Ai manual chapter 18


Published on

inseminação Artificial em bovinos -Abspecplan

Published in: Education
  • Dear Colleague
    I am associate professor in animal nutrition in university of Tehran and need chapter 18 nutrition AI management manual for teaching and my students. please Email it for me.
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • This is a good presentation. Specific recomentation of cattle feed is required
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Dear,
    I am lecturer in university and need this lecture. can you please email me at
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Follow along in your manual beginning on page 18-1.
  • Ai manual chapter 18

    1. 1. CHAPTER 18 <ul><li>NUTRITION </li></ul>
    2. 2. Bovine Digestive Tract <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen </li></ul><ul><li>Omasum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul>Forestomach True Stomach
    3. 3. 4 Chambered Stomach <ul><li>Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum and Abomasum </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulum and Rumen Separated by Muscular “Pillar” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimately Related in Structure and Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Appropriately Labeled One of the Following </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticulo-rumen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumino-reticular </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Digestion <ul><li>Begins With a Bite of Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth Grind Long Fibrous Feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing Produces Large Amounts of Saliva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 80 Pounds per Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves Several Functions in Digestion and Buffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Swallowed and Carried by the Esophagus to the Reticulo-Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Component of the Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds Over 30 Gallons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Constantly Churned by Muscular Contractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Exposed to Millions of Bacteria and Protozoa </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Ruminating <ul><li>Cattle Should Spend 8 to 10 Hours a Day Ruminating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Known as “Chewing Their Cud” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cud is a Bolus of Feed Regurgitated From the Reticulo-Rumen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks Feed Particles Into Smaller Pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates Additional Saliva Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Thumb: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 60% of Resting Cows Should be Chewing Their Cud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Numbers May Indicate a Feeding Problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Stratified Within the Rumen </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>When Food Particles are Small Enough They are Passed Into the Omasum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Omasum Removes Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs Some Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Transported From Omasum to Abomasum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acids Secreted From Wall Break Down Food Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal pH is Around Three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food is Transported to Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive Enzymes Secreted & Nutrients Absorbed </li></ul></ul>Digestion
    7. 7. Digestion <ul><li>Food Passes From Small Intestine to Large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Fermentation of Food Occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, Volatile Fatty Acids and Nutrients are Absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remaining Food By-Products are Passed Out of the Body Through the Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Many Feeds That Cattle Utilize are By-Products of Industries Making Feed for Other Species </li></ul>
    8. 8. Classification of Nutrients <ul><li>Commonly Used Categories are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One Feed Ingredient Can Contain One, Several or All of the Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle Require Each Nutrient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements Differ Among Cattle </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Provide Energy for Ruminal Microbes and Animal Itself </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Component of Bovine Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 - 70 Percent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide Health for Gestational Tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Referred to as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADF = Acid Detergent Fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NDF = Nutrient Detergent Fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFC = Non-Fibrous Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonstructural </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Protein <ul><li>Also Included are Amino Acids and Peptides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acids Make up Peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptides Make up Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important for Maintenance, Growth, Milk Production, and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied Through Microbial Proteins and Escape Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of Protein Requirement Filled by Microbial Protein </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Protein Types in Feed <ul><li>Ruminally Undegraded Proteins (RUP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein Not Metabolized in the Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be Metabolized in Abomasum or Small Intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could Pass Through Entire System Without Being Metabolized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruminally Degraded Proteins (RDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken Down Into Peptides, Amino Acids and Ammonia in Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Microbes or Absorbed by Blood Stream </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Carbohydrate Protein Balance <ul><li>Fine Balance Needed for Ruminal Microbe Population </li></ul><ul><li>If Balance is Upset Microbial Population May Become Less Desirable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Cause Less Desirable End Products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeding Excess Carbohydrates Results in Ruminal Acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding Excess Proteins is Expensive and Can Result in Reproductive Inefficiencies </li></ul>
