This slide represents the evolution of control systems in terms of technology and application. Electronic computers were first introduced in the field of process control in 1960’s. Digital control technology has developed widely over the last few decades. The introduction of computers was done initially for data logging and set point control. With the introduction of computers in to the process control, advanced controller functions were superseded by computers, and DDC (Direct Digital Control) in which computers directly controlled processes were deployed. In the early stages, the control system was centralized where a central computer executed not only monitoring and operation but also process control. The most important reason was cost effectiveness. The advent of microprocessors greatly changed the scenario. The research moved on to how diversification could be implemented to achieve risk distribution, function distribution. The Distributed Control System (DCS) incorporated all these functionalities and with DCS, the control function could be functionally as well as geographically distributed. However the monitoring was still centralized for easy plant operation and control. At Yokogawa it will be our endeavor to develop newer technology systems and integrate them with existing systems - the best technology with most accurate results.
Digital Control Systems have evolved with developments in technology. Yokogawa’s Process Control system development history has also followed the technological innovation ranging from simple single loop controllers to highly complex solutions involving DCS and advanced process control techniques.
World has seen a lot of technological evolutions in the field of Plant Instrumentation and Control Automation since 1970’s... Instead of single loops, larger and more complicated loops such as cascade, ratio, feed-forward, multi-variable were used for achieving better control. For optimum, safe, and reliable control, effective control loops were developed using regulatory control, sequence control and inter-locks with the aid of computers. Systematic and reliable startup/shutdown procedures were incorporated in the control logic to ensure the safety of the plant. Yokogawa were the pioneers in introducing the first Distributed Control System to the world. Centum was the first Distributed Control System introduced by Yokogawa in the year 1975. Yokogawa continued its research in the DCS field and introduced many systems in line with the technological development. CENTUM VP is the latest DCS introduced by Yokogawa. VP is Vigilant Plant . CS3000 systems uses Windows platform for the GUI functions. The primary factors considered during the development of CS3000 are Easy connectivity of components The abnormality of one component does not affect the functionality of others Easy creation of regulatory and sequence control loops using computers Operators can easily monitor and handle multiple plant data’s from a Centralised Control Room
Centum CS 3000 equipments : 1. Human interface station (HIS) Used for operation & monitoring Incorporates open interfaces - supervisory computers and workstations can access data, messages and process data. Engineering and test functions. Desktop and console type 2. Field control station (FCS) Standard and compact type Regulatory and sequential process control User programming functions Plant control and communication with PLC, DAS etc. 3. Bus convertor (BCV) To link V-net system bus to another CS3000 domain or existing Centum or XL. 4. Communication gateway Unit (CGW) Links V-net to Ethernet bus. 5. RIO bus (twisted pair) Communication between remote I/O to FCS CPU. 6. Nodes Remote I/O units 7. V-net (Co-axial multidrop) - Links FCS, HIS, BCV, CGW 8. Ethernet (Coaxial) - Links HIS, ENG and supervisory system (Also for HIS data equalisation). IEEE802.3, 10BASE5 (Thicklan), 10Mbps, 50ohm coaxial cable Base band modulation, 1 Physical port, CSMA/CD media access control method
This figure shows R3.04 New Hardware. FIO modules enhancement FIO Modules line up PROFIBUS-DPV1 and DeviceNet Interface. New Controller is FFCS FFCS is FIO based small size controller. GSGW (Global Subsystem GateWay) GSGW is Subsystem Gateway Interface.
