Elpidio Rivera Quirino (November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines. A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931. In 1934, he became a member of the Philippine independence commission that was sent to Washington, D.C., which secured the passage of Tydings- McDuffie Act to American Congress. In 1935, he was also elected to become member of the convention that will write the draft of then 1935 constitution for the newly-established Commonwealth. At the new government, he served as secretary ofElpidio R. Quirino the interior and finance under Quezons cabinet.
Manuel Acuña Roxas (January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the first president of the independent Third Republic of the Philippines and fifth president overall. He served as president from the granting of independence in 1946 until his abrupt death in 1948. His term as president of the Philippines was also the third shortest, lasting 1 year 10 months and 18 days. Manuel A. Roxas, third and last President of the Commonwealth and the first of the Republic of the Philippines, was born to Gerardo Roxas, Sr. and Rosario Acuña on January 1, 1892 in Capiz (present-day Roxas City). He was a posthumous child, for his father Gerardo had been mortally wounded by Spanish guardias civiles the year before, leaving him and his older brother Mamerto to be raised by their mother andManuel A. Roxas Don Eleuterio, their maternal grandfather.
On July 4, 1946, representatives of the United States of America and of the Republicof the Philippines signed a Treaty of General Relations between the twogovernments. The treaty provided for the recognition of the independence of theRepublic of the Philippines as of July 4, 1946, and the relinquishment of Americansovereignty over the Philippine Islands.
Filipino historians[who?] point out that independence in 1946 came withnumerous strings attached. The U.S. retained dozens ofmilitary bases, including a few major ones. In addition, independencewas qualified by legislation passed by the U.S. Congress. Forexample, the Bell Trade Act prohibited the Philippines frommanufacturing or selling any products that might "come into substantialcompetition" with U.S.-made goods. It further required thatthe Philippine Constitution be revised to grant U.S. citizens andcorporations equal access to Philippine minerals, forests, and othernatural resources. In hearings before the Senate Committee onFinance, Assistant Secretary of State for Economic Affairs William L.Clayton described the law as "clearly inconsistent with the basic foreigneconomic policy of this country" and "clearly inconsistent with ourpromise to grant the Philippines genuine independence."But the Philippine government had little choice but to accept theseterms for independence. The U.S. Congress was threateningto withhold post-World War II rebuilding funds unless the Bell Act wasratified. The Philippine Congress obliged on July 2, 1946.[
Chief Justice Manuel V. Moran swearing in Manuel Roxas as President and Elpidio Quirino as Vice President, during the Independence Day ceremonies of July 4, 1946. Appointed in 1945 by President Sergio Osmeña, Manuel V. Moran would serve as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court for six years. Upon his retirement in 1951, Moran was appointed as Philippine Ambassador to Spain and concurrently to the Holy See. In 1953, at the twilight of President Elpidio Quirino’s administration, Moran was once again offered a position in the Supreme Court. Moran, however, refused the midnight appointment.
Pres.Roxas In Clark Air Base a Minute After he Died from Heart AttackElpidio Quirino was on the coast guard cutter Anemone, off the coast of Cebu, whenhe learned of Roxas’ cardiac arrest. Quirino, at the time, was himself recovering fromchest pains. On April 17, 1948, Vice President Elpidio Quirino, back in MalacañanPalace, knelt and wept unabashed before the casket bearing the remains of ManuelRoxas.