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International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 097...
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Design and development of matlab gui based fuzzy logic controllers for ac motor

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Design and development of matlab gui based fuzzy logic controllers for ac motor

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME373DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MATLAB-GUI BASED FUZZYLOGIC CONTROLLERS FOR AC MOTOR SPEED CONTROLImmanuel J.*, Parvathi C. S., L. ShrimanthSudheer, and P. BhaskarDepartment of Instrumentation Technology, Gulbarga University P.G. Centre,Yeragera-584133, Raichur, KARNATAKA, INDIA.*Email: immanuel.j009@gmail.comABSTRACTIn the present paper an attempt is made to design a graphical user interface (GUI) forspeed control of AC Motor. The AC motor speed is controlled by phase angle firingtechnique. MATLAB based GUI is created and controllers such as PID, fuzzy logic controller(FLC) and integrated fuzzy logic controller (IFLC) are designed and implemented. An AD-DA board designed for the present application is interfaced to PC to acquire speed and sendcontrol action to the actuator. MATLAB-GUI displays all the required parameters of ACmotor speed control system. Also, this paper discusses the performance comparison of PIDC,FLC, and IFLC for step input of 7500RPM. It is found that IFLC performs better in terms ofless rise time, less settling time, and less steady state error.Key words: AC Motor, FLC, IFLC, MATLAB-GUI, Speed,1. INTRODUCTIONAC motors are used worldwide in many residential, commercial, industrial and utilityapplications. AC motor speed is one of the important parameters monitored and controlled.AC induction motor is most widely used type of electric motor in the modern world. Theconventional approaches are not convenient to solve the complexities in controlling the ACmotor speed. In the most of research work the fuzzy logic controller has been employed toincrease the efficiency of the motor/drive. Fuzzy logic control technology has been widelyand successfully utilized in numerous industrial applications and consumer products. Sincefuzzy logic with human like but systematic property can convert the linguistic control rulesbased on expert knowledge into automatic control strategy. The main advantage of usingINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 373-382© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME374fuzzy logic control structure is that one does not have to redesign the existing control systembut also acquire the satisfactory response when disturbances and noise enter [1].MATLAB is software where one can design fuzzy logic controllers very easily as itcontains fuzzy logic toolbox. MATLAB is an interactive program for numerical computationsand data visualizations. It integrates mathematical computing, visualization and powerfullanguage to provide flexibility environment for technical computing [2]. John G. Cleland, etal reported a fuzzy logic energy optimizing controller developed to improve the efficiency ofmotor/drive combinations running at various loads and speed conditions. The 2-20%efficiency is obtained from laboratory demonstration. Also, they investigated to reduceenergy consumption when motors are operated at less than rated speed and load. In theirresearch, simulation results of a microprocessor based fuzzy logic motor controller aredescribed. Efficiency improvements by an FLMC controllers ASD over a constant V/HzASD range from approximately 0.2% to 14% for the motors examined [3-4]. C. von Altrock,et al represented fuzzy logic enhanced control of an AC induction motor with DSP. Theyimplemented the Texas Instruments DSP to control AC induction motor and controlperformance has been improved while design effort has been significantly reduced. Theyreported the fuzzy approach which delivered similar performance and higher robustness thanthe traditional approach [5]. Z. Q. Zhu, et al described fuzzy logic control to a vectorcontrolled permanent magnet brushless AC motor drive and shows that fuzzy logic controllerperformance better than the PI controller. Also, they proposed simple adaptive fuzzy logiccontroller algorithm with self tuned threshold speed error. The results obtained are, the DSPbased FLC with linear distribution of fuzzy sets of the output variable presents excellentspeed tracking and disturbance performances [6].Some of the searchers also implemented the field programmable gate array (FPGA) tospeed control of AC motor. Ying-Yu Tzou, et al presents the design and implementation of amotor control IC for permanent magnet servo motors using the FPGA. The proposed controlstructure has also been realized using FPGAs. The designed PMAC IC can be incorporatedwith a general purpose microcontroller to provide simple, compact, low-cost and effectivesolutions for high performance AC drives [7-8]. Some of the researchers proposed the designand implementation of CPLD for AC motor drive. From the literature it is very rare to findthe work which has reported the design and development of a complete hardware andsoftware for the speed control of AC motor. Also, very less work has been reported toimplement MATLAB-GUI for speed control of AC motor. So this has motivated the authorsto design and develop MATLAB-GUI based fuzzy logic controllers for speed control of ACmotor.2. HARDWARE DETAILSThe Fig.1 shows the block diagram of MATLAB-GUI based AC motor speed controlsystem using fuzzy logic controller. It includes the following elements:• AC Motor• Tacho-Generator• Frequency to Voltage Convertor• AD-DA Board• Ramp Generator• Comparator, and• Opto-isolator and Triac
