Design & Fabrication of a Ground Survellance Robot


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  • sir its a nice work done ...i m workin on this project can u plz send me some more details abt this embedded applications....i will be thankful to you.....

    plz reply as early as possible
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Design & Fabrication of a Ground Survellance Robot

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  3. 3. Project Team Imran Zahid Faiza Waheed Asst. Prof. Cdr (R) Riaz Mahmud TI (M) Lect. Engr. Farhan Khan Department of Electronics & Power Engineering Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC) National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) 3
  4. 4. Scheme of Presentation • Aims & Objectives • Scope of Project • Robot Mechanical Assembly • Hardware Design • Firmware Design • PID results and analysis • System Limitations • Practical Applications 4
  5. 5. Aims & Objectives • Making a completely Embedded video/image procuring system • Developing a Wireless RF digital control system for robot which is as user-friendly as possible. • Developing a surveillance system to observe & monitor the surroundings as required by user 5
  6. 6. Scope of Project • Prototype model design of SPyDER is capable of the following: – Wireless RF digital control system – 2-axis servo mount camera giving the robot wide range of viewing even when it is stationary – Wireless video transmission – Speed control of DC motors through discrete PID controller – Easy & Precise control for robot movement through joystick – Autonomous obstacle detection & hurdle avoidance 6
  7. 7. Robot Mechanical Assembly 7
  8. 8. Robot Mechanical Assembly 8
  9. 9. Camera Pan-Tilt Assembly 9
  10. 10. Camera Pan-Tilt Assembly 10
  11. 11. Encoder (speed sensor) 11
  12. 12. Hardware Design • The hardware section consist of two parts – On-board SPyDER ; that is interfaced with the Robot Assembly & – The other interfaced with the control station; laptop & stand-alone joystick module 12
  14. 14. Control Station 14
  15. 15. On-board SPyDER On-Board SPyDER Control Circuitry Proximity Sensor/s Hope HM-TR CAMERA PAN TILT RF Transceiver ASSEMBLY ANTENNA Servo Motor Servo Driver Elevation Control Servo Motor Servo Driver MICROCONTROLLER Azimuth Control AVR ATmega16 ATmega16 ATmega16 H-BRIDGE H-BRIDGE ENCODER ENCODER WORM GEAR WORM GEAR MOTOR MOTOR RIGHT MOTOR DRIVE LEFT MOTOR DRIVE 15
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  17. 17. On-Board Robot Circuitry • Implementation of Discrete PID Controller on each DC Motor for accurate speed control • Two H-Bridges to control the direction of DC motors for motion of SPyDER • Two Servo motors for camera pan tilt control 17
  18. 18. H-Bridge Schematics 18
  19. 19. PID Controller module 19
  20. 20. H-Bridge PCB Along with PID Controller 20
  21. 21. PID Controller • A PID Controller attempts to correct the error b/w the measured process variable & a desired set-point by calculating & then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly Discrete PID Controller + SPEED MOTOR PWM Error CONTROLLER Reference - ENCODER REFERNECE: Charles L. Philips, Royce D. Harbor, Feedback Control Systems, Third Edition, (1996) 21
  22. 22. PID Controller Flow-chart START System Configuration SPI Interrupt Get Reference 1 Error = Ref – Vel.Sensor Velocity Sensor P-Out = Kp x Error Integral error +=error I-Out = Integral error x Ki Derivative error = error - Prv error D-Out = Derivative error x Kd F-Out = I-Out + P-Out + D-Out Prv error = Error 1 22
  23. 23. DC Motor Transfer Function Here KM is the steady-state gain of the system and TM is known as the time-constant of the system and is defined as the time at which the system output reaches the 63.2 % of the steady-state value. • Equation 1 : (1) Equation 2 shows the transfer functions obtained for each step applied. • Equation 2 : (2) where the values of TM and KM substituted for G1 through G3 are in milliseconds and RPMs respectively. Equation 3 displays the model obtained with this approximation. • Equation 3 : (3) Once we've derived the nominal model of the motor (Equation 3), we proceed to tune the parameters of the PID controller. REFERNECE: Makea PI controller on an 8-bit micro By Crescencio Hernandez-Rosales, Ricardo Femat-Flores, and Griselda Quiroz-Compean 23
  24. 24. PID Results & Analysis 24
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  29. 29. Firmware Design Firmware includes all of the software required to run the control systems involved in SPyDER – Microcontroller programming in C language – Developing GUI in Visual Basic – Interface between Control Station and Robot Hardware 29
