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The	“Sharing”	Economy
Hugo	Guyader,	PhD	Candidate	in	Marketing	
Department	of	Management	&	Engineering	(IEI)	
Division	of	Business	Administration	(FEK)
2018-03-12
@experienceetchugo.guyader@liu.se
Hugo	Guyader
• PhD Candidate at LiU. 

OuiShare Sweden Connector.
• Multi-method approach to research:
experiments, surveys, interviews,
(n)etnography..
• Research interests: collaborative
consumption, shared mobility
services (i.e. ridesharing, P2P
rentals), sustainable consumption.
• Teaching in Fundamental	Marketing,
Consumer	Behavior, Service	Marketing,
Advanced	Marketing, Leadership	&	
Strategy	…
The	 	Economy
What’s	Mine	is	Yours
TEDTalk 2010: 

the case for 

Collaborative Consumption
Products and services are
swapped, redistributed,
shared, rented or gifted.
Consumers access to 

more resources, 

more convenience,

and at lower costs.
(Botsman	&	Rogers	2010)
(Botsman	&	Rogers	2010)
Collaborative	
Consumption	
Systems
TRUST																							#1	barrier	to	sharing
67% express trust concerns as the primary barrier
to join a collaborative consumption service
30% fear that their goods will be stolen or broken
23% express a basic mistrust of strangers
14% express “privacy concerns”
(Campbell	Mithun	2012)
Sharing platforms use peer-review and
reputation-based systems to create
trust and alleviate the problem of “free-
riders” who do not contribute.
✓ a critical mass of users
✓ idling or excess capacity of unused goods
✓ belief in the common good
✓ social trust
The P2P Foundation also identifies 2 main societal drivers:
• community dynamics in conducting business and the
combined effect of digital reproduction
• the increasingly 'socialized' production of value.
4	principles	of	collaborative	consumption
Some	clarification
Collaborative Economy: An economy built on decentralised networks
and marketplaces that unlocks the value of underused assets by matching
needs and haves, in ways that bypass traditional middlemen and disrupt
centralised institutions.
- collaborative consumption (Maximum assets utilisation through
models of redistribution and shared access) ≈ “Sharing Economy”
- collaborative production (Design, production, and distribution of
goods through collaborative networks)
- collaborative finance (P2P banking and crowd-driven investment
models that decentralise finance)
- collaborative education (Open education and person-to-person
learning models that democratise education)
Think-tank and global community (10.000 members) since
2011, developing a framework that explains and brings
together different phenomena into one coherent vision:
« build a society based on openness, 

collaboration and sharing »
Projects and activities include community building, producing
knowledge and incubating projects, offering support to individuals,
public institutions, and companies through professional services and
education.
OuiShare
(Jägerskog	2017)
(Jägerskog	2017)
(Crowd	Companies	2014)
Why	participate
Participation is rather a choice than a necessity.

“homo cooperans” not “homo economicus”

they cooperate for their emancipation, autonomy,
social justice, knowledge sharing and open production.
‣ mobile and
connected (the “dot-
com” 

generation)
‣ millennial
‣ mid-high income
‣ high level of
education
‣ living in urban areas
‣ unique personality
‣ like to experiment
new things
‣ innovative, playful
and creative
Who	are	the	“NOwners”
(European	Commission	2015)
1 	Access
Rental, outsourcing, or leasing services offer the benefits of ownership,
but without ownership.
➡ paradigm shift from ownership and acquisition models to
access-based consumption
- Firms offer access-based services to customers 

(i.e. B2C market mediated exchanges)
- Product utilisation is increased 

(i.e. customers sequentially accessing the same product over its lifetime)
- Temporal solutions to customer needs

(i.e. cheap, on-demand, self-service, eco-friendly alternatives without long-term
commitment)
For instance, Zipcar offers access to a fleet of electric cars (i.e. a traditional firm
owning assets): ‘Zipsters’ (paying customers who sign up to a membership plan)
can reserve a conveniently located car via an app (unlocking it with a smartcard),
which they return to the same location after their rental duration (usage-based
pricing) for the next customer to use.
• Online platforms enable private individuals to
organise the P2P exchange of their under-
utilised resources, thereby disrupting industry
incumbents (e.g., hotel chains).
• For instance, Airbnb hosts (i.e. peer service
providers) offer accommodation rental (P2P
services) to guests (consumers) via a the
website (marketplace).
2 	Peer-to-Peer	/	Consumer-to-Consumer
Technology has enabled people to get what they need from each other,
rather than from traditional companies selling goods and services.
➡ paradigm shift from B2C to C2C (P2P)
• The more network users, 

