Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Feeding Dry Dairy Cows Lower Energy Diets

576 views

Published on

Dr. Heather Dann presented this information for DAIReXNET. Learn about the importance of transition cow management, and how feeding lower-energy transition diets could benefit a herd. From monitoring intake to coordinating various diets, Dr. Dann offers insights into setting cows up for success in their next lactation. Available on YouTube at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ImX7bVlfdSo

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Feeding Dry Dairy Cows Lower Energy Diets

  1. 1. Feeding Dry Dairy Cows Lower Energy Diets Heather Dann, Ph.D.
  2. 2. Nutrition and Management During the Dry and Fresh Periods Dictate the Success or Failure of the Lactation
  3. 3. Transition Success • The cow is… – Healthy – Produces a large quantity of milk with good components – Able to reproduce at the appropriate time • The dairy is… – Profitable and sustainable
  4. 4. What are our challenges?
  5. 5. Too Many Health Problems… Problem Median Incidence Risk (%) Range of Incidence Risk (%) Estimated Cost ($/case) Lameness 7 2–30 302–400 Clinical mastitis 14 2–55 185–205 Subclinical mastitis 30 15–60 – Metritis 10 2–37 359 Subclinical metritis 53 37–74 – Retained fetal membranes 9 1–39 285 Ketosis 5 1–18 145 Subclinical ketosis 43 26–55 67 Hypocalcemia 7 0–22 335 Subclinical hypocalcemia 22 8–54 125 Adapted from Van Saun & Sniffen, 2014
  6. 6. Dry and Fresh Cow Nutrition Continues to Evolve • Use integrated strategies to support… – Energy metabolism – Protein metabolism – Mineral metabolism – Immune function – Rumen function
  7. 7. The Best Formulated Diets Cannot Overcome Suboptimal Management Practices Implement management practices that allow access to good quality feed while minimizing social and environmental stressors and promoting cow comfort
  8. 8. Far-off Dry Close- up Dry Fresh Early Lactation Far-off Dry Close-up Dry 1 Group or High Lactation 1 Group Dry (often shorter dry period) Fresh Early Lactation 1 Group Dry (often shorter dry period) 1 Group or High Lactation -8 -3 0 +2??? Week of Lactation
  9. 9. How much TMR are the cows eating? Does the dairy know? Does the dairy measure it?
  10. 10. Intake is Critical for Success 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Far-off Close-up Fresh High lb/d Controlled by Physical and Chemostatic Mechanisms Influenced by Feeding Management, Social Interactions, and Environment
  11. 11. Too Little or Too Much Intake is a Problem Fresh Period Health Problems in 1500 – 1600 lb Holsteins • ~26 to 28 lb DM/d • Poor starts and peak milk • Action – Test feed quality/digestibility – Evaluate bunk management, feed availability – Assess non-nutritional stressors • >33 lb DM/d • Before calving – BW/BCS gain • After calving – Sluggish intake – Excessive BW/BCS loss • Action – Limit grain-type forages, other palatable feeds to control intake – Complement with a consistent, low K, bulky forage source
  12. 12. Carbohydrates A Focus Area Since Carbohydrates Contribute the Majority of Energy • Steam-up vs higher forage dry diets to control energy intake – 0.56 to 0.66 Mcal NEL/lb DM • (1.25 to 1.45 Mcal NEL/kg DM) – 100 to 110% ME • Prolonged overconsumption of energy during the dry period can result in poorer transitions
  13. 13. Overfed Cows Have… • Abdominal fat deposition • Insulin resistance • Blood NEFA and BHBA • Liver triglyceride • Body weight/condition loss after calving • Chronic inflammation • Health problems • DM intake • Energy intake • Milk • Reproductive performance • Profitability
  14. 14. Higher Forage, Lower Energy Dry Diet AKA Controlled Energy Diet, Goldilocks Diet, #@! Straw Diet Drackley, 2013 Feeding to meet cows’ requirements Not too much, not too little…but just right Promote consistent intake throughout the dry period…to promote high intake after calving
  15. 15. Higher Forage, Lower Energy Diets Controlling Energy Intake while Meeting Other Nutrient Needs • Must be a transition period strategy…not a close- up or pre-fresh strategy only 1 or 2 dry groups
  16. 16. Higher Forage, Lower Energy Diets Controlling Energy Intake while Meeting Other Nutrient Needs • Often based on corn silage and straw – Feeding characteristics – 100 to 110% of ME – 12-18% starch; >40% NDF (gut fill) – 1,000 to 1,300 g MP • Fine tune based on… – Fermentable carbohydrates – Cow response (intake, health, performance) Drackley, 2006; Drackley et al., 2007
  17. 17. Feed Higher Forage (Straw/Hay), Lower Energy Diets as a TMR • Feed as a TMR, no free- choice forage – High level of feeding management • Free-choice low-energy forage with limit-fed balanced partial mix is a poor second choice
  18. 18. Straw A “Low Quality” Forage • Need to consider other quality indicators – Palatability, amount of contaminants, presence of molds • Need a consistent source
  19. 19. 3/4” 5/16” 5/32” Pan 20% 20% 20% 40% Straw Particle Size to Minimize Sorting
  20. 20. Common Way Cows Consume Too Much Energy on a Properly Formulated Diet Hay & Straw Not Incorporated Well, Particle Size Too Long Photos Courtesy of T. R. Overton
  21. 21. Sorting • Evaluate TMR at feed out and throughout day along with refusals – Visual – Penn State Particle Separator - < 10-15% – Chemical composition (NDF, CP) - < 10% • Evaluate cows for change and variation – Body condition – Body weight Drackley et al., 2007
  22. 22. BCS doesn’t tell the whole story Excessive dietary energy leads to greater visceral fat deposition in thin cows than in fat cows… Nikkhah et al., 2008
  23. 23. Monitor Body Weight Change to Identify Problems before They Happen
  24. 24. How Should We Transition Cows From a Higher Forage, Lower Energy Dry Diet to a Lactating Diet?
  25. 25. Fresh Cow Diet Frequently Based on the High Cow Diet • Some common adjustments… – Less starch & more fiber – More physically effective fiber (peNDF) • Usually less than 2.2 lb of chopped straw/hay – Additional rumen undegradable protein/AA – Additional rumen inert fat – Strategic addition of other nutrients and additives • Promote rumen function and a rapid rise in intake – Minimize SARA and chronic inflammation
  26. 26. Take Home Messages • Higher forage, lower energy diets fed during the dry period can help cows achieve transition success – Diet is only part of it… need to minimize stressors • Meet all nutrient requirements while not greatly exceeding requirement for energy • Diet is often based on corn silage and straw
  27. 27. How Can Higher Forage, Lower Energy Diets Improve Transition Success? • Stabilize DMI and prevent large drops in DMI before calving • Prevent “fat cow”-type responses to excessive energy consumption (insulin resistance, fatty liver, ketosis…) • Decrease K intakes and prevent low blood Ca • Increase DMI after calving along with improved rumen fill and function – Decrease risk of DA, acidosis
  28. 28. Attention to Feeding Management is Critical for Transition Success • Measure DMI • Test feeds (forages) • Feed the diets as a TMR starting at dry-off • Process the straw or hay • Monitor sorting • Use a fresh cow diet…especially with 1-group dry diet
  29. 29. www.whminer.org dann@whminer.com

×