual respect. • (2) Making the Assembly an instrument in achieving the Autonomy of the Philippine • (3) passing of laws in intended to hasten the economic social and political development of the people and • (4) substituting the oppressive policy of the past with progressive policies.
  25. 25. THE RESIDENT COMMISSIONERS • In compliance with the provisions of the Philippine Act of 1902 the Philippine Assembly Elected two Resident Commissioners to the United States Congress. The first resident commissioners were Pablo Ocampo (1907-1909) and Benito Legarda (1907-1912). Commissioner in 1909 to replace Ocampo. On 1912 manuel Earnshaw R. Yangco (190171920) Jaime C. De Veyra ( 1917-1923) isauro Gabaldo (1920-1928) pedro Guevarra (19231925)
  26. 26. THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM • One f the great achievement of the Americans in the Philippines as the introduction of the public school system. Unlike Spain’s Education policy which was good on paper but selective in practice the American system Of education was democratic. • In 1901 the Department of public Instruction was established. At the same time normal school and schools of arts and trade were also established.
  27. 27. PENSIONADO PROGRAM • The Pensionado program which was inaugurated in 1903 sent Filipino student to the United States for higher education as government scholars. After four years of college and living with American families they returned to the Philippines as teachers layers engineers and mostly as civil servants in the bureaucracy. THAY WERE ALSO THE Filipino upper class families some talented student from the lower class were also included in the program.
  28. 28. • During the Spanish period the position of women was relegated to the status of mere housewives whose duties were to rear children and serve the husband. • Under the Americans women were Allowed to enroll n college and universities pharmacists dentist lawyers physicians and scientists. • Women would also be granted the right to vote and run for public office by 1935. THE POSOTION OF WOMAN
  29. 29. 1. Explain the American policy in the Philippines. Why do you think McKinley instructed the Schurman Commission To respect the customs of the Filipino ? 2. What even changed the military government to civil government? In what way or way was civil government better that military government insofar as the Filipinos were concerned? 3. Discuss the Achievement of the Military Government.
  30. 30. 1. Compare the school systems during the Spanish Period and the American period. Compare the percentage of literacy between the two period.