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March2.1 AC MOTORA FHP AC single phase motor is used for the present study. The specifications of theAC motor used in the present studyTable 1.DescriptionKilo WattsHorse PowerWeightMax SpeedCurrentVoltage2.2 TACHO-GENERATORIt consists of slotted aluminum disc and optical encoder.six slots, which produces six pulses for each rotation of disc. The disc is connected to theshaft of the AC Motor. The disc is made to rotate between photoisolator), a high pulse is produced at the output of optical encoder and whephoto transistor a low pulse is produced. The frequencyof the AC motor. This frequency is directly proportional to the speed of AC motor.this frequency is converted in to voltage byInternational Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME375A FHP AC single phase motor is used for the present study. The specifications of theused in the present study are given in the Table 1.Table 1. Specifications of AC MotorDescription Value0.05KW1/15 HP1.60Kg13000 rpm, at no load4000 rpm, at full load0.75A230VAC, 50HzGENERATORIt consists of slotted aluminum disc and optical encoder. The slotted disc is made withpulses for each rotation of disc. The disc is connected to theshaft of the AC Motor. The disc is made to rotate between photo- transistor and LED, a high pulse is produced at the output of optical encoder and when light falls onphoto transistor a low pulse is produced. The frequency of these pulses depends on the speedof the AC motor. This frequency is directly proportional to the speed of AC motor.frequency is converted in to voltage by using F/V converter.International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSNApril (2013), © IAEMEA FHP AC single phase motor is used for the present study. The specifications of theThe slotted disc is made withpulses for each rotation of disc. The disc is connected to thetransistor and LED (opto-n light falls onthese pulses depends on the speedof the AC motor. This frequency is directly proportional to the speed of AC motor. Further,
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3762.3 FREQUENCY TO VOLTAGE CONVERTERThe frequency of train of pulses from tacho-generator is converted in to voltage byusing LM2907 frequency to voltage converter. The output voltage obtained is V0=Vcc*fin*C1*R1*K, where K is gain constant. Further the A/D converter is used to acquireanalog voltage.2.4 AD-DA BOARDIn the present work, a AD-DA board is designed indigenously by the authors for thedata acquisition. This board contains Analog Devices make 12-bit analog to digital converterand Burr-Brown make 12-bit digital to analog converter.2.4.1 A/D Converter Specifications[9]• Analog Devices AD1674• Industry standard pin out• 8 & 16-bit microprocessor interface• Commercial, industrial and military temperature rang grades2.4.2 D/A Converter Specifications[10]• Burr-Brown make DAC 7541• Low cost,12-bit four quadrant multiplying D/A converter• Relative accuracy of ±1LSB = ±0.024% of FSR2.5 RAMP GENERATORIn the present study the AC motor is driven by AC power. The AC power should beapplied to the motor in both positive and negative half cycle of AC signal. From thetransformer the AC signal is drawn and converted in to ramp signal. This ramp signal acts asone of the inputs to the comparator to generate PWM signal for the actuator. Here, the circuitis constructed by using transistor and op-amp. Phase angle firing allows us to apply somepower every line-cycle, so the jerkiness associated with time proportioning is overcome. Wecan adjust the amount of power applied to the load every half cycle.2.6 COMPARATORA dedicated comparator, LM311, is used for the present applications. One input forthis comparator comes from ramp generator and other input from D/A converter outputvoltage to generate PWM signal.2.7 OPTO-ISOLATOR AND TRAICA triac is used as a final control element (actuator). Triac is most commonly useddevice for power control in AC circuits. A triac can conduct in both directions and isnormally used in AC phase control. The AC voltage is applied to the motor through traic.Here BTA06 is used as an actuator. As the high power devices are need to be isolated fromthe rest of the circuit. The opto-diac is used to drive traic and to provide isolation from thehigh power.
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3773. GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE (GUI)MATLAB provides GUIDE toolbox to design user defined graphical user interface.The AC motor speed control GUI is selected by clicking on Control button. This GUI is amain GUI which displays set point, current speed, and controller currently working with. TheTune Controller GUI is selected by clicking on the respective button. This GUI allows user toselect a controller and tune the corresponding controller parameters.Initially, the GUI initializes the DIOT card and prompts the user for entering set point.After accepting set-point, clicking on Control button will initiate control process. Fig. 2shows screen-shot of main AC motor speed control main GUI. In this GUI, provision is madefor the user to set the desired speed (in RPM) with current speed being displayed. It alsodisplays the current controller selected by the user in the tune controller GUI. In this GUI,provision is made for the user to set the desired speed with present speed being displayed. Italso displays the present controller selected by the user in the tune controller GUI. Fig. 3shows the GUI for tuning the PIDC and FLC controller parameters. The main GUI hasvarious components on it such as “Control”, “Tune Controllers”, “Plot” and edit boxes suchas Set-Point and text boxes such as Present Speed and controllers selected by the user. Thesecond GUI consists of PIDC and FLC parameters such as “Scaling Factor”, “OK” and“Save” buttons. These GUIs are user friendly, when run, prompt user to enter set point andother required parameter and prompt to run the process. The tuning and selection of differentcontrollers such as PID, FLC, and IFLC is done by or made possible by using check boxes.The performance of the controller can be visualized on the axes components on the GUI. Byclicking on control button the control process starts and the values are stored on to a memoryafter completion of predefined time. The response can be observed on the axes.Fig. 2 Screen-shot of Main GUI for speed control of AC Motor
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3784. SOFTWARE DETAILSThe software for the preset AC motor speed control application is written in MATLAB. Thegraphical user interface is designed by using GUIDE toolbox in MATLAB for various controllerssuch as PIDC, FLC, and IFLC.4.1 FUZZY LOGIC CONTROLLERFuzzy logic controllers are easier to understand and develop because they involve humanoperations strategy [11]. Generally, this controller accepts two inputs i.e., error and change-in error.The error is obtained by subtracting the plant output from the desired value. The change-in error isobtained by subtracting the previous error from current error. By forming rule base and choosingmembership functions the control action is produced. This control action is applied to the plant. Thefuzzy logic controller consists of three design stages; fuzzification, decision-making logic, anddefuzzification. The fuzzification stage converts real numbers into fuzzy values/linguistic terms. Thedecision-making logic stage processes the input data and computes the control output. These outputswhich are fuzzy values are converted into real numbers by the defuzzification stage. This fuzzy logiccontroller can be designed by using MATLAB software. The MATLAB provides the fuzzy tool kit todesign a FLC. Typing ‘fuzzy’ on command window the following GUI will be opened to create fuzzylogic controller. Sugeno [12] type FLC is selected and 7-member triangular function is chosen to forma controller. The membership functions for error, change-in-error, and control action, are shown inFig. 4, 5, and 6 respectively. The designed fuzzy inference system (fis) in MATLAB is saved as ‘fis’file and is called by GUI. To evaluate the designed ‘fis’ the following command is used. fis= readfis(‘ACspeedfis_1’); control_action=evalfis([en-en_1], fis).Fig. 4. 7-member triangular function for errorFig. 3 Screen-shot of PIDC and FLC tuning GUI
  7. 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3795. METHODOLOGYThe speed of the AC motor is sensed by tacho-generator. The tacho-generatorproduces pulses. The frequency of these pulses is directly proportional to the speed of ACmotor. This frequency is converted in to voltage by using F/V converter and is acquired byADC on AD-DA board. This measured voltage is converted into actual speed of AC motor bycurve fitting method. The error is calculated by subtracting measured speed from set pointand is applied to the PID/FL/IFL controllers. The controller output is sent to the comparatorto decide power to be applied to the motor through DAC on AD-DA board. The comparatorcompares DAC voltage with the ramp voltage generated by ramp generator. The phase anglefiring technique is used to apply power to the AC motor by comparing DAC voltage with theramp voltage in the present work. Depending on DAC voltage the power to be applied isdecided. The opto-diac is used to provide isolation between low power devices and AC lineand to drive TRAIC. The speed of AC motor is controlled at desired level. In the presentapplication the AC motor speed is controlled at step point of 7500RPM. The flowchart for thecomplete algorithm is shown in Fig. 7.Fig. 5. 7-member triangular function for change in errorFig.6. 7-member triangular function for control action
  8. 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3806. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTSFig. 8 shows the comparative study of PIDC, FLC and IFLC responses for step inputof 7500RPM. From the graph it is found that there is no much difference in the rise time ofFLC and IFLC. But there is a remarkable performance of IFLC during settling time. Table 2shows the comparative values of performance of PIDC, FLC and IFLC for a step input of7500RPM.Table 2. Performance Comparison of PIDC, FLC and IFLCController →Parameters↓PIDC FLC IFLCRise time (sec) 3.47 3.32 3.27Settling time(sec) 7.20 6.92 5.24Steady state error (RPM) 10.0 10.0 0.0StartInitialization of PCI DIOT card (Create anobject for DIOT card)Invoke speed control GUI and prompt the userto enter desired set point and select thecontroller (Initially Turn-OFF the motor)Acquire voltage corresponding to present speedof motor through AD-DA broadCompute actual speed in RPM to obtain(error = set point – measured speed)(change-in-error = present error –previous error)Display present AC motor speed on MATLABGUISolve selected controller algorithm(PID/FLC/IFLC)Apply control action to motor through TRIACUpdate controller variablesPlot the response on axes component on theGUIIs stipulatedtime over ?NOYESStore speed data to the file(Turn-OFF Motor)StopAAFig. 7 Flowchart of AC motor speed control system
  9. 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME3817. CONCLUSIONSThe MATLAB-GUI designed for the study of AC motor speed control systemprovides various facilities to run the control system and to tune controllers. The controllersuch as PID, FLC and IFLC are implemented in MATLAB-GUI and speed of the AC motoris controlled at 7500 RPM. It is found from the experimental results that integrated fuzzylogic controller performs the best. The GUI designed for the present application providesadvantages over the conventional control approaches. This GUI is user friendly in nature andneed not require high technical knowledge about the particular task to work. AC motor GUIallows user to tune controllers in much easier way than the conventional laborious tuningmethods. Also, GUI allows the user to analyze the response through plotting.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe authors are thankful to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi, Indiafor providing the financial assistance to carry out this project work successfully.REFERENCES[1] Ming-Yuan Shieh and Tzuu-Hseng S. Li, Integrated fuzzy logic controller design, inProc. of IEEE Conf. on Industrial Electronics, Control, & Instrumentation, 1993, vol. 1, pp.279-284, 15-19th Nov. 1993.[2] Rao V. Dukkipati, MATLAB for Control System Engineers, New Age InternationalPublishers, New Dehli, 2011.0 3 5 7 9 11 13 1501500250035004500550065007500Time(sec)Speed(RPM)PIDCIFLCFLCFig. 8. Responses of PIDC, FLC and IFLC for step input of 7500RPM
  10. 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME382[3] John Cleland, Wayne Turner, Paul Wang, Todd Espy. P. Jeffry Chappell, Ronald J.Spiegel and BimalBse, Fuzzy logic control of AC induction motors, IEEE, Inter. Conf. onFuzzy Systems, vol. 1, pp. 843-850, 8-12 March 1992.[4] John G. Cleland, Vance E. McCormick and M. Wayne Turner, A Fuzzy logic basedenergy optimizer for AC motors, Proc. IEEE, Inter. Conf on Fuzzy systems, vol. 4, pp. 1777-1784, 20-24 March 1995.[5] C. von Altrock and S. Beierke, Fuzzy logic enhancement control of an AC inductionmotor with a DSP, proc. of 5thIEEE Inter. Conf. on Fuzzy Systems, 1996, vol. 2, pp. 806-810, 8-11 Sep. 1996.[6] Z. Q. Zhu, J. KShn and D. Howe, Comparative study of alternative fuzzy logic controlstrategies of permanent magnet brushless AC drive, Proc. of IEEE Inter. Conf. on ControlApplications, 18-20, Sep 2002.[7] Ying-Yu Tzou and Jin-Yi Jyang, A programmable current vector control IC for ACmotor drives, Proc. of 25thAnnual Conf. IEEE, Industrial Electronics, Control &Instrumentation (IECON,1999), vol.1, pp. 216-221, 29 Nov, 3 Dec. 1999.[8] Ying-Yu Tzouand Tien Sung Kuo, Design and implementation of an FPGA basedmotor control IC for permanent magnet AC servo motors, 23rdInter. Conf. on IndustrialElectronics, Control & Instrumentation (IECON’97), vol. 2, pp.943-947, 9-14 Nov 1997.[9] www.analog.com/static/imported-files/data-sheet/AD1674.pdf[10] www.burr-brown.com[11] D. Driankov, H. Hellendroon & M. Reinfrank, An Introduction to Fuzzy Control,Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, 2001.[12] http://www.mathworks.in/products/fuzzy-logic/ index.html.[13] M. A. Majed and Prof. C.S. Khandelwal, “Efficient Dynamic System Implementationof FPGA Based PID Control Algorithm for Temperature Control System”, InternationalJournal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,pp. 306 - 312, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.[14] Vishal Rathore and Dr. Manisha Dubey, “Speed Control of Asynchronous Motorusing Space Vector Pwm Technique”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering &Technology (IJEET), Volume 3, Issue 3, 2012, pp. 222 - 233, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSNOnline: 0976-6553.[15] M.Gowrisankar and Dr. A. Nirmalkumar, “Implementation & Simulation of FuzzyLogic Controllers for the Speed Control of Induction Motor and Performance Evaluation ofCertain Membership Functions”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering &Technology (IJEET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 25 - 35, ISSN Print : 0976-6545,ISSN Online: 0976-6553.

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