Ai manual chapter 18

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inseminação Artificial em bovinos -Abspecplan

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  • Dear Colleague
    I am associate professor in animal nutrition in university of Tehran and need chapter 18 nutrition AI management manual for teaching and my students. please Email it for me.
    rezayazdi@ut.ac.ir
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    I am lecturer in university and need this lecture. can you please email me at abdurrehman@uvas.edu.pk
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  • Follow along in your manual beginning on page 18-1.
  • Ai manual chapter 18

    1. 1. CHAPTER 18 <ul><li>NUTRITION </li></ul>
    2. 2. Bovine Digestive Tract <ul><li>Mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>Rumen </li></ul><ul><li>Omasum </li></ul><ul><li>Abomasum </li></ul><ul><li>Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Large Intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Rectum </li></ul>Forestomach True Stomach
    3. 3. 4 Chambered Stomach <ul><li>Reticulum, Rumen, Omasum and Abomasum </li></ul><ul><li>Reticulum and Rumen Separated by Muscular “Pillar” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimately Related in Structure and Function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Appropriately Labeled One of the Following </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reticulo-rumen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumino-reticular </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Digestion <ul><li>Begins With a Bite of Food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth Grind Long Fibrous Feeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing Produces Large Amounts of Saliva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 80 Pounds per Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serves Several Functions in Digestion and Buffering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Swallowed and Carried by the Esophagus to the Reticulo-Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Largest Component of the Stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Holds Over 30 Gallons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Constantly Churned by Muscular Contractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Exposed to Millions of Bacteria and Protozoa </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Ruminating <ul><li>Cattle Should Spend 8 to 10 Hours a Day Ruminating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Known as “Chewing Their Cud” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cud is a Bolus of Feed Regurgitated From the Reticulo-Rumen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks Feed Particles Into Smaller Pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates Additional Saliva Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule of Thumb: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 60% of Resting Cows Should be Chewing Their Cud </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower Numbers May Indicate a Feeding Problem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed is Stratified Within the Rumen </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>When Food Particles are Small Enough They are Passed Into the Omasum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Omasum Removes Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs Some Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food Transported From Omasum to Abomasum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acids Secreted From Wall Break Down Food Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal pH is Around Three </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Food is Transported to Small Intestine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive Enzymes Secreted & Nutrients Absorbed </li></ul></ul>Digestion
    7. 7. Digestion <ul><li>Food Passes From Small Intestine to Large </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional Fermentation of Food Occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water, Volatile Fatty Acids and Nutrients are Absorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remaining Food By-Products are Passed Out of the Body Through the Rectum </li></ul><ul><li>Many Feeds That Cattle Utilize are By-Products of Industries Making Feed for Other Species </li></ul>
    8. 8. Classification of Nutrients <ul><li>Commonly Used Categories are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One Feed Ingredient Can Contain One, Several or All of the Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle Require Each Nutrient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements Differ Among Cattle </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Provide Energy for Ruminal Microbes and Animal Itself </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Component of Bovine Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>60 - 70 Percent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide Health for Gestational Tract </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often Referred to as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ADF = Acid Detergent Fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NDF = Nutrient Detergent Fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NFC = Non-Fibrous Carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nonstructural </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Protein <ul><li>Also Included are Amino Acids and Peptides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amino Acids Make up Peptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peptides Make up Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important for Maintenance, Growth, Milk Production, and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Supplied Through Microbial Proteins and Escape Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of Protein Requirement Filled by Microbial Protein </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Protein Types in Feed <ul><li>Ruminally Undegraded Proteins (RUP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein Not Metabolized in the Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be Metabolized in Abomasum or Small Intestine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could Pass Through Entire System Without Being Metabolized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ruminally Degraded Proteins (RDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken Down Into Peptides, Amino Acids and Ammonia in Rumen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used by Microbes or Absorbed by Blood Stream </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Carbohydrate Protein Balance <ul><li>Fine Balance Needed for Ruminal Microbe Population </li></ul><ul><li>If Balance is Upset Microbial Population May Become Less Desirable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Cause Less Desirable End Products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feeding Excess Carbohydrates Results in Ruminal Acidosis </li></ul><ul><li>Feeding Excess Proteins is Expensive and Can Result in Reproductive Inefficiencies </li></ul>
