Philippines wwii


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Philippines wwii

  1. 1. Philippines: World War II By: Patrick Blanco
  2. 2. Japanese Plans <ul><li>Planned to occupy Philippines as part of their plan of “Great East Asia War” </li></ul><ul><li>Had 3 objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent use of Philippines as an advance base of American Forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To acquire staging areas and supply bases to enhance operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To secure communication lines from Japanese Home Island </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Japanese Invasion <ul><li>Japan launched surprise attack on December 8, 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Just ten hours after the attack on Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial bombardment was followed by landing of ground troops </li></ul>
  4. 4. Commonwealth Of The Philippines <ul><li>Invaded by Japan in December 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Shortly after Japan’s declaration of war with United States </li></ul><ul><li>Commonwealth government exiled from 1942-1945 under Japanese occupation </li></ul>
  5. 5. US Defenses <ul><li>Recalled MacArthur to active duty </li></ul><ul><li>Named him commander of U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) </li></ul><ul><li>USAFFE formed Philippine Army’s 1 st Regular Division, 2 nd Constabulary Division, and 10 mobilized reserve division </li></ul>
  6. 6. USAFFE <ul><li>Or U.S. Army Forces in the Far East </li></ul><ul><li>On July 31, 1941, the Philippine Department had 22,532 assigned </li></ul><ul><li>Half of whom were Filipino </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur recommended the reassignment of the department commander, Maj. Gen. George Grunert in October 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur organized USAFFE into 4 commands: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The North Luzon Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activated in Dec 3, 1941 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under Major Gen. Jonathan Wainwright </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The South Luzon Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activated in Dec 13, 1941 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under Brig. Gen. George M. Parker Jr </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Visayan-Mindanao Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under Brig. Gen. William Sharp </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USAFFE’s Reserve Force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Under MacArthur’s direct control </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Mobilization <ul><li>Mobilization plans called for induction of the ten reserve divisions between 1 September and 15 December 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>The most crucial equipment shortfalls were in rifles and divisional light artillery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MacArthur requested 84,500 M1 Garand rifles to replace the World War I Enfields </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Defeat and Retreat <ul><li>US and Filipino suffered two defeats from Battle of Bataan and Battle of Corregidor </li></ul><ul><li>US and Filipino surrendered to the Japanese and takes as POWs </li></ul><ul><li>The defeat was the beginning of three and a half years of harsh treatment for the Allied survivors </li></ul><ul><li>Including the Bataan Death March </li></ul><ul><li>And the prison camps, “Hell Ships” used for labor in mines and factories </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur ordered to retreat in Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Famous last words were “I came out of Bataan and I shall return” </li></ul>
  9. 9. US in the Philippines <ul><li>Under the command of General Douglas MacArthur </li></ul><ul><li>Suffered many ground and naval losses </li></ul><ul><li>Resupply from US of ground forces is impossible </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur forced to leave </li></ul>
  10. 10. Philippine Resistance <ul><li>Opposed by underground and guerilla activity </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine guerilla movement continued to grow </li></ul><ul><li>Filipinos joined various groups and vowed to fight the Japanese </li></ul>
  11. 11. Guerilla Forces <ul><li>Formed throughout the archipelago during invasion of Japanese </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered and smuggled important military intelligence to US Army </li></ul><ul><li>Built stashes of arms and explosives, assisting the US Army </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hukbalahap <ul><li>“ Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon” which means “People’s Army Against the Japanese” </li></ul><ul><li>Military arm Communist Party of the Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Formed to fight the Japanese occupation </li></ul><ul><li>Under the leadership of Luis Taruc </li></ul>
  13. 13. Return of MacArthur <ul><li>Returned well supplied of information late in 1944 </li></ul><ul><li>It has been said that in his return, he knew what every Japanese lieutenant ate for breakfast </li></ul><ul><li>MacArthur's Allied forces landed on the island of Leyte on October 20, 1944 with Osmeña </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting was fierce, particularly in the mountains of northern Luzon </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese had to retreat </li></ul>
  14. 14. Japan’s last resort <ul><li>Used Philippines as the final line of defense </li></ul><ul><li>Kamikaze corps created to defend Philippines </li></ul><ul><li>Guerilla forces averted a big disaster for Japanese </li></ul>
  15. 15. Philippine’s Aftermath <ul><li>Filipino-American resistance lasted for 3 months </li></ul><ul><li>  An estimated 1 million Filipinos had been killed </li></ul><ul><li>A large proportion during the final months of the war, and Manila was extensively damaged </li></ul><ul><li>The valor of the Filipino and American soldiers is celebrated </li></ul><ul><li>April 9 th in the Philippines, Valor Day or “Araw ng Kagitingan” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Bibliography <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>