Dcs presentation 13005437501565-phpapp01
Basic Control Loop Basic Loop SV Transmitter PV MV 4-20 mA Controller I/P 4-20 mA I/P Convertor Pneumatic Signal (0.2 to 1 Kg/cm2 or 3 to 15 psi) Final Control Element
Process Control Systems Process control systems are classified into Analog Control Systems Digital Control Systems
Analog Control System Analog Control System Operational Amplifier Transmitter 1 to 5V DC Signal Conversion 4-20 mA DC I/P Set Point Final Control Element
Digital ControlSystem Digital Control System Memory Unit 1 to 5V DC Control Unit Set A/D Input Point Unit 4-20 mA DC Digital Output Arithmetic D/A Unit Unit I/P Processor
THE SEVENTIES THE NINETIES BEYOND THE SIXTIES THE EIGHTIES 2000* First control * First DDC * First mini * First distributed * First one-loop * Integrated systems * multimedia computers computers DDC using DDC controllers microprocessors * windows NT gaining prominence * Use of factoryGe.Tr Sl. Tr management * Internet DTL SSIRapid growth of computers TTL.SSI LSI uPprocess Industries * Pentium Processor Demand for V LSI 32bit UP Energy crisis conservation Appearance of * Multi produce batch (Transition to of resources OA, LA and FA applications * Revolution in info tech steady growth) (Improved man- * Integrated FA system machine interface * CIM * Object linking * ODBC * RDBMS
THE SIXTIES THE SEVENTIES THE NINETIES BEYOND THE EIGHTIES 2000 Factory Management Computer System YEWCOM HP9000 Computer Control System CCS YODIC 100 YODIC 1000 Manufacturing Line Control System YEWMAC Centralized DDC System YODIC 500 YODIC 600 Distributed Control System CENTUM II CENTUM V CENTUM-XL YEWPACK YEWPACK Mark II uXL YEWSERIES 80 CS YS 100 CS1000 CS3000Analog Control System ECS EBS I SERIES
Digital Control System Digital Control Systems are further classified into Centralized Control Systems Distributed Control Systems
Centralized Control System Centralized Control System Centralized Control , Centralized Monitoring PV1 MV1 Centralized Input PV2 MV2 Output Processing Signals PV3 MV3 Signals from Unit to Field PVn CPU MVn Field SV1 SV2 SV3 SVn Set Points
Centralized Control System Drawbacks Of CCS: If the CPU fails the entire plant gets affected. Redundancy concept is not available. Redundancy is having two controllers. One would be active and the other would be standby. If the active controller fails, the standby controller takes over.
Distributed Control System Distributed Control System Distributed Control Centralized Monitoring PV1 MV1 FCS Output OPS PV8 MV8Input SV1 SV8 SignalsSignals PV9 MV9 to Field from FCS OPSField PV16 MV16 SV9 SV16 PV17 MV17 Communication FCS Bus PVn MVn SV17 SVn Set Points
Basic Components of DCS FCS (Field Control Station): Used to control the process. All the instruments and interlocks created by software reside in the memory of the FCS. All the field instruments like transmitters and control valves are wired to the FCS. OPS (Operator Station): Used to monitor the process and to operate various instruments. Communication Bus: Used to communicate between the FCS and the OPS
Advantages of DCS Control function is distributed among multiple CPUs (Field Control Stations). Hence failure of one FCS does not affect the entire plant. Redundancy is available at various levels. Instruments and interlocks are created by software. Generation and modifications of the interlocks are very flexible and simple. Information regarding the process is presented to the user in various formats. Field wiring is considerably less. Maintenance and trouble shooting becomes very easy. Cost effective in the long run.
CENTUM Series (DCS) Evolution CENTUM-XL CENTUM VP 2008 CENTUM CS3000 1998 2nd CENTUM 1993 CENTUM CS 1988 1981 1984 CENTUM VWorld First DCS 19751st CENTUM CENTUM has developed as a true open system.
CS3000-System Configuration Ethernet Remote Domain System HIS / ENG HI S CGW V net BCV CS, CS 1000 PFCS CENTUM-XL, -V ooo MXL LFCS KFCS FFCS
CENTUM CS 3000 - Major Components FCS (Field Control Station) • Reliable controller. • Cost-effective and capable I/O subsystem. HIS (Human Interface Station) • The operator station based on Windows XP or Windows2000. (Both are selectable.) • HIS provides easy & flexible operation. ENG (Engineering Station) • Engineering Station is used to do the engineering builder for all the stations like HIS, FCS, CGW, BCV etc. ENG is a PC loaded with Engineering software. • The HIS can be loaded with engineering software so that it can be used as HIS as well as ENG.• CGW: Communication Gateway Unit used to communicate with supervisory computers.• BCV: Bus Converter is used to link two domains.