    13. 13. Fat <ul><li>Generic Term Used to Describe Compounds With a High Content of Long Chain Fatty Acids </li></ul><ul><li>Is Not a Requirement of Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Fatty Acids Required by Cattle are Synthesized by the Ruminal Microbial Population </li></ul><ul><li>Many Cattle Feeds Also Include Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproduct of Oil Seeds (Cottonseed and Soybeans) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Fat (Tallow) May Also be Supplied in Early Lactation of Dairy Cattle </li></ul>
    14. 14. Minerals <ul><li>Inorganic Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Required for Normal Growth and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Two Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macro Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required in Gram Quantities (Listed on Table 1, Pg. 18-3) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important for Bones, Muscle Contraction, Acid Base Balance, Nerve Transmission and Other Vital Functions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trace Mineral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required in Milligram or Microgram Quantities (Listed on Table 2, Pg. 18-4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Components of Enzyme Systems and Hormones </li></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Vitamins <ul><li>Organic Compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Two Categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are Synthesized by Ruminal Microbes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include Vitamin B Complex, Vitamin C, Biotin, Niacin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat Soluble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins A, D, E, and K </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Table 3, Pg. 18-5 for Functions and Deficiency Signs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Water <ul><li>Most Overlooked Nutrient in Cattle Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Depend On: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Size of Animal, Milk Production, Environmental Conditions, Feed Intake, and Mineral Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water Should be Fresh and Clean to Encourage Cattle Intake </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequate Water Intake Leads to Poor Heat Expression and Poor Conception Rate </li></ul>
    17. 17. Dairy Water Requirements <ul><li>A Waterer Should be Provided for Every 20 Cows or 1 Foot of Tank Space for Every 20 Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Have a Clean, Fresh and Adequate Supply Near Milking Parlor Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Water Requirements are Met by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Voluntarily Consumed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water in Feed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water From Metabolic Oxidation </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Water Estimates <ul><li>The Following Formula Can be Used to Estimate the Gallons of Water Needed per Day by a Lactating Dairy Cow </li></ul>Gallons / Day = 4.2 + (0.19 * lb’s DMI) + (0.108 * lb’s of milk produced) + (0.374 * oz’s Na) + (0.06 * minimum daily temperature in ºF)
    19. 19. Feeding the Beef Herd <ul><li>“If You Want to Breed ‘Em You’ve Got to Feed ‘Em” </li></ul><ul><li>Poor Nutrition Leads To: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Calf Crop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer Pounds of Calf Produced </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Pounds of Calf Produced <ul><li>Function of Weaning Weight </li></ul>
    21. 21. Reduced Weaning Weight <ul><li>Function of Birth Date </li></ul>
    22. 22. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Cow’s Condition at Calving Determines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production (Pounds of Beef Weaned) to Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should Score 5 or 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based Upon Body Condition Scoring (BCS) System’s Scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See Pg. 18-7 for Scores and Descriptions </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Inadequate Nutrition Leads to Less Than Ideal Condition at Calving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Decreased Milk Production Which Leads to Reduced Calf Weaning Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May Cause Cows to Have Weak Calves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Calves Don’t Nurse in First 12 Hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Increases in Scours and Diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Lowered Weaning Weights </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Beef Nutrition <ul><li>Inadequate Nutrition Leads to Less Than Ideal Condition at Calving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases a Cow’s Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does Not Return to Estrus on Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calves are Born Late the Following Year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each Day a Cow Goes Over 365 Days Between Calves the Calf Will Weigh 1.5 to 2 Pounds Less at Weaning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Recommendation is to Sort Cows by Body Condition at Pregnancy Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Beef Producer to Feed Cattle to BCS 5 or 6 </li></ul></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Beef Heifers <ul><li>Choose Replacement Heifers From: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regularly Calving Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Genetic Merit First Calf Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Use an Anabolic Implant in Heifers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Seriously