American colonial rule


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Phil History Chapter 16 - American Colonial Rule (Ludivina Sibal and Aira May Rodriguez)

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American colonial rule

  1. 1. Chapter 16 American Colonial Rule: Policy and governance 1899-1907
  2. 2. • The United States intended to occupy the Philippines with the least violence and govern the country with much regard for the interest and welfare of the Filipinos. • Their plan was to set up civil government immediately.
  3. 3. The Military Rule • President McKinley ordered the military commander, General Wesley Merritt to establish a military government in the Philippines with Merritt as the first military governor. • Merritt was succeeded by General Elwell Otis as military governor. • Otis remained in his post up to May 1900, and was succeeded by Arthur McArthur who governed until May 1901.
  4. 4. American Policy in the Philippines • Dr. Jacob Gould Schurman, President of Cornell University in New York, • The Schurman Commission – arrived in Manila in March 1899. • Commission issued the following recommendations to implement American rule:
  5. 5. • 1. The enforcement of American sovereignty over the entire Philippines. • 2. Training for self-government of the Filipinos compatible with maintenance of order and with a wise, just, and economical administration of public affairs. • 3. Protection of the civil rights of the Filipinos; and • 4. The promotion of the welfare of the Filipinos.
  6. 6. The Taft Commission • McKinley appointed a second commission, known as the Taft Commission. It’s chairman was William Howard Taft. • Free primary education was to be introduced by the Commission in the Philippines and that the English language should be used as the medium of instruction. • The Taft Commission may be described as an organizing commission. It did not leave the Philippines but stayed on to organized the civil government.
  7. 7. • To those not familiar with reconcentration tactics it should be explained that reconcentration means this: You notify, by proclamation and otherwise, all persons within an area that on and after
  8. 8. The Civil Government • On July 4, 1901, the civil government was inaugurated with William Howard taft as the first civil governor. • Resistance to Taft’s Policy • Reconcentration Act which provided for the zoning of the inhabitants of a town known to have “thieves” and “outlaws”. • James Blount mentioned:
  9. 9. Banishment of the Patriots • Filipinos like Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera, Benito Legarda, Felipe Buencamino, Cayetano Arellano, and others were telling the Schurman Commission that the Filipinos were not prepared for self-government. • Mabini wrote articles attacking the Americans. • Americans decided to banish Filipino leaders who refused to collaborate with them. • They exiled some patriots to Guam like Mabini, Artemio Ricarte, Maximo Hizon, Julian Gerona, Pablo Ocampo, Melchora Aquino, and many others.
  10. 10. • The Sedition Law passed in 1901 provided that any Filipino advocating independence or separation from the United States would be punished severely by death or imprisonment. • The Brigandage Act was passed providing for severe penalty to those found in the company, or were members, of armed groups who were stealing carabaos, which were in great shortage due to rinderpest.
  11. 11. • Congress listened to his appeal and appropiated P6,000,000 to help Filipinos to start a new life. Taft succeeded in purchasing 410,000 acres of the friar lands hired to cultivate these lands. • Gov.Taft is remembered for his principle, “the Philippines for Filipinos”
  12. 12. The Philippine Bill of 1902 • U.S Congress passed a law known as Cooper Law. This law approved all the acts of the Presidents of the United States relative to the Philippines. • It also provided for a bill of rights which guaranteed Filipinos the right of free speeech, free press, and freedom to petition for the redress of grievances. • Cooper Act was the establishment of a Philippine Assembly to be run by Filipinos two years after peace and order had been proclaimed throughout the Philippines by the President of the United States.
  13. 13. The Census of 1903 • March 2. 1903 was declared as Census Day. The first scientific census ever to be taken in the Philippines. • In 1950, the results of the census taking were published in four volumes. It showed that the population of the Philippines as March 2, 1903 was 7,635,426.
  14. 14. Political Parties • Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera founded the Federal Party whose platform was based on the annexation of the Philippines as one of the states of United States of America. • He founded first Nacionalista Party (1901) the Liberal Party (1902) the first Democrata Party (1902) and others.
  15. 15. • The Lawmaking body of the Philippines was divided into two: the Upper House composed mostly of Americans, and the Lower House or the Assembly, composed of exclusively of Filipinos.
  16. 16. The Election of 1907 • In accordance with the Cooper Act or the Philippine Bill of 1902, the Filipinos could elect delegates to the Philippine Assembly two years after peace and order had been proclaimed in the country. • In the election of July 30, 1907, the people give their verdict: they were in favor of immediate independence. Nacionalista Party which won fifty-nine seats. The Progresista won only sixteen seats, while Independents won five seats.
  17. 17. The First Philippine Assembly • The Philippine Assembly which was to become the Lower House of the Legislative body of the country, and the Philippine Commission being the Upper House, was inaugurated in the Old Opera House at Rizal Ave. on Oct.16,1907 • The assembly elected its officers where Sergio Osmena was elected speaker while Manuel L. Quezon was elected Majority Floor Leader.
  18. 18. The Work of the Assembly • The Assembly outlined activities based on the following goals: • 1. Cooperating with the United States on the basis of mutual respect; • 2. Making the Assembly an instrument in achieving the autonomy of the Philippines; • 3. Passing of laws intended to hasten the economic, social, and political development of the people; • 4. Substituting the oppressive policy of the past with the progessive policies.
  19. 19. Pensionado Program • This program was inaugurated in 1903, sent Filipino students to the students to the United States for higher education as government scholars. • After 4 yrs, they returned in the Phils as teachers, lawyers, engineers, and mostly civil servants in the bureaucracy. • They were also the most qualified persons to hold government positions from among the Filipno upper class families.
  20. 20. The Resident Commissioners • The first resident commissioners were Pablo Ocampo (1907-1909) and Benito Legarda (1907-1912). • Manuel L. Quezon was elected resident commissioner in 1909 to replace Ocampo. In 1912, Manuel Earnshaw to replace Legarda. • The other resident commissioners were Teodoro R. Yangco (1917-1920), Jaime C. de Veyra (1917-1923), Isauro Gabaldon (1920- 1928), Pedro Guevarra (1923-1935), Camilo Osias (1929-1934), and Francisco Delgado (1934-1935). These commissioners worked for laws that were beneficial for the Philippines.
  21. 21. The Public School System • In 1901, the Department of Public Instruction was established. At the same time, normal schools and schools of arts and trade were also established. • American teachers called “Thomasites” and teach Filipino children the English Language.
  22. 22. The Position of Women • Under the Americans, women were allowed to enroll in colleges and universities established by them. • Thus, women studied to become teachers, pharmacists, dentists, lawyers, physicians, and scientists. • Their liberation from the drudgery of household work gave them the opportunity not to only to help their husbands, but also to contribute their expertise and knowledge to benefit their families and countrymen. • Women would also be granted the right to vote and run for public office by 1935.
  23. 23. Pictures William McKinley
  24. 24. Wesley Merritt
  25. 25. Gen.Arthur MacArthur
  26. 26. Jacob Gourd Schurman
  27. 27. William Howard Taft
  28. 28. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera
  29. 29. Theodore Roosevelt
  30. 30. Manila Grand Opera House