CENTUM CS 3000 - Networks V-Net (Communication Bus) • Real-time control bus. • V-NET is a used for communication between HIS, FCS, BCV & CGW. • Maximum 64 Stations can be connected on the V-net. ETHERNET (Communication Bus) • Ethernet is a standard network in CS3000 to connect HIS, ENG and supervisory computers . • Transmission speed: 10 MBPS
CS3000 FIO System Configuration-Overview Ethernet V net GSGW Subsystem Gateway Ethernet o oo OPC Server PROFIBUS-DPV1 FFC S DeviceNet Safety FCJ/FC System N Photoelectric OtherDiscrete I/O Drive device System PLC
FIO FIO means Field network I/O. FIO is Process I/O modules. A kind of compact, cost-effective, reliable I/O devices, targeted as the industrial standard I/O of next- generation. FIO includes the latest network technologies and field experience.
FFCS Hardware View Eight FIO slots Detachable bottom unit EC401 ESB bus coupler Power supply unit (Note) CP401 CPU moduleAIP504 Vnet coupler (10BASE2 Vnet cable is used.) Note: Two I/O slots are to be used for NIU extension.
Hardware Configuration- Local Node V net FFC FFC S S EC40 EC40 CP40 CP40 CP40 CP40 PW48 PW48 PW48 PW48 1 1 1 1 1 1 X X X X Up to 6 Modules ESB bus FIO: Max. 8 SB40 SB40 PW48 PW48 1 1 X X Minimum Configuration Up to 8 Modules SB40 SB40 PW48 PW48 Local node 1 1 X X Max. 3 SB40 SB40 PW48 PW48 Maximum Configuration 1 1 X X
Hardware Configuration–Remote Node V net CP40 EB40 EB40 EB40 EB40 EB40 EB40 CP40 PW48 PW48 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 FFC X X S Optical Repeater can be usedRemote node Remote node Remote node ER bus EB50 EB50 EB50 EB50 EB50 EB50 PW48 PW48 PW48 PW48 PW48 PW48 1 1 1 1 1 1 X X X X X X Expanded Remote node up to 3
FIO System Specification for FFCS The bus among FFCS and local nodes. (ESB bus) Dedicated Internal Bus Speed : 128 Mbps Distance in Total : Max. 10m Remote I/O bus (ER bus) Based on Ethernet Speed : 10 Mbps Distance in total : 10base2 -> max. 185m / 10base5 -> max. 500m max. 2 km with repeater (Standard of Ethernet) Up to 3 remote nodes can be installed on a FFCS.
FFCS Specification CPU R5432 (RISC) Memory Size 32MB Power supply 100/220V AC, 24V DC No. of I/O slot 8 total 4 including CPU No. of I/O node node ESB bus I/F EC401/SB401 Local node for ESB bus Up to 4 Remote node for ER bus Up to 3 ER bus I/F EB401/EB501 AI/AO 480 DI/DO 1920 Communication data 4000 words Global SW 256 Common SW 4000 %ANN 1000 AP capacity %PR 1000 %OP 500 %RQ 200 No. of control drawing sheet 200 No. of function block (total with 2500 %ANN) Realtime trend 256
Analog ModulesAnalog Modules <Non-isolated type>AAI141 16Ch Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply)AAV141 16Ch Voltage input 1-5VAAV142 16Ch Voltage input -10V to +10VAAI841 8Ch Current input/8Ch Current output 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply)AAB841 8Ch Voltage input/8Ch Current output 1-5V input/4-20mA outputAAV542 16Ch Voltage output -10V to +10VAAP149 16CH Pulse Count 0 to 6kHz (Pulse Input Module Pm1 Compatible)<Isolated (between system and field)>AAI143 16Ch Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply)AAI543 16Ch Current output 4-20mAAAV144 16Ch Voltage Input -10V to +10VAAV544 16Ch Voltage Output -10V to +10VAAT141 16Ch mV,TC input JIS R,J,K,E,T,B,S,N / -100 to +150mVAAR181 12Ch RTD JIS Pt100ohum<Channel Isolated>AAI135 8Ch Current input 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply)AAI835 4Ch Current input/4Ch Current output 4-20mA (Transmitter power supply)AAT145 16Ch mV,TC input JIS R,J,K,E,T,B,S,N / -100 to +150mVAAR145 16Ch RTD/POT input RTD JIS Pt100ohum / POT 10kohumAAP135 8Ch 0-10kHz Pulse input Transmitter power supply 12V/24VDC, (Shunt resistance can be selected)
HART Module data Analog Data 4 to 20 mA from Device HART Variable Data HART device supports Max 4 HART Variable PV Primary Value SV Secondary Value TV Third Value FV(4V) Fourth Value HART Module supports Max 32 HART Variable data
Digital I/O Modules<Generic type>ADV151 32Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channelADV157 32Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channel, Single and Weidmueller onlyADV161 64Ch24VDC input, Common minus side every 16-channel, MIL type onlyADV551 32Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channelADV557 32Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channel, Single and Weidmueller onlyADV561 64Ch24VDC,0.1A, Common minus side every 16-channel, MIL type onlyADV851 16ch Input/16ch Output, 24VDC<AC input modules>ADV141 16Ch100VAC input, Common minus side every 8-channelADV142 16Ch220VAC input, Common minus side every 8-channel<Relay output module>ADR541 16Ch Relay output, Common minus side every 8-channel, 24-100VDC,100-200VAC, 2A/point, Maximum 8A is allowed per common, A type contact, exchange by a module.<CENTUM-ST compatible type>ADV859 ST2 compatible -16Ch input,16Ch outputADV159 ST3 compatible - 32Ch inputADV559 ST4 compatible - 32Ch outputADV869 ST5 compatible - 32Ch input, 32Ch outputADV169 ST6 compatible - 64Ch inputADV569 ST7 compatible - 64Ch output
Communication Modules Serial Communication Module ALR111 RS232C 2 ports, 1200bps to 115.2k bps ALR121 RS422/RS485 2 ports, 1200bps to 115.2k bps Ethernet Communication Module ALE111 Ethernet Communication Installable both on Local and Remote Node
Subsystem Packages List RS Communication (ALR111/ALR121) YS Communication YS Directly Communication FA-M3 Modbus SLC500/PLC5 MELSEC Ethernet Communication (ALE111) FA-M3 Modbus SLC500/PLC5 Control Logix MELSEC
Foundation Fieldbus Module (ALF111) FF-H1 interface card Redundancy Installable both on Local and Remote nodes VCR (Virtual Communications Relationship): 105 per port (one segment) Both pressure clamp and terminal board are available. Link Master
Redundant Fieldbus Module (ALF111) Image of Redundant Card ALF111 Com. Card Com. Card PSU PSU IOM IOM IOM IOM IOM IOM External Power Supply 0x14 0x15 Field Devices
HIS (Human Interface Station) The Station for Real time Plant Monitoring/Operation Plant Operation by thousands of Graphics Real time display of Plant Abnormalities.Easy Operation by a mouse, a keyboard etc.
Types of HIS DESKTOP HIS: A IBM PC/AT compatible machine is generally used. Apart from the general PC, the Yokogawa PC is also supported. Specifications of the PC HIS Desktop are as follows: CPU : Pentium IV Processor Main Memory : 256 MB (Minimum) Hard Disk : 20 GB or more Video Display : 1024 x 768 or more, 256 colours CRT Monitor : Multi Scan 17” monitor or larger Serial Port : RS232C one port or more Parallel Port : One port or more Extension Slot : PCI slot for V/VL net card, ISA slot for Ethernet card Power Supply : 200-240V AC Basic Software : Windows NT with Service Pack ,Windows 2000 or Windows XP CONSOLE HIS The floor mounted console type HIS comes with 21” monitor which has a touch panel operation. It has an operation keyboard and an engineering keyboard.
Application Capacity of HIS Maximum number of tags that can be monitored from HIS : One Million. Maximum number of windows that can be created per HIS : 4000. Maximum number of Trend Recording Points per HIS : 3328.
V net Communication HIS V netProtocol : IEEE 802.4Access Control : Token PassingTrans. Speed : 10 MbpsTrans. Distance : 500m to 20kmMedia : Coaxial/Optical FibreStd. max. length : 185 mMax. length : 20 Km (with optical repeater) 1.6Km (with coax. repeater)
V net : Extension Details HIS HIS HIS Optical Optical V net Fibre Fibre Co-axial Cable T R R R R T T R R R R T Max. Max. Max. 500m 15 km Max. 500m 15 km Max. 500m Overall Max. 20 km
Bus Convertor ETHERNET EOPS HIS Domain connection HF BUS V-NET BCV EFCD FCS ooo ooo oooDomains are group of stations connected on the V-net.Bus Convertor is used to link two domains.BCV is used to connect CS, CS 1000, CENTUM-XL,CENTUM-V AND MXL to CS3000system
Operation Windows Information regarding the process is gathered as well as monitored by the following Standard Operation windows on the HIS. Tuning Window Control Group Window Trend Window Process Alarm Window Operator guide Message Window Graphic Window Overview Window Process Report Window Historical Report Window
System Message Window System Message Window These buttons are provided for Type the TAGNAME to call calling various functional the instrument faceplate windows on the HIS window
System Message Area SYSTEM MESSAGE AREA ICONS Various windows can be accessed by selecting the respective icons in the System Message Area These windows can also be accessed by the keys on the Operator Keyboard
Operation Keyboard OPERATION KEYBOARD Operation Keyboard Operation Keyboard All the operations can be performed with the help of the Operation Keyboard. The same operations can also be performed by touch functions available on the System Message Area Icons.
Operation Windows From this window, you can open the following windows. 1. Overview Window 2. Control Window 3. Tuning Window 4. Trend Window 5. Graphic Window 6. Alerm Window 7. Operator Guide message Window
Tuning WindowSelect this icon to displaythe Tool box Select this icon to display the Tuning Window
Tuning Window TUNING WINDOW displays all the Tuning parameters of the instrument. The Tuning Window is used to set up the alarm setting as well as the loop tuning parameters. Only the items indicated with a “= “ can be changed. Displaying a “Tuning Window” 1.Double click on a Tag’s name on a “Control Window” and a faceplate window will appear. Select the “Tuning “ window icon from the toll box. 2. Select “NAME icon in the System Message Area” then enter the “TAGNAME”.
Control Drawing Display Control Drawing Display Select this icon to call the Control Drawing display Control drawing display
Control Group Window Select this icon to display the Tool box Select this icon to display the Control Group Window
Control Group Window–8 Instruments Control group windows are used to display multiple instrument faceplates. Maximum 8 or 16 instrument faceplates can be displayed in one Control Group Window Normally the instruments are monitored and operated from this window. Double click on the instrument TAGNAME to display the Tuning Window of the instrument. Select the Upper Window Key to come back to Control Group Window .
Trend Window Select this icon to display the Tool box Select this icon to display the Trend Window
Trend Window TREND WINDOW records the PV, SV and MV of various instruments. Trend can be displayed in Trend Group Format or in Trend Point Format. Maximum 8 pens can be assigned in one Trend Group Window
Trend Point Window Double click here to call the Trend Point Window Trend Point Window
Calling Instrument from Trend Window Double click here to call the Instrument faceplate Window Instrument Faceplate Window. Instrument can be operated from this window.
Process Alarm Window Select this icon to call the Process Alarm Window PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 process alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm.
Process Alarm Window This icon displays the current PV Values of the instruments that are in alarm This icon is used to acknowledge This icon displays the important the process alarms. tags (High Priority Alarms) that are in alarm. PROCESS ALARM WINDOW displays the latest 200 process alarms. Alarms can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual alarm.
Operator Guide Message Window Select this icon to call the Operator Guide Message Window OPERATOR GUIDE MESSAGE WINDOW displays the predefined messages to guide the operator regarding the current process status and /or the actions to be taken. OG messages can be acknowledged either as a Group or as Individual message.
Overview Window Select this icon to display the Tool box Select this icon to display the Overview Window
Overview Window Overview Window displays the overview of the current process status. Information regarding the process is distributed among the various display blocks. 32 Display Block s per Overview Window. Each block gives dynamic information regarding the process. Double click on the display block to more details. 3 Types of Display Blocks •Single Tag Block •Window Display Block •Comment Block