Affect Future Fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should Reach Puberty at 14 to 16 Months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% or More of Heifers Should be Cycling at Breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breed 2 to 3 Weeks Prior to Main Cow Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Extra Time for Heifers to Begin Cycling </li></ul></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Heifer Weights <ul><li>Target Weights at Breeding Should be 65% of the Heifers Mature Body Weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sizes Vary Depending on Breed of Cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See Page 15-6 for Crossbred Heifer Weights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the Table on Page 18-9 to Compare On-Farm Weights and Ideal Weights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal Weights Will Result in 80 to 90% Cycling Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use These Weights to Formulate Rations for Heavy and Light Halves of the Replacement Heifers </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Balanced Rations <ul><li>Feed Accounts for 70 to 80% of the Cost of Producing Beef </li></ul><ul><li>Ration = Feed/Animal Received in 24-Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Ration Furnishes the Nutrients Needed to Allow an Animal to Fulfill a Specific Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Maintenance, Growth, Gestation, or Lactation </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) <ul><li>A Measure of the Energy of Feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Known as the Calorie Content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amount TDN Varies Among Feedstuffs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grains = 70 - 80% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hay = 50% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Silage = 20% TDN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total Protein (Crude Protein) is Determined by Analyzing Feedstuffs for Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all Nitrogen is True Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urea, Biuret and Nitrate = Protein Equivalency </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Analyze Feedstuffs <ul><li>Feed Analysis is Needed to Accurately Formulate Economically Complete Rations </li></ul><ul><li>Some Roughage Feeds Can Meet Protein Requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Will Require Some Supplements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protein • Energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vitamins • Minerals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Once Nutrient Levels are Known Supplements Can be Added to Meet Minimum Requirements </li></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Winter Grazing Forages
    31. 31. Nutrient Requirements <ul><li>Change With Age </li></ul>
    32. 32. Water Requirements <ul><li>Abundant, Quality Water is Critical for Growth and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant Cows Require 10 Gallons of Water Daily </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements Will be Lesser in Cooler Months and Greater in Warmer Months </li></ul>
    33. 33. Dairy Nutrition <ul><li>Need Balanced Ration for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level of Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High Level of Milk Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by Four Factors of Inheritance, Management, Environmental Factors, Feeding Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Scoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses a Five Score System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Done at Calving, Peak Milk Production, Mid Lactation and Dry-off </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scores Will Vary at Each Stage </li></ul></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Body Condition Score 1
    35. 35. Body Condition Score 2
    36. 36. Body Condition Score 3
    37. 37. Body Condition Score 4
    38. 38. Body Condition Score 5
    39. 39. Gestation-Lactation Cycle <ul><li>Cows go Through Several Stages Between Calvings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Referred to as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gestation-Lactation Cycle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phases of Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Phase Has its Own Nutrient Requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No One Ration Will Consistently Work for a Cow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are Usually Five or Six Phases per Cow </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Phase 1 <ul><li>Dry Off (“Dry Period”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Day Cow is Dried Off Till 21 Days Prior to Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What Happens Here Will Affect Next Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary Glands Undergo Involution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetus Places Huge Demands on Protein and Energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Dry Cow Programs Result in an Increased 500 to 1000 Pounds More Milk Per Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimal Body Condition Score is 3.5 to 3.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should Not Change More Than .5 in Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Phase 2 <ul><li>Close Up (“Steam Up” or “Transition”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 Days Before Calving to Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Physiological Goals Must be Met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rumen Adaptation - To a Higher Energy Ration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium Homeostasis - Keep Normal, Feed Anionic Salts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Strong Immune System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Balance - DMI Decreases as Calving Approaches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Should be Between 3.5 and 3.75 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Overcrowd Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Stocking Rate of 85% is Optimal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overcrowding Reduces Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Phase 3 <ul><li>Fresh Cow (“Post Fresh Group”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving to 2-3 Weeks After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Metabolic Diseases Occur During This Phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Get Cows on Feed Rapidly After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locking Cows up After Milking to Monitor DMI Should be Considered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Will Decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Loose .5 Score </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Loose More Than 1.0 Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Phase 4 <ul><li>Early Lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 Weeks After Calving to 70 Days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peak Milk Should Occur During This Time (40-60 Days) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiply Peak by 200 to Estimate Total Production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Will Continue to Drop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should Have a Score of 2.5 to 3.25 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Have Dropped More Than 1.0 Score Since Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drops Greater Than 1.5 Score Requires Investigation </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 44. Phase 5 <ul><li>Mid Lactation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70 Days After Calving to 200 Days After Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starts at Time of Peak Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Also Start BST at Beginning of This Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to Optimize Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Should Not Increase Dramatically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Should NOT Decrease at All </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main Period for Reproductive Efforts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of Eligible Cows Should Become Pregnant </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Phase 6 <ul><li>Late Lactation (“Stripper” or “Tail Enders”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>200 Days After Calving Until Dry Off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of Rapid Decline in Milk Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should Regain Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Body Condition Score Should Increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Should End Period With a 3.5 to 3.75 Score </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 46. Nutrition and Reproduction <ul><li>All Nutrients That Affect Reproduction are Needed for Other Physiological Functions </li></ul><ul><li>Protein, Fat, Energy Status and Body Condition All Affect Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Minerals and Vitamins Can Indirectly Affect Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Disease Caused by Nutritional Deficiencies Also Affect Reproduction </li></ul>
    47. 47. Energy <ul><li>All Cows are Subject to a Negative Energy Balance During the Early Phases of Lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Maximize DMI to Minimize the Degree of Negative Energy Balance </li></ul><ul><li>A Higher DMI Allows Cows to Produce More Milk and Enter Estrus and Ovulate Earlier </li></ul><ul><li>Fat Supplementation in Early Lactation Helps Reproduction </li></ul>
    48. 48. Body Condition Score <ul><li>Energy and Body Score are Closely Related </li></ul><ul><li>When Energy Intakes Don’t Meet Demands for Milk Production Cow Looses Weight and Drops Body Condition Score </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Want to Loose More Than 1.5 Score </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy Can be Fed in Excess and Cows Will Become Fat </li></ul><ul><li>Energy Intake Needs to be Closely Regulated During Phase 6 </li></ul>
    49. 49. Protein <ul><li>High Levels of Milk Production Require Dairy Rations to be Supplemented With Protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially Needed During Early Lactation High Concentrate Feeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protein Can be Over Supplemented </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High Rumen Degradable Protein Diets Can Cause: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowered Conception Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Days to First Ovulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Days to First Service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Services per Conception </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Older Animals are Affected More </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Feeding Management <ul><li>High Producing Cows are Pushed to the Limit With Energy Dense Rations </li></ul><ul><li>Need to Maximize Dry Matter Intake and Milk Production While Minimizing Metabolic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Factors That Can be Regulated are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Bunk Management </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Over Crowding Can Lower DMI </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Should be Housed in Conditions That are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well Lit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly Ventilated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Adequate Space for Cows to Lie Down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Stalls Should Have Properly Designed Stalls so Cows Lay Down and Don’t Stand Half in and Half out </li></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Facilities Good – No Over Crowding, Clean, Proper Ventilation Poor – Over crowded, Poorly Lighted
    53. 53. Feed Management <ul><li>Major Ration Ingredients are Forages and Concentrates </li></ul><ul><li>All Feeds Should Have a Known Moisture Content and Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fermented Forages Change in Moisture Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry Matter Analysis Should be Done Weekly or Bi-Weekly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Tested Using a Microwave or Koster Tester </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Complete Wet Chemistry Analysis Should be Done Several Times a Year </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Feed Management <ul><li>Pay Attention to Physical Components of Feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totally Mixed Rations (TMR’s) Should Not be Over Mixed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over Mixing Reduces the Amount of Long Particles (Effective Fiber) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritionists Will Routinely Use a “Shaker Box” to Check Feed for Over Mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diets With Inadequate Effective Fiber May Cause Subclinical Acidosis or Displaced Abomasums </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Feed Management <ul><li>Most Rations are Balanced Using Linear Programming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it Difficult to Balance a “Bad” Ration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remember a Cow Doesn’t Eat What is on Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is Difficult and Time Consuming to Figure Out What a Cow Does Eat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Common Ration Problems Occur Because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Old or Improper Nutrient Analysis Errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human or Mixing Errors </li></ul></ul>
    56. 56. Feed Bunk Management <ul><li>If a Cow Can Not Get to the Feed Bunk She Can Not Eat the Feed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for 24 Inches Per Cow of Feed Bunk Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Feed Bunk Should Not Restrict Head and Neck Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Should be Pushed up and Turned Frequently in Free-stalls and Dry Lot Dairies </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Prefer Eating Off Ground Rather Than Out of Elevated Feed Bunks </li></ul>
    57. 57. Feed Bunk Management <ul><li>Bunks Should be Designed With Smooth Surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for Easy Cleaning and Daily DMI Monitoring (Per Pen Basis) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There Should Always be 5-10% Feed Refusals Left in the Bunk </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Should Always Have Access to Feed and Water </li></ul>
    58. 58. Feed Storage <ul><li>Bunker Silos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed so Easily Packed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove at Least 6 Inches Off Face Each Day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facing Edge Should be Kept Straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Piles Should be Avoided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Fermentation Quickly Reduces Feed Quality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Covered and Exposed as Needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ag Bags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Kept Free of Holes and Packed Properly </li></ul></ul>
    59. 59. Metabolic Disorders <ul><li>Many are Related to Nutritional Imbalances </li></ul><ul><li>Some Disorders Affect Reproductive Efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Many Metabolic Disorders are Related </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Once a Cow Gets One, Her Likelihood of Getting Another Increases </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Displaced Abomasums <ul><li>No Single Nutritional Factor is a Cause </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate Fiber Does Play a Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber Provides a Physical Filling Effect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the “Empty” Space in a Cow’s Abdomen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empty Space is Created Due to Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus and Calf Used to Take Up a Lot of Space </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequently Associated With Ketosis </li></ul><ul><li>Days to Conception Will Generally Increase </li></ul>
    61. 61. Milk Fever <ul><li>Condition in Which There is an Inadequate Supply of Calcium in the Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Has a Propensity to Cause Other Conditions Like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained Placentas That Lead to Metritis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herds Experiencing a Large Amount of Milk Fever Should Feed Anionic Salts to Transition Cows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor Salts Effectiveness With Urine pH Testing </li></ul></ul>
    62. 62. Fatty Liver <ul><li>Does NOT Affect Only Over Conditioned Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Suffering Excessive Negative Energy Balance During Dry Period and Transition Begin to Mobilize Large Amounts of Fat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA’s) Enter the Blood Stream and Collect in the Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NEFA’s Interfere With Normal Cell Function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cows are More Likely to Suffer From Ketosis and Other Metabolic Diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to Breed Cows are Likely Candidates </li></ul>
    63. 63. Ketosis <ul><li>Mobilized Body Fat is Incompletely Metabolized by the Liver </li></ul><ul><li>Cows With Ketosis are More Likely to Develop Other Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Increases Days to First Service and Days Open </li></ul>
    64. 64. Dairy Heifers <ul><li>Underfed and Thin Heifers Will Reach Puberty Later Than Normal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Will Also Experience Irregular Estrus Cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breed Heifers to Calve at 23-24 Months </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional Requirements Need to be Worked out for Earlier Calvings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heifers Need to Gain 1.5 to 1.8 lbs. per Day of Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the Chart on Pg. 18-3 as a Guide </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. Dairy Heifer Feeding <ul><li>To Calve at 24 Months, Heifer Calves Must be Started Right </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good Results From Calves Start With the Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow’s Immune System Serves as the Calf’s Immune System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After Birth the Calf Needs Cow’s Colostrum to Fight Off Disease and Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calf Should Consume a Gallon of Colostrum Within the First 12 Hours of Life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be Sure the Colostrum is of Good Quality in Order to Prevent Failure of Passive Transfer (FPT) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Check Colostrum With a Colostrometer </li></ul></ul></ul>
    66. 66. Dairy Calf Diet <ul><li>To Meet Size and Weight Gain Goals, Manage Calf Diet to Consist of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>21 - 22% Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18 - 20% Fat Milk Based Powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free Access to Calf Starter From Birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulates Rumen Development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Replacer at 10% of Calf’s Birth Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Water at All Times by Day 4 of Life </li></ul></ul>
    67. 67. Dairy Calf Weaning <ul><li>Calves Should be Weaned Based on Feed Consumption, Health History and Body Condition — NOT Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calves Should be Consuming 1.5 to 2 lbs. of Calf Starter per Day at Weaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feed Hay 1 to 2 Weeks After Weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to Feed Calf Starter for 2 Weeks After Weaning, Then Switch to a Growing Ration </li></ul>
    68. 68. Dairy Calf Housing <ul><li>Individual Calf Hutches Can be Used Until 2 Weeks After Weaning </li></ul><ul><li>Then Calves Can be Put Into Small Groups (No More Than 15) of Similar Size Calves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do Not Overcrowd These Calves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch Ventilation and Calf Comfort to Minimize Disease and Optimize Growth </li></ul></ul>
    69. 69. Dairy Heifer Calves <ul><li>Supplemental Concentrate Rations Along With Pasture and Roughages Provide a Well Balanced Diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Prevent Reproductive Problems Later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended to Feed Heifers Good Roughage and 2 lbs. of Concentrate per Day per Head </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed Ionophores to Increase Feed Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contact Veterinarian to Develop a Vaccination Routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects Against Internal and External Parasites </li></ul></ul>
    70. 70. Summary <ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper Nutrition Critical in Achieving High Pregnancy Rates, Early Weaning and Early Return to Estrus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To Achieve 1-Calf-per-Year Cows Need 80 Days After Calving to Recover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should Score 5 or 6 on the BCS System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Underfeeding Lowers Conception Rates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overfeeding Reduces Productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use a “Target Weight Concept” to Feed Calves to Desired Weight and Condition </li></ul></ul></ul>
    71. 71. Summary <ul><li>Beef </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced Ration Furnishes Needed Nutrients in Proper Amounts and Proportions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laboratory Analysis of Feedstuffs Must be Obtained to Produce a Good Nutritional Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Roughages are Deficient in Protein, Energy, Vitamins and Minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient Requirements Change With Age and Rate of Development </li></ul></ul>
    72. 72. Summary <ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Balanced Rations are Needed as Cows Progress Through the Gestation-Lactation Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolic Diseases Can Affect Both Production and Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Production Peaks During the First 8 Weeks of Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Bred too Early May Still be in a Weight Loss Period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Lead to a Reduction in Pregnancy Rate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    73. 73. Summary <ul><li>Dairy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should Never Loose More Than 1.5 Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Losses Will Affect Reproductive Performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last 24 Weeks of Production is Optimal Time for Cows to Regain Body Condition Score </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows Should be Dried Off in Good Calving Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Dry Cow Should Maintain Her Weight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work With Your Veterinarian and Nutritionist to Maintain Proper Herd Nutrition </li></ul></ul>
    74. 74. Question 1 <ul><li>How does nutrition affect the reproductive performance of the cow herd? </li></ul>Underfeeding will result in lower conception rates, overfeeding will result in reduced productivity.
    75. 75. Question 2 <ul><li>How would different feeding situations influence the specific nutrient requirements of the cow herd? </li></ul>A cow in a cold climate requires more food to maintain itself than a cow in a warm climate.
    76. 76. Question 3 <ul><li>Why should virgin beef heifers be inseminated two to three weeks before the cow herd? </li></ul>They require more time to repair to breed back.
    77. 77. Question 4 <ul><li>What roles do the minerals calcium and phosphorus play in an animal’s development? </li></ul>Calcium: Bone and teeth formation, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, normal milk secretion Phosphorus: Bone and teeth formation (80%), metabolic functions energy and amino acid metabolism, activation of enzymes, nucleic acids, muscle synthesis
    78. 78. Question 4 <ul><li>What trace minerals are necessary for the metabolic function of the animals? </li></ul>Iron and Copper
    79. 79. Question 5 <ul><li>Why is it advisable to supplement the animal’s diet with Vitamin A? </li></ul>To boost the immune system.
    80. 80. Question 6 <ul><li>When does a dairy cow’s dry matter intake usually peak? </li></ul><ul><li>How might this affect the cow’s pregnancy rate? </li></ul>After milk production peaks. If bred while gaining weight a better conception rate can be expected.
    81. 81. Question 7 <ul><li>Why is a properly balanced ration important? </li></ul>It provides the nutritional need for the animal to fulfill its intended purpose.
    82. 82. Question 8 <ul><li>How do the nutritional needs of a heifer change during its cycle? </li></ul>It increases significantly when the heifer has calved and is lactating.
    83. 83. Question 9 <ul><li>Why is protein supplementation often necessary for milking cows? </li></ul>Because there is an energy deficiency early in the lactation.

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