  30. 30. Flowchart Control Command Acquisition / Transmission START System Configuration Input from JOYSTICK Serial Communication Config. (255,128) (94,18) ADC Conversion Get Input from ADC Register (255,128) (128,128) Arithmetic operation on raw data (0,128) Attach Pre-words (128,0) Transfer Data Through USART Transmission from HM-TR Transceiver YES If Sensors Display Warning Flag valid NO RETURN TO WAIT FOR COMMAND 30
  31. 31. Control Word Transmission The following Words are generated by the Base-Station Micro-controller to be transmitted to the Embedded Controller on-board SPyDER . PRE WORD REF LEFT REF RIGHT (f,r,b,l) (0-36) (0-36) 31
  32. 32. Control Word Reception The Words generated by the Base-station controller are received by the Embedded Micro-controller on-board SPyDER and then sent to the PID controller circuit in the following manner. REF PRE WORD (0-36) (f,r,b) 32
  33. 33. Flowchart Control Command Reception / Implementation START System Configuration Serial Communication Config. Get Input from USART 0 Reception at HM-TR Transceiver (Connected to HM-TR Transceiver) Decoding & Comparison Transfer Data to respective slave mControllers through SPI YES If Sensor Send Warning to USART 0 Flag valid NO RETURN TO START 33
  34. 34. Joystick Control The robot operates by using a simple PS2 joystick • Following are the operation modes of SPyDER – The main operation mode is simply the forward and reverse motion simulated by the movement of the analog joystick with variable speed – The second operation mode; by pressing the button with the ‘□’ symbol; is for initiating the braking mechanism of SPyDER – The third operation mode; by pressing the button with the ‘∆’ symbol along with the analog joystick; is for allowing SPyDER to accomplish compass rotation – The fourth operation mode; by pressing the button with the ‘O’ symbol along with the analog joystick; is for allowing SPyDER to accomplish axis rotation – The fifth operation mode; by pressing the button with the ‘X’ symbol along with the analog joystick; is also forward and reverse motion only the speed in fixed at a particular value 34
  35. 35. Wireless (CCTV) Video Transmission CCTV is the abbreviated form of closed circuit television that consists of a television and some tiny cameras to record and play live events happening within its cover area. • Digital Video Recording (DVR) Cards: These cards are purpose built for surveillance systems. These cards have many advanced function available and they are costlier as compared to TV Tuner Cards. A digital video recorder (DVR) or personal video recorder (PVR) is a device that records video in a digital format to a disk drive or other memory medium within a device. 35
  36. 36. GUI • A graphical user interface (GUI) is a graphical display that contains devices, or components, that enable a user to perform interactive tasks. To perform these tasks, the user of the GUI does not have to create a script or type commands at the command line. Often, the user does not have to know the details of the task at hand. • The GUI components can be menus, toolbars, push buttons, radio buttons, list boxes, and sliders; just to name a few. • We have developed the GUI for video acquisition in VISUAL BASIC. 36
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  38. 38. System Limitations • Constrained space available for Embedded Electronics & batteries • Speed resolution is restricted i.e. 0-33 steps due to low resolution of speed sensor • Electronic braking is not very effective at high speeds • Range for hurdle detection is 5cm • The battery power consumption for controller & motor driving circuitry is high 38
  39. 39. Practical Applications – For traversing through complex terrains & obstacles – Surveillance of unreachable passageways & unstructured environments – Disaster area inspection – Initial surveillance of potentially dangerous areas – Mine field detection – Earthquake Hazards – Overt security surveillance – For Military Monitoring purposes 39
  40. 40. References • PID Control Theory Matt Krass by • Maurice, B. quot;ST62 microcontrollers drive home appliance motor technology, AN885/1196,quot; Application Note, ST Microelectronics, 1998, • Katausky, J., I. Horder, and L. Smith. quot;Analog/Digital Processing with Microcontrollers,quot; AR-526 Applications Engineers, Intel Corporation, • Data sheet. quot;W78E858 8-bit microcontroller,quot; Winbond Electronics, Rev. A4, May 2004. • Data sheet. quot;DS5000T Soft microcontroller Module,quot; Dallas Semiconductors, • Make a PID controller on an 8-bit micro by Crescencio Hernandez- Rosales, Ricardo Femat-Flores, and Griselda Quiroz-Compean 40
  41. 41. THANKYOU 41
  42. 42. QUESTIONS ? 42