    13. 13. Fat <ul><li>Generic Term Used to Describe Compounds With a High Content of Long Chain Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Is Not a Requirement of Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids Required by Cattle are Synthesized by the Ruminal Microbial Population </li></ul><ul><li>Many Cattle Feeds Also Include Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproduct of Oil Seeds (Cottonseed and Soybeans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat (Tallow) May Also be Supplied in Early Lactation of Dairy Cattle </li></ul>
    14. 14. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Required for Normal Growth and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Two Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required in Gram Quantities (Listed on Table 1, Pg. 18-3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important for Bones, Muscle Contraction, Acid Base Balance, Nerve Transmission and Other Vital Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace Mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required in Milligram or Microgram Quantities (Listed on Table 2, Pg. 18-4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Components of Enzyme Systems and Hormones </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Two Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are Synthesized by Ruminal Microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include Vitamin B Complex, Vitamin C, Biotin, Niacin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins A, D, E, and K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 3, Pg. 18-5 for Functions and Deficiency Signs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Water <ul><li>Most Overlooked Nutrient in Cattle Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Depend On: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of Animal, Milk Production, Environmental Conditions, Feed Intake, and Mineral Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Should be Fresh and Clean to Encourage Cattle Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Water Intake Leads to Poor Heat Expression and Poor Conception Rate </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dairy Water Requirements <ul><li>A Waterer Should be Provided for Every 20 Cows or 1 Foot of Tank Space for Every 20 Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Clean, Fresh and Adequate Supply Near Milking Parlor Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Water Requirements are Met by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Voluntarily Consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in Feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water From Metabolic Oxidation </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Water Estimates <ul><li>The Following Formula Can be Used to Estimate the Gallons of Water Needed per Day by a Lactating Dairy Cow </li></ul>Gallons / Day = 4.2 + (0.19 * lb’s DMI) + (0.108 * lb’s of milk produced) + (0.374 * oz’s Na) + (0.06 * minimum daily temperature in ºF)
    19. 19. Feeding the Beef Herd <ul><li>“If You Want to Breed ‘Em You’ve Got to Feed ‘Em” </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Nutrition Leads To: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Calf Crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer Pounds of Calf Produced </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Pounds of Calf Produced <ul><li>Function of Weaning Weight </li></ul>
    21. 21. Reduced Weaning Weight <ul><li>Function of Birth Date </li></ul>
    22. 22. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Cow’s Condition at Calving Determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production (Pounds of Beef Weaned) to Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should Score 5 or 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based Upon Body Condition Scoring (BCS) System’s Scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Pg. 18-7 for Scores and Descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Inadequate Nutrition Leads to Less Than Ideal Condition at Calving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Decreased Milk Production Which Leads to Reduced Calf Weaning Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May Cause Cows to Have Weak Calves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Calves Don’t Nurse in First 12 Hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Increases in Scours and Diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Lowered Weaning Weights </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Inadequate Nutrition Leads to Less Than Ideal Condition at Calving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases a Cow’s Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does Not Return to Estrus on Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calves are Born Late the Following Year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Day a Cow Goes Over 365 Days Between Calves the Calf Will Weigh 1.5 to 2 Pounds Less at Weaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Recommendation is to Sort Cows by Body Condition at Pregnancy Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Beef Producer to Feed Cattle to BCS 5 or 6 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Beef Heifers <ul><li>Choose Replacement Heifers From: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly Calving Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Genetic Merit First Calf Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Use an Anabolic Implant in Heifers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Seriously Affect Future Fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should Reach Puberty at 14 to 16 Months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% or