the more valuable it becomes, 

the better services can be provided.
• Service organisations develop
online platforms that enable their
users to exchange P2P services.
PROVIDERSCONSUMERS
Heimans	&	Timms	HBR	2014
The	Participation	Scale
Sharing	Economy	drivers:
- the economic incentive
- an urge to reduce the socio-

environmental impact of consumption 

and a belief in “the commons”
- desires to satisfy altruistic needs and
feelings of communal belonging
- shift from ownership to access
- ICT developments = convenience
Collaborative
Economy
Honeycomb
A Day in the
Life of the
Collaborative
Economy
Bike	Sharing Bitcoin Car	Sharing CoWorking Clothing Delivery
Donkey	Republic Bitcoin	Dojo	(Göteborg) AudiUnite Café	&	Co	(Stockholm) Klädbytardag BagHitch
Lånelastcyklar	(Umeå) Bitcoin	Stockholm Autoresurs	Bilpool	(Malmö)	 Coffice	Coop	(Stockholm) Klädbytardagar Freelway
Lundahoj	(Lund) Bitcoin	Hackers	(Stockholm) Car2Go D82	(Stockholm) Klädbyte MyWays
Cykelköket	(Gothenburg) Linköping	Bitcoin	Meetup Delebilen	(Denmark) EntreprenörKyrkan	(Stockholm) Klädbibliotek	(Uppsala) Urbit
Stockhom	City	Bikes Malmö	Bitcoin	Users Driveback Epicenter	(Stockholm) Klädoteket
Styr	&	Ställ	(Gothenburg) Swedizen	(Stockholm) Göteborgs	Bilkoop	(Majornas	BillkooperaSv) Hus24	(Stockholm) Lånegarderoben
Hertz	Freerider Hoffice Sabina	and	friends	(Stockholm)
Hertz	BilPool	(Norway) Impact	Hub	(Stockholm) Second	Lounge
Move	About Knäckeriet	(Stockholm) SwopShop
SamBil	(cooperaSve	1980	-	inacSve) Kolonien	(Stockholm) The	Wardrobe
Stockholm	BilPool Start-Up	People	of	Sweden	(SUP46)
StudentBilen	(Nissan) StudioVerket
SunFleet	(Hertz) The	Castle	(Stockholm)
UbiGo The	Park	(Stockholm)
Vivallabil	(cooperaSve	1983Orebro	-	inacSve)	 THINGS	(Stockholm)
United	Space
We	Have	Co	(Stockholm)
Work	Around
FabLab/MakerSpace Food	Sharing Knowledge	sharing On-Demand	Services RedistribuDng/Selling Ridesharing
FabLab@School.dk AirDine beady.se Butlr Bjussa.se	(rensavinden.nu) Ants	(Norway)
Gothenburg	Hackerspace AllWin Digiref.se DoMyTask Blocket.se Bilplats.se
IX	Sthlm EatnJoy Directory	of	Open	Access	Journals Grannar.se Bortskänkes/mobages/ges/doneras/301 GoMore
MarkersLink	(Linköping) Solikyl	(Gothenburg) Fruktkartan:	map	free	fruits Haxi	(Norway) Bortskänkes.se Mobil	Samåkning
Mikrofabriken	(Gothenburg) FriSdsbanken	 Helping Bort.nu Roadmate	(Hertz	First	Rent	A	Car	-	inacSve)
Open	Lab	(Stockholm) Gapminder Hinner	Inte	Hinner	Du Endast	BORTSKÄNKES	i	Majorna! Samåkning.se
Recompile	(Malmö) MabeHjälpen	(Linköping) TaskRunner Freeshop.se Samlats.se	(inacSve)
SIS	AFK	(Blekinge) MinFarm Uber	PoP	[stopped	May	2016] Freecycle	GBG	(Gothenburg) Skjutsgruppen	("Ridesharing	Movement")
Sparvnästet	(Stockholm) Time	Village Vint:	P2P	workout Garaget	(Malmö) We	Are	Together
Stockholm	Makerspace Tutopia	(Linköping) WayWay Il	Recycling
THINGS	(Stockholm) Tuva:	Internet	sharing Jumblets
ToolPool	(Malmö) Köpes/Säljes/Bortskänkes	,	Göteborg
Umeå	Hackerspace Möbler	säljes/köpes/bortskänkes
Myrorna
off2off
Schpock
SyndAbKasta
Tiptapp
P2P	Car	Rentals P2P	Home	Rentals P2P	Lending/Funding P2P	parking	space P2P	RenDng Professional	Services
Flexidrive	(SnappCar) Airbnb CrowdCube ApParkingSpot Delbar Coompanion
GoMore FriTiden.se CrowdCulture GrannSaker eWork
ridebite.com HemByte.nu	(HomeExchange) FundedByMe Hygglo Kompanjoner
HomeLink.org	(bostadsbyte.com) Lendify Rentl PopUpMore
Meet	The	Swedes ToBorrow Swinga	Bazaar Re:TexSle
Semesterbyte.com	(inacSve) Trustbuddy Tjikko SpaceTime
ToBorrow
(Guyader	2017)
People	would	share	everything	to	save/make	money
➡ 68%	of	30.000	US	consumers	are	willing	to	share	what	
they	own	in	exchange	of	a	fee	
‣ potential	value	of	the	sharing	economy	sector

$335	billion	by	2025		(+25%	each	year)	
	
(Nielsen	2014,	PWC	2014)
Lisa Gansky (2010). “The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing.” — Chelsea Rustrum, Gabriel Stempinski & Alexandra Liss
(2014). “It's a shareable life: A Practical Guide to Sharing.”  — Jasper Ribbers & Huzefa Kapadia (2014). “Get Paid For Your Pad:
How to Maximize Profit From Your Airbnb Listing.”  — Warren Bell (2014). “The Airbnb Entrepreneur: How To Earn Big Profits,
Even If You Don't Own a Property.”  — Christopher M. Jennings (2014). “Darebnb: The truth about turning your unused space into
real income on Airbnb.”   — John Dale (2015). “Learn how to make an extra income renting your short-term rental or spare room all
over the world!”  — Alex Stephany (2015). “The Business of Sharing: Making it in the New Sharing Economy.”  — Claire Marshall
(2015). “How to make money (and a whole lot more) by Sharing. A quick start guide to the sharing economy.”  — Glenn Carter
(2015). “Secrets of the Sharing Economy: Unofficial Guide to Using Airbnb, Uber, & More to Earn $1000’s.”  — Michael James
(2015). “Airbnb Super-Host: The Ultimate Guide to Hosting Success: Unlock Your Home's Earning Potential The Right Way To
Make More Money with Airbnb.”  — Michael Fertik & David C. Thompson (2015). “The Reputation Economy: How to Optimize
Your Digital Footprint in a World Where Your Reputation Is Your Most Valuable Asset.”   — Sally Miller (2015). “Make Money On
Airbnb: How To Quickly And Easily Earn $2,500 A Month From Your Home.”  — Billee Howard (2015). “We-Commerce: How to
Create, Collaborate, and Succeed in the Sharing Economy.”  — Bryan Kramer (2015). “Shareology: How Sharing is Powering the
Human Economy.”  — Diane Mulcahy (2016). “The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time
Off, and Financing the Life You Want.”  — Nick Loper (2016). “Buy Buttons: The Fast-Track Strategy to Make Extra Money and
Start a Business in Your Spare Time. [Featuring 300+ Apps and Peer-to-Peer Marketplaces]” — Jared Meyer (2016). “Uber-Positive:
Why Americans Love the Sharing Economy.”  — Beandrea July (2016). “Airbnb Your Life: The Host Edition:”  — Vince Hinojosa
(2016) “Confessions of an AirBNB Host: How I made $17,623 on AirBNB and So Can You!.”
Portlandia	-	Rent	It	Out!
Youtube
Cultivated	Wit	-	WellDeserved:	A	Marketplace	For	Privilege
Youtube
everybody
does not
stand equal
opportunities
in the
sharing
economy
because of
race,
religion,
gender, or
disability
shareable.net
Is	‘sharing’	just	a	fancy	word	for	‘rental’?
• Some organisations are public initiatives or small cooperatives,
others develop platform business models capitalising on
existing communities and enhancing the P2P services with
powerful matchmaking algorithms in exchange of a transaction
fixed fee and/or a commission.
Sharing Economy “unicorns”:
‣ Uber = $70 billion
‣ Airbnb = $30+ billion
• VCs and business angels have invested about billions in tech-
startups with sharing schemes.
- e.g., automotive industry incumbents (Daimler, Ford, GM,
VW, BMW, etc.) acquire startups by the dozens!
Ride-hailing
• BMW ➠ ReachNow
• Daimler ➠ Careem, Chauffeur Privé,
MyTaxi, Taxibeat, Uber
• Ford ➠ Chariot, Lyft
• Fiat-Chrysler ➠ Waymo
• GM ➠ Lyft, Sidecar
• Honda ➠ GrabTaxi
• Nissan ➠ Easy Ride
• Toyota ➠ Uber
• Volvo Cars ➠ Uber
• Volkswagen ➠ Gett (Juno)
P2P Car Rental
• Daimler ➠ Turo (Mercedes Croove)
• Ford ➠ GetAround
• GM ➠ Turo (RelayRides)
• Opel (CarUnity) ➠ Tamyca
• Peugeot-Citroën ➠ Koolicar
Carpooling
• Daimler ➠ Flinc, Via
• Enterprise ➠ Zimride
• GM ➠ Flinc
B2C Car Sharing/Rental
• Avis Budget ➠ Zipcar
• BMW ➠ DriveNow
• Daimler ➠ Car2Go
• Ford ➠ EasyCar Club, FlightCar,
GoDrive
• GM ➠ Maven
• Hertz ➠ Hertz Freerider
• Nissan ➠ MoveAbout
• Peugeot-Citroën ➠ Free2Move
• Renault ➠ Zity
• Volvo Cars ➠ Sunfleet
• Volkswagen ➠ Audi On-Demand,
AudiUnite, Porsche Passport, Audi
Silvercar
(Guyader	2018)
Collaborative	consumption	is	nothing	new
recirculation of goods

- eBay
increased utilisation of durable assets 

- CouchSurfing
exchange of services 

- time banks
sharing of productive assets 

- farmers’ cooperatives
False	Promises?
Cheaper than market alternatives. Really?
Green? Less resource-intensive practices reducing
carbon footprints, and reducing demand for new
goods/facilities?
Increasing social connections?
Commitment to social transformation: emphasis
on the ideological values of sharing and collaboration?
While	the	for-profit	companies	may	be	“acting	badly,”	these	new	technologies	of	peer-to-peer	
economic	activity	are	potentially	powerful	tools	for	building	a	social	movement	centred	on	genuine	
practices	of	sharing	and	cooperation	in	the	production	and	consumption	of	goods	and	services.	But	
achieving	that	potential	will	require	democratising	the	ownership	and	governance	of	the	platforms.	
(Schor	2014)
Disruption?
‣ The most common model is to take a
commission on transactions; something
businesses have been doing for centuries.
‣ Technology has done many things, but to
date it hasn't been able to completely do
away with the middleman.
‣ Despite their power to disrupt incumbents, sharing
economy businesses make use of the same traditional
business models.
What’s	Yours	is	Mine
✦ Unfulfilled promises of the Sharing Economy

openness, democratisation, equality, communitarian
values, personal exchanges/interactions, trust between
strangers, micro-entrepreneurship, less materialism
with access over ownership, sustainability, etc.
✦ In reality:
- creates new forms of commerce and new marketplaces,
- not 100% safe and trustworthy
- centralised control or mutual surveillance system,
- money for investors but not the workers
- deregulated free-market in private lives, etc.
✦ Conflicting languages:
(Slee	2016)
community,	collective	action,	
libertarian/progressive	politics,	
grassroots	activism,	social	change	
private/corporate	
financial/commercial	
gains
VS
We-Washing		
Share-Washing	

Collaborative	Washing
➡ Online platforms claim to foster
communal belonging by borrowing the
semantics of the sharing ethos, whereas
they actually foster a market
professionalisation of P2P exchange (e.g.,
into rental services).
➡ The “true sharing” movement raises
awareness of this loss of communities and
criticises Sharing Economy unicorns.
William Alden
What	is	an	authentic	sharing	platform?
BlaBlaCar (FR) has been criticised of killing the original ridesharing
ideology for changing its business model (2012: from free to fees) and
“forcing” an online registration system.
Direct contact between users (exchange of emails, phone numbers)
became impossible and forbidden, and the price rose to take into
consideration the driver’s car depreciation and the platform’s commission.
The social aspect diminished (i.e. riders listen to music, sleep, claim
reserved seats; direct communication is impossible before a reservation)
and the economic aspect reversed (i.e. 12% commission, less flexibility
with booking and pricing).
Users perceive that digital security became a hassle, trust
between members faded, the original communal spirit
vanished and monetary benefits became the norm.
Sharing
Belk (2007) definition of sharing:
“voluntary	lending,	pooling	and	allocation	of	resources,	and	
authorized	use	of	public	property,	but	not	contractual	renting,	
leasing,	or	unauthorized	use	of	property	by	theft	or	trespass”
=> the Sharing Economy is not true sharing (Belk 2014):
-	presence	of	profit	motives

-	absence	of	feelings	of	community

-	expectations	of	reciprocity
“sharing is a phenomenon as old as humankind, 

while collaborative consumption and the ‘sharing economy’ 

are phenomena born of the Internet age.”
Sharing
✓ True sharing involve caring and love, it is driven by altruistic motives (i.e. not ,
personal), indirect reciprocity (i.e. not direct reciprocity), in-direct economic
benefits (i.e. non-monetary), communal belonging, and relying on mutual trust
and social bonds without contracts or legal requirements (Belk 2010, 2014,
2017).
✓ Sharing out (vs. Sharing in) “involves giving to others outside the boundaries
separating self and other, and is closer to gift giving and commodity
exchange” (Belk 2010 p.725).
✓ “If we conceive of a continuum commodity exchange lies at one end and sharing
at the other, with gift giving somewhere in the middle” (Belk, 2007, p.127).
commodity		
exchange
gift	
giving
sharing
• Acts of collaborative consumption can be defined as “events
in which one or more persons consume economic goods or
services in the process of engaging in joint activities with one
or more others”.
• Collaborative consumption may or may not involve direct
physical contact between collaborators:
– ‘direct-contact collaboration’ = same place at the
same time
– ‘system-hookup collaboration’ = different places but
at the same time
– ‘segregated collaboration’ = different times and places
(Felson	&	Spaeth	1978)
(Outdated)	Academic	Definitions
• The term “The Share Economy” dates back to 1984
• Martin Weitzman argues that full employment
and social welfare could be achieved if workers
were paid a ‘share’ of the firm revenues.
• Companies would have an
incentive to create jobs
because more workers would
be paid only in proportion to
what they have brought in.
(Outdated)	Academic	Definitions
Heart	and	Wallet	paradox
Sharing Economy’s ideological tensions:
1. a logic of economic market-mediated exchange
with aspects of profit-maximization, negative
reciprocity, independence between parties who
have self-interested motivations
2. a logic of non-market exchange with elements
of solidarity, mutuality, generalized reciprocity,
and communal norms establishing
interdependence between participants
Platform	Cooperativism
• Sharing platforms that facilitate P2P service exchange
should adopt a cooperative business structure
with a “multi-stakeholder model that could include
providers, customers, founders, investors, geographic
communities, and nature”
• “produser-owned platforms = users are producers”
• The rationale is that most P2P platforms rely on the
supply side of the network for their revenue stream,
so these users/providers should own and control the
platforms. 
(Gansky	2014;	Gorenflo	2015;	Scholz	2014,	2016;	Schneider	2014)
• Fairmondo	(DE,	UK)	
Cooperative	online	marketplace	for	ethical	goods	and	services.	Owned	and	run	by	its	users:	
buyers,	sellers,	workers,	investors.	Anybody	can	join	as	a	stakeholder.	
• Stocksy	United	(Canada)	
Co-operative	owned	by	the	photographers	themselves,	that	is	accepting	and	providing	
royalty-free	stock	photos.	
• Loconomics	(USA)	
Worker-owned	online	marketplace	that	allow	people	to	freelance.	Instead	of	charging	a	
commission	(cf.	Etsy),	joining	as	an	owner	is	open	for	all	for	a	monthly	ownership	fee,	which	
also	allows	the	members	to	vote.	
• VTC	Cab	(France)	
Taxi	drivers	created	their	own	platform	to	regain	control	over	their	business.	It	is	owned	and	
operated	by	an	NGO,	so	it	does	not	collect	commissions	but	a	membership	fee.
Platform	Cooperativism
Collaborative	Economy	Evolution
• Collaborative Economy 1.0 | Collaborative Consumption “What’s Mine is Yours”
Wikipedia (2001), The Pirate Bay (2003), CouchSurfing (2004), Linux (1991), carsharing
communal motives, moral/environmental concerns, mostly institution-based work creation/
occupation (employees), civil society initiatives 
• Collaborative Economy 2.0 | Gig Economy, Crowd-based Capitalism, “What’s Yours is Mine”
Uber (2008), Airbnb (2009), La Ruche Qui Dit Oui (2010),
VC funding, extractive business models, profit-maximizing, end of employment (micro-
entrepreneurs), value cocreation facilitated by platform
• Collaborative Economy 3.0 | platform cooperativism
Fairmondo (2012), BackFeed (2015), Juno (2016)
stakeholders shareholders, open source, decentralization 
- direct people-based (peer-to-peer) credit relationships between individuals, 

- direct asset-based (peer-to-asset) credit relationships between individuals and
productive assets
✦ Individual travellers share a
vehicle for a trip and split travel
costs with others that have similar
itineraries and time schedules.
(Furuhata et al. 2013)
My	research:	ridesharing
Liftsharing (UK) or Carpooling (US)
two-sided platforms
e.g. Blablacar
hitchhiking, slugging
TNCs: Uber, Lyft, Sidecar
Ridesharing
Two-sided platforms facilitating ridesharing between
individual car drivers and passengers.
Ridesharing can include small detours, but it does not
concern for-profit taxis and chauffeured vehicles in
which drivers make a special trip to carry a passenger
and enable them to make profits (e.g. the passenger
pays more than the gas costs). 

- Transportation Network Companies provide such
“ridesourcing service”.
Ridesharing
In Denmark, a ridesharing study reports the user
perceptions as positive thanks to cost savings, greater
comfort, flexibility and speed (vs. public transportation),
and socialisation with other ridesharing participants 

…but also negative because of a lack of ride
availability and inconvenience in finding them, viewing
ridesharing as unsafe or unsecure, and expectations of
social awkwardness and exclusion.
➡
Economic and social attributes are the strongest
choice determinants for adopting ridesharing.
(Nielsen	et	al.	2015)
Youtube
L'ensemble	des	trajets	#BlaBlaCar	sur	une	journée	en	Europe
BlaBlaCar
‣ 

covoiturage.fr (“carpooling” in French)
‣ 

new “transactional booking model”
based on an online registration system
replacing the exchange of cash and
reducing no-shows and cancellations
business model: 

passengers pay a 11.88% commission
and a 0,89€ fixed-fee per reservation
‣ 

24 countries

60 million members

Average shared distance: 350km

Average car occupancy: 3 persons
Skjutsgruppen
• civil society movement
participatory culture
• no commission
• no peer-reviews
• institutional partners (e.g.,
cities, regional transport.)
Hugo	Guyader	—	723G45	Lecture	5
ridesharing
·P2P car rentals
·leasing
“Revolutionalizing the way people travel, and the overall infrastructure”
GoMore
Founders imported ridesharing from Germany to Denmark, seeing an
opportunity in the Danes’ concern for the environment and their discontent with
public transportation (prices, delays, cancellations). 

Organic growth as a non-profit platform for 6 years.
Website enhanced with technological developments (e.g., online payment).
Ridesharing commission for the drivers (currently 12.5%).
Launch of P2P car rentals (commission: 20.5%).



Launch of leasing (in partnership with a supplier): when the leased car is not
used, it can be rented out to other GoMore members. By renting out their leased
car 8 days/month, the Leasers can make up the leasing cost, so the car can be used
for free the rest of the month (≈5% commission on partner’s leasing contract).
Presence in Spain, France, Sweden, and Norway (800.000 members in
Scandinavia).
http://magazine.ouishare.net/2016/12/sweden-takes-progressive-steps-towards-on-demand-taxi-services/
Hugo	Guyader	—	723G45	Lecture	5
Thanks	for	listening!	
Any	questions?	remarks?
hugo.guyader@liu.se
Credit	images:	

The	Noun	Project
you	can	cite	these	slides	as:

Guyader,	H.	(2017).	The	"Sharing"	Economy.	Available	at:	https://www.slideshare.net/
guyaderhugo/the-sharing-economy-59418368

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The Rise of the Sharing Economy

  • 2. @experienceetchugo.guyader@liu.se Hugo Guyader • PhD Candidate at LiU. 
 OuiShare Sweden Connector. • Multi-method approach to research: experiments, surveys, interviews, (n)etnography.. • Research interests: collaborative consumption, shared mobility services (i.e. ridesharing, P2P rentals), sustainable consumption. • Teaching in Fundamental Marketing, Consumer Behavior, Service Marketing, Advanced Marketing, Leadership & Strategy …
  • 3.
  • 5. What’s Mine is Yours TEDTalk 2010: 
 the case for 
 Collaborative Consumption Products and services are swapped, redistributed, shared, rented or gifted. Consumers access to 
 more resources, 
 more convenience,
 and at lower costs. (Botsman & Rogers 2010)
  • 7. TRUST #1 barrier to sharing 67% express trust concerns as the primary barrier to join a collaborative consumption service 30% fear that their goods will be stolen or broken 23% express a basic mistrust of strangers 14% express “privacy concerns” (Campbell Mithun 2012) Sharing platforms use peer-review and reputation-based systems to create trust and alleviate the problem of “free- riders” who do not contribute.
  • 8.
  • 9. ✓ a critical mass of users ✓ idling or excess capacity of unused goods ✓ belief in the common good ✓ social trust The P2P Foundation also identifies 2 main societal drivers: • community dynamics in conducting business and the combined effect of digital reproduction • the increasingly 'socialized' production of value. 4 principles of collaborative consumption
  • 10. Some clarification Collaborative Economy: An economy built on decentralised networks and marketplaces that unlocks the value of underused assets by matching needs and haves, in ways that bypass traditional middlemen and disrupt centralised institutions. - collaborative consumption (Maximum assets utilisation through models of redistribution and shared access) ≈ “Sharing Economy” - collaborative production (Design, production, and distribution of goods through collaborative networks) - collaborative finance (P2P banking and crowd-driven investment models that decentralise finance) - collaborative education (Open education and person-to-person learning models that democratise education)
  • 11.
  • 12. Think-tank and global community (10.000 members) since 2011, developing a framework that explains and brings together different phenomena into one coherent vision: « build a society based on openness, 
 collaboration and sharing » Projects and activities include community building, producing knowledge and incubating projects, offering support to individuals, public institutions, and companies through professional services and education. OuiShare
  • 13.
  • 17. Participation is rather a choice than a necessity.
 “homo cooperans” not “homo economicus”
 they cooperate for their emancipation, autonomy, social justice, knowledge sharing and open production. ‣ mobile and connected (the “dot- com” 
 generation) ‣ millennial ‣ mid-high income ‣ high level of education ‣ living in urban areas ‣ unique personality ‣ like to experiment new things ‣ innovative, playful and creative Who are the “NOwners”
  • 19. 1 Access Rental, outsourcing, or leasing services offer the benefits of ownership, but without ownership. ➡ paradigm shift from ownership and acquisition models to access-based consumption - Firms offer access-based services to customers 
 (i.e. B2C market mediated exchanges) - Product utilisation is increased 
 (i.e. customers sequentially accessing the same product over its lifetime) - Temporal solutions to customer needs
 (i.e. cheap, on-demand, self-service, eco-friendly alternatives without long-term commitment) For instance, Zipcar offers access to a fleet of electric cars (i.e. a traditional firm owning assets): ‘Zipsters’ (paying customers who sign up to a membership plan) can reserve a conveniently located car via an app (unlocking it with a smartcard), which they return to the same location after their rental duration (usage-based pricing) for the next customer to use.
  • 20. • Online platforms enable private individuals to organise the P2P exchange of their under- utilised resources, thereby disrupting industry incumbents (e.g., hotel chains). • For instance, Airbnb hosts (i.e. peer service providers) offer accommodation rental (P2P services) to guests (consumers) via a the website (marketplace). 2 Peer-to-Peer / Consumer-to-Consumer Technology has enabled people to get what they need from each other, rather than from traditional companies selling goods and services. ➡ paradigm shift from B2C to C2C (P2P)
  • 21. • The more network users, 
 the more valuable it becomes, 
 the better services can be provided. • Service organisations develop online platforms that enable their users to exchange P2P services. PROVIDERSCONSUMERS
  • 23. Sharing Economy drivers: - the economic incentive - an urge to reduce the socio-
 environmental impact of consumption 
 and a belief in “the commons” - desires to satisfy altruistic needs and feelings of communal belonging - shift from ownership to access - ICT developments = convenience
  • 25. A Day in the Life of the Collaborative Economy
  • 26. Bike Sharing Bitcoin Car Sharing CoWorking Clothing Delivery Donkey Republic Bitcoin Dojo (Göteborg) AudiUnite Café & Co (Stockholm) Klädbytardag BagHitch Lånelastcