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Feeding Management In A Time Of Rising Feed Prices (Russell)

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Feeding Management In A Time Of Rising Feed Prices (Russell)

  1. 1. My Horse University and eXtension’s HorseQuest welcome you to this live Webcast. Feeding Management in a Time of Rising Feed Prices Dr. Mark Russell Purdue University
  2. 2. Meet our presenter: <ul><li>Dr. Mark Russell </li></ul><ul><li>Purdue University </li></ul>Dr. Colleen Brady Purdue University Question facilitators: Dr. Christine Skelly Michigan State University
  3. 3. Goals of this Discussion <ul><li>Determine the requirements for your horses </li></ul><ul><li>Know why/forages are the foundation of horse feeding </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how to build a ration around appropriate forages </li></ul><ul><li>Improve your management with what you have </li></ul>
  4. 5. Digestive Tract (100 feet long) <ul><li>Stomach - small, frequent, meals; initiates digestion, like non-ruminant </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine - site of most amino acid from dietary protein, most soluble CHO energy on grain diet, fat digested </li></ul><ul><li>Cecum - site of bacteria needed to digest cellulose to VFA’s in forages like ruminants </li></ul><ul><li>Colon - absorb water, urea, no bacteria </li></ul>
  5. 6. Common Feeding Problems <ul><li>Amount of forage in the diet </li></ul><ul><li>Particle size of diet </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General health </li></ul><ul><li>Management Stress </li></ul>
  6. 7. Digestive Categories of Horses <ul><li>Maintenance - basic requirements of life </li></ul><ul><li>Growth - youngest has highest requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation - last three months </li></ul><ul><li>Lactation - first three months </li></ul><ul><li>Work - depends on activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>light, moderate, intense </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geriatric </li></ul>
  7. 8. Feeding Guidelines <ul><li>Eat 2.5 % of BW of Dry Matter Feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KNOW THE HORSE’S WEIGHT! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always more forage than grains </li></ul><ul><li>Access to water >1 gal/100# BW/day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>and minerals (salt) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need regular exercise - be athletic </li></ul><ul><li>Most horse are overweight </li></ul>
  8. 9. Energy & Protein Required Concentrations in Total Diet <ul><li>Animal Type DE (Mcal/lb) C.P. (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance .80 8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Light work 1.05 9.8 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate work 1.10 10.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Intense work 1.20 11.4 </li></ul><ul><li>2 Yr old - in training 1.10 11.3 </li></ul>
  9. 10. Energy & Protein Concentrations in Total Diet <ul><li>Animal Type DE (Mcal/lb) C.P. (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>last 90 days 1.10 11.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first 2 months 1.20 14.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weanling 1.40 15.0 </li></ul>
  10. 11. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  11. 12. Body Condition Scoring <ul><li>1-3: Poor-Thin </li></ul><ul><li>4: Can see ribs, vertebra ridge evident </li></ul><ul><li>5: Back flat, can’t see ribs, but can feel them </li></ul><ul><li>6: Crease down back, fat deposits </li></ul><ul><li>7-9: Fleshy - Extremely fat </li></ul>
  12. 13. Building a Horse Ration <ul><li>Start with determining the horse’s needs </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize forage - 2.5% BW/day if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Add energy if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Add protein and minerals if needed </li></ul><ul><li>Consider adding vitamins and supplements </li></ul>
  13. 14. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  14. 15. Forages are the Foundation <ul><li>Grass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromegrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orchardgrass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tall Fescue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timothy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grain Hay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oat hay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheat hay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Straw </li></ul><ul><li>Legume </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfalfa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birdsfoot trefoil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lespedeza </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Types of Forages for Horses <ul><li>Pasture - composition, total forage produced, maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Hay - square bales, big round bales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>species, maturity, quality, weeds & pests </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haylage/Silage - very palatable, overeating, spoilage </li></ul><ul><li>Hay Cubes - 3/4” chopped </li></ul><ul><li>Pellets - surface area, particle size, rate of intake, digestibility, behavior </li></ul>
  16. 17. Pasture for Horses <ul><li>2 acres of pasture/ horse to meet the nutrient needs and proper management of forage </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture rotation helps spot grazing and more uniform maturity </li></ul><ul><li>Many horses being maintained, in early gestation, and under light work can be on pasture with mineral and water source. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  18. 19. Hay Quality Factors <ul><li>Maturity at harvest </li></ul><ul><li>Species and Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Leafiness </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting </li></ul><ul><li>Storage conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of Pests or Foreign Matter </li></ul>Alfalfa Plant Grass Plant
  19. 20. Methods of Forage Testing <ul><li>Visual appraisal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>color, leafiness, maturity, and the presence of foreign material, feel and smell as well as sight. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of the actual chemical components identifies nutritionally strong and weak points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimates the major chemical constituents in forages from the absorption characteristics in the near-infrared region of the spectrum. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Taking a Representative Sample <ul><li>Time to sample? </li></ul><ul><li>A bale probe or core </li></ul><ul><li>20 square bales or 10 round bales </li></ul><ul><li>Place drillings in a clean plastic bucket </li></ul><ul><li>Mix drillings and put one quart in a plastic bag and send to a laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>AY-460, Forage Testing-Why, How, and Where. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Troubleshooting Weight Loss <ul><li>Has the horses position in the social pecking order changed? </li></ul><ul><li>Has horse developed dental problems that prevent it from eating enough food? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there good quality feed and water available at all times? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a chronic disease? Parasites? </li></ul>
  22. 23. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  23. 24. General Considerations <ul><li>Parasites are most successfully prevented through a combination of management and therapeutic strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease parasite burden in environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deworming with proper product at proper intervals </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Parasite Prevention <ul><li>Adequate pasture acreage </li></ul><ul><li>Compost manure </li></ul><ul><li>Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>Pasture rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed grazing (cattle and horses) </li></ul>
  25. 26. Mouth- Function <ul><li>Prehension – take in feed </li></ul><ul><li>Chewing – break into small pieces and mix </li></ul><ul><li>Saliva – adds moisture and enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12-15 liters per day of parotid secretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low levels of amylase for starch digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contains significant Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Cl - , HC0 2 , HPO 2 </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Dental Care <ul><li>Headtilt, difficulty chewing while eating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>may drop feed, feed in feces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Weight loss </li></ul><ul><li>Bad breath </li></ul><ul><li>Head tossing, bit chewing </li></ul>
  27. 28. Dental Care
  28. 29. Annual Dental Exam <ul><li>Check for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wolf teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unopposed teeth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Float teeth if necessary </li></ul>
  29. 30. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  30. 31. Divide and Conquer Harvest as hay in May Fats Need more or better hay Skinniest Need best hay and concentrates Water
  31. 32. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Body Condition Score the horses </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize stockpiled pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory and analyze hay and feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Check for parasites and dental health </li></ul><ul><li>Divide herd into management groups </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize hay wastage </li></ul>
  32. 33. Feeding Hay <ul><li>Grain boxes/tubs </li></ul><ul><li>Rubber tubs </li></ul><ul><li>Half tires </li></ul><ul><li>Mangers </li></ul><ul><li>Hay feeders </li></ul>
  33. 34. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Locate/use oat or wheat hay, grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize alternative feeds strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Limit-feed nutrient dense feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust rations for cold stress </li></ul><ul><li>Improve soil pH, fertility etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cull horses as needed </li></ul>
  34. 35. Alternative Sources of Fiber <ul><li>Wheat Bran </li></ul><ul><li>Soybean, Cottonseed Hulls </li></ul><ul><li>Oat or Wheat Hay </li></ul><ul><li>Dried Distillers Grains - </li></ul>
  35. 36. Supplement Energy? <ul><li>Increase body condition or work </li></ul><ul><li>Energy supplements – corn, soybean, flax, rice oils </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat - up to 15% increases blood glucose / glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes can calm and conserve energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omega-3 fatty acids may be of some benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMG - N, N, - Dimethylglycine - active in mitochondria - respiratory part of cells - increases oxygen transport to make ATP and use glycogen </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Add Fat - Not Protein <ul><li>Protein - expensive, added heat, water loss </li></ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases energy density with feed intake, decrease in volume of concentrates per day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>decreases amount of energy for heat production, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increases muscle glycogen over time, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no increase in blood glucose, glycogen sparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of omega-3 fatty acid benefit on reproduction, hair and skin </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Sources of Protein for Horses <ul><li>Soybean Oil Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Flax - Linseed Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Sunflower Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Cottonseed Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Peanut Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Corn Gluten Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Casein </li></ul><ul><li>Dried Skim Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Fish Meal </li></ul><ul><li>Meat Meal </li></ul>
  38. 39. Major Mineral Concentrations in Total Diets <ul><li>Type Ca (%) P (%) Mg (%) K (%) </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance .21 .15 0.08 0.27 </li></ul><ul><li>Light work .27 .19 .10 .3 </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate work .28 .22 .11 .36 </li></ul><ul><li>Intense work .31 .23 .12 .39 </li></ul><ul><li>2 Yr old - .31 .17 .09 .29 </li></ul><ul><li>in training </li></ul>
  39. 40. Be smart as a fox as you feed horses!
  40. 41. Management Tips for Tough Times <ul><li>Locate/use oat or wheat hay, grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize alternative feeds strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Limit-feed nutrient dense feeds </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust rations for cold stress </li></ul><ul><li>Improve soil pH, fertility etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Cull horses as needed </li></ul>
  41. 42. Thank you for attending this live web presentation! For more information about My Horse University please visit us at: www.myhorseuniversity.com info@myhorseuniversity.com | www.myhorseuniversity.com | 517-353-3123

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