More of Heifers Should be Cycling at Breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breed 2 to 3 Weeks Prior to Main Cow Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Extra Time for Heifers to Begin Cycling </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Heifer Weights <ul><li>Target Weights at Breeding Should be 65% of the Heifers Mature Body Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sizes Vary Depending on Breed of Cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Page 15-6 for Crossbred Heifer Weights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the Table on Page 18-9 to Compare On-Farm Weights and Ideal Weights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal Weights Will Result in 80 to 90% Cycling Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use These Weights to Formulate Rations for Heavy and Light Halves of the Replacement Heifers </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Balanced Rations <ul><li>Feed Accounts for 70 to 80% of the Cost of Producing Beef </li></ul><ul><li>Ration = Feed/Animal Received in 24-Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Ration Furnishes the Nutrients Needed to Allow an Animal to Fulfill a Specific Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Maintenance, Growth, Gestation, or Lactation </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) <ul><li>A Measure of the Energy of Feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Known as the Calorie Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount TDN Varies Among Feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains = 70 - 80% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hay = 50% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silage = 20% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Protein (Crude Protein) is Determined by Analyzing Feedstuffs for Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Nitrogen is True Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea, Biuret and Nitrate = Protein Equivalency </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Analyze Feedstuffs <ul><li>Feed Analysis is Needed to Accurately Formulate Economically Complete Rations </li></ul><ul><li>Some Roughage Feeds Can Meet Protein Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Will Require Some Supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein • Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins • Minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once Nutrient Levels are Known Supplements Can be Added to Meet Minimum Requirements </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Winter Grazing Forages
    31. 31. Nutrient Requirements <ul><li>Change With Age </li></ul>
    32. 32. Water Requirements <ul><li>Abundant, Quality Water is Critical for Growth and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant Cows Require 10 Gallons of Water Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Will be Lesser in Cooler Months and Greater in Warmer Months </li></ul>
    33. 33. Dairy Nutrition <ul><li>Need Balanced Ration for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level of Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level of Milk Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by Four Factors of Inheritance, Management, Environmental Factors, Feeding Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Scoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a Five Score System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Done at Calving, Peak Milk Production, Mid Lactation and Dry-off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Will Vary at Each Stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Body Condition Score 1
    35. 35. Body Condition Score 2
    36. 36. Body Condition Score 3
    37. 37. Body Condition Score 4
    38. 38. Body Condition Score 5
    39. 39. Gestation-Lactation Cycle <ul><li>Cows go Through Several Stages Between Calvings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestation-Lactation Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phases of Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Phase Has its Own Nutrient Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No One Ration Will Consistently Work for a Cow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are Usually Five or Six Phases per Cow </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Phase 1 <ul><li>Dry Off (“Dry Period”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Day Cow is Dried Off Till 21 Days Prior to Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Happens Here Will Affect Next Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary Glands Undergo Involution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus Places Huge Demands on Protein and Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Dry Cow Programs Result in an Increased 500 to 1000 Pounds More Milk Per Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal Body Condition Score is 3.5 to 3.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should Not Change More Than .5 in Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Phase 2 <ul><li>Close Up (“Steam Up” or “Transition”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Days Before Calving to Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Physiological Goals Must be Met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumen Adaptation - To a Higher Energy Ration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Homeostasis - Keep Normal, Feed Anionic Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Strong Immune System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Balance - DMI Decreases as Calving Approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Should be Between 3.5 and 3.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Overcrowd Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Stocking Rate of 85% is Optimal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding Reduces Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Phase 3 <ul><li>Fresh Cow (“Post Fresh Group”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving to 2-3 Weeks After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Metabolic Diseases Occur During This Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Get Cows on Feed Rapidly After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locking Cows up After Milking to Monitor DMI Should be Considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Will Decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Loose .5 Score </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Loose More Than 1.0 Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Phase 4 <ul><li>Early Lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 Weeks After Calving to 70 Days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peak Milk Should Occur During This Time (40-60 Days) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply Peak by 200 to Estimate Total Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Will Continue to Drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Have a Score of 2.5 to 3.25 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Have Dropped More Than 1.0 Score Since Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drops Greater Than 1.5 Score Requires Investigation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Phase 5 <ul><li>Mid Lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70 Days After Calving to 200 Days After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at Time of Peak Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Also Start BST at Beginning of This Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to Optimize Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Should Not Increase Dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Decrease at All </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Period for Reproductive Efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of Eligible Cows Should Become Pregnant </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Phase 6 <ul><li>Late Lactation (“Stripper” or “Tail Enders”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 Days After Calving Until Dry Off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of Rapid Decline in Milk Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should Regain Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Should Increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should End Period With a 3.5 to 3.75 Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Nutrition and Reproduction <ul><li>All Nutrients That Affect Reproduction are Needed for Other Physiological Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Protein, Fat, Energy Status and Body Condition All Affect Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals and Vitamins Can Indirectly Affect Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Disease Caused by Nutritional Deficiencies Also Affect Reproduction </li></ul>
    47. 47. Energy <ul><li>All Cows are Subject to a Negative Energy Balance During the Early Phases of Lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize DMI to Minimize the Degree of Negative Energy Balance </li></ul><ul><li>A Higher DMI Allows Cows to Produce More Milk and Enter Estrus and Ovulate Earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Supplementation in Early Lactation Helps Reproduction </li></ul>
    48. 48. Body Condition Score <ul><li>Energy and Body Score are Closely Related </li></ul><ul><li>When Energy Intakes Don’t Meet Demands for Milk Production Cow Looses Weight and Drops Body Condition Score </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Want to Loose More Than 1.5 Score </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Can be Fed in Excess and Cows Will Become Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Intake Needs to be Closely Regulated During Phase 6 </li></ul>
    49. 49. Protein <ul><li>High Levels of Milk Production Require Dairy Rations to be Supplemented With Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Needed During Early Lactation High Concentrate Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein Can be Over Supplemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Rumen Degradable Protein Diets Can Cause: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered Conception Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Days to First Ovulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Days to First Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Services per Conception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Animals are Affected More </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Feeding Management <ul><li>High Producing Cows are Pushed to the Limit With Energy Dense Rations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Maximize Dry Matter Intake and Milk Production While Minimizing Metabolic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Factors That Can be Regulated are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Bunk Management </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Over Crowding Can Lower DMI </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Should be Housed in Conditions That are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Lit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly Ventilated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Adequate Space for Cows to Lie Down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Stalls Should Have Properly Designed Stalls so Cows Lay Down and Don’t Stand Half in and Half out </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Facilities Good – No Over Crowding, Clean, Proper Ventilation Poor – Over crowded, Poorly Lighted
    53. 53. Feed Management <ul><li>Major Ration Ingredients are Forages and Concentrates </li></ul><ul><li>All Feeds Should Have a Known Moisture Content and Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermented Forages Change in Moisture Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Matter Analysis Should be Done Weekly or Bi-Weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Tested Using a Microwave or Koster Tester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Complete Wet Chemistry Analysis Should be Done Several Times a Year </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Feed Management <ul><li>Pay Attention to Physical Components of Feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally Mixed Rations (TMR’s) Should Not be Over Mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over Mixing Reduces the Amount of Long Particles (Effective Fiber) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritionists Will Routinely Use a “Shaker Box” to Check Feed for Over Mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets With Inadequate Effective Fiber May Cause Subclinical Acidosis or Displaced Abomasums </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Feed Management <ul><li>Most Rations are Balanced Using Linear Programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it Difficult to Balance a “Bad” Ration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember a Cow Doesn’t Eat What is on Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is Difficult and Time Consuming to Figure Out What a Cow Does Eat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Ration Problems Occur Because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old or Improper Nutrient Analysis Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human or Mixing Errors </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Feed Bunk Management <ul><li>If a Cow Can Not Get to the Feed Bunk She Can Not Eat the Feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for 24 Inches Per Cow of Feed Bunk Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Feed Bunk Should Not Restrict Head and Neck Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Should be Pushed up and Turned Frequently in Free-stalls and Dry Lot Dairies </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Prefer Eating Off Ground Rather Than Out of Elevated Feed Bunks </li></ul>
    57. 57. Feed Bunk Management <ul><li>Bunks Should be Designed With Smooth Surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for Easy Cleaning and Daily DMI Monitoring (Per Pen Basis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There Should Always be 5-10% Feed Refusals Left in the Bunk </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Should Always Have Access to Feed and Water </li></ul>
    58. 58. Feed Storage <ul><li>Bunker Silos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed so Easily Packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove at Least 6 Inches Off Face Each Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facing Edge Should be Kept Straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Piles Should be Avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Fermentation Quickly Reduces Feed Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Covered and Exposed as Needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ag Bags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Kept Free of Holes and Packed Properly </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Metabolic Disorders <ul><li>Many are Related to Nutritional Imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Some Disorders Affect Reproductive Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Many Metabolic Disorders are Related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a Cow Gets One, Her Likelihood of Getting Another Increases </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Displaced Abomasums <ul><li>No Single Nutritional Factor is a Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Fiber Does Play a Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber Provides a Physical Filling Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the “Empty” Space in a Cow’s Abdomen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty Space is Created Due to Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus and Calf Used to Take Up a Lot of Space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequently Associated With Ketosis </li></ul><ul><li>Days to Conception Will Generally Increase </li></ul>
    61. 61. Milk Fever <ul><li>Condition in Which There is an Inadequate Supply of Calcium in the Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Has a Propensity to Cause Other Conditions Like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained Placentas That Lead to Metritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herds Experiencing a Large Amount of Milk Fever Should Feed Anionic Salts to Transition Cows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Salts Effectiveness With Urine pH Testing </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Fatty Liver <ul><li>Does NOT Affect Only Over Conditioned Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Suffering Excessive Negative Energy Balance During Dry Period and Transition Begin to Mobilize Large Amounts of Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA’s) Enter the Blood Stream and Collect in the Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEFA’s Interfere With Normal Cell Function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cows are More Likely to Suffer From Ketosis and Other Metabolic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to Breed Cows are Likely Candidates </li></ul>
    63. 63. Ketosis <ul><li>Mobilized Body Fat is Incompletely Metabolized by the Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Cows With Ketosis are More Likely to Develop Other Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Days to First Service and Days Open </li></ul>
    64. 64. Dairy Heifers <ul><li>Underfed and Thin Heifers Will Reach Puberty Later Than Normal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Also Experience Irregular Estrus Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breed Heifers to Calve at 23-24 Months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional Requirements Need to be Worked out for Earlier Calvings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heifers Need to Gain 1.5 to 1.8 lbs. per Day of Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Chart on Pg. 18-3 as a Guide </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Dairy Heifer Feeding <ul><li>To Calve at 24 Months, Heifer Calves Must be Started Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Results From Calves Start With the Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow’s Immune System Serves as the Calf’s Immune System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Birth the Calf Needs Cow’s Colostrum to Fight Off Disease and Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calf Should Consume a Gallon of Colostrum Within the First 12 Hours of Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be Sure the Colostrum is of Good Quality in Order to Prevent Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check Colostrum With a Colostrometer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Dairy Calf Diet <ul><li>To Meet Size and Weight Gain Goals, Manage Calf Diet to Consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 - 22% Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 - 20% Fat Milk Based Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Access to Calf Starter From Birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates Rumen Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Replacer at 10% of Calf’s Birth Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Water at All Times by Day 4 of Life </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. Dairy Calf Weaning <ul><li>Calves Should be Weaned Based on Feed Consumption, Health History and Body Condition — NOT Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calves Should be Consuming 1.5 to 2 lbs. of Calf Starter per Day at Weaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Hay 1 to 2 Weeks After Weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to Feed Calf Starter for 2 Weeks After Weaning, Then Switch to a Growing Ration </li></ul>
    68. 68. Dairy Calf Housing <ul><li>Individual Calf Hutches Can be Used Until 2 Weeks After Weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Then Calves Can be Put Into Small Groups (No More Than 15) of Similar Size Calves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Overcrowd These Calves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch Ventilation and Calf Comfort to Minimize Disease and Optimize Growth </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Dairy Heifer Calves <ul><li>Supplemental Concentrate Rations Along With Pasture and Roughages Provide a Well Balanced Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Prevent Reproductive Problems Later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended to Feed Heifers Good Roughage and 2 lbs. of Concentrate per Day per Head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Ionophores to Increase Feed Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact Veterinarian to Develop a Vaccination Routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects Against Internal and External Parasites </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Summary <ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Nutrition Critical in Achieving High Pregnancy Rates, Early Weaning and Early Return to Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Achieve 1-Calf-per-Year Cows Need 80 Days After Calving to Recover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should Score 5 or 6 on the BCS System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underfeeding Lowers Conception Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overfeeding Reduces Productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a “Target Weight Concept” to Feed Calves to Desired Weight and Condition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Summary <ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced Ration Furnishes Needed Nutrients in Proper Amounts and Proportions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory Analysis of Feedstuffs Must be Obtained to Produce a Good Nutritional Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Roughages are Deficient in Protein, Energy, Vitamins and Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements Change With Age and Rate of Development </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Summary <ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Balanced Rations are Needed as Cows Progress Through the Gestation-Lactation Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic Diseases Can Affect Both Production and Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Production Peaks During the First 8 Weeks of Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Bred too Early May Still be in a Weight Loss Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Lead to a Reduction in Pregnancy Rate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Summary <ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should Never Loose More Than 1.5 Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Losses Will Affect Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 24 Weeks of Production is Optimal Time for Cows to Regain Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should be Dried Off in Good Calving Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Dry Cow Should Maintain Her Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work With Your Veterinarian and Nutritionist to Maintain Proper Herd Nutrition </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Question 1 <ul><li>How does nutrition affect the reproductive performance of the cow herd? </li></ul>Underfeeding will result in lower conception rates, overfeeding will result in reduced productivity.
    75. 75. Question 2 <ul><li>How would different feeding situations influence the specific nutrient requirements of the cow herd? </li></ul>A cow in a cold climate requires more food to maintain itself than a cow in a warm climate.
    76. 76. Question 3 <ul><li>Why should virgin beef heifers be inseminated two to three weeks before the cow herd? </li></ul>They require more time to repair to breed back.
    77. 77. Question 4 <ul><li>What roles do the minerals calcium and phosphorus play in an animal’s development? </li></ul>Calcium: Bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, normal milk secretion Phosphorus: Bone and teeth formation (80%), metabolic functions energy and amino acid metabolism, activation of enzymes, nucleic acids, muscle synthesis
    78. 78. Question 4 <ul><li>What trace minerals are necessary for the metabolic function of the animals? </li></ul>Iron and Copper
    79. 79. Question 5 <ul><li>Why is it advisable to supplement the animal’s diet with Vitamin A? </li></ul>To boost the immune system.
    80. 80. Question 6 <ul><li>When does a dairy cow’s dry matter intake usually peak? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this affect the cow’s pregnancy rate? </li></ul>After milk production peaks. If bred while gaining weight a better conception rate can be expected.
    81. 81. Question 7 <ul><li>Why is a properly balanced ration important? </li></ul>It provides the nutritional need for the animal to fulfill its intended purpose.
    82. 82. Question 8 <ul><li>How do the nutritional needs of a heifer change during its cycle? </li></ul>It increases significantly when the heifer has calved and is lactating.
    83. 83. Question 9 <ul><li>Why is protein supplementation often necessary for milking cows? </li></ul>Because there is an energy deficiency early in the lactation.