Technology transfer• Developed economies theme- transfer of technology from research institutes-at precompetitive stage- differentiation built on the base of generic technology- TLC, Dominant Design.• Developing country theme- transfer of manufacturing technology from another manufacturing firm- at maturity stage, post product & process innovation, packaged joint ventures.
International Technology Transfer• ESCAP/ UNIDO lead with programs/ publication on unbundling technology, negotiation, absorption , adaptation and improvement.• Japanese and Korean models popular as cases.• AIMA offered MOT distance education. `Management of Technology Change’ probably first Indian authored book used as text.
R&D Management• Technology wars in Triad economies – heavy investment in R&D, concern about product failures, tools-Stage- gate model , port folio management, technology forecasting,• Indian version of Stage-gate model proposed.• Cases on Technology Forecasting prepared by DRDO
Triple Helix model• Industry- academic-government partnership – focus on transfer of tacit knowledge on continuous basis- changes in IP ownership model in US universities, spin off ventures Vs License. Emergence of technology parks• S&T parks established in India – not successful. Large scale University park established at IITM and closed at Central University,Hyderabad
COVERING PATENT INFRINGEMENT RISKS IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER AGREEMENTS A.S.Rao 10
Knowledge management• DOT com boom- Technology becomes Information Technology,• IT enabled Knowledge Management, learning Organisation, capture of routines for competitive advantage, Hype models• Indian delivery models of IT solutions,
ROUTINESROUTINES MOBILISED LEARNING BEST PRACTICE
Innovation strategy• First mover advantage,• Fast second strategy,• Creativity tools,• Front end fuzziness,• Technology acceptance model
Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) Perceived Ease of Adoption Attitude towards Adoption Perceived Utility
PERSONAL Extrinsic Factors Ease of motivation-age-qualification use -perceived usefulness-prior experience -- enhancingwith technology/ power/ personalsupplier firm benefits Attitude Apprehen towards Intrinsic siveness adoption Technology motivation -tested / proven - excitement in - new the novelty -professional needs Supplier firm specific factors User firm specific -prior experience with factors user -prior experience with -complementary assets supplier firm -image -technology gap/ -deal making options capability -training/ purchase practices -organisational culture Socio-economic factors Social pressure -national innovation policy - climate for networking -security net -nationalistic feelings -respect for knowledge
Incubation model• Start-ups – silicon valley models• Importance of risk capital-Angel investors, venture capitalists, start-up valuation, exit plans,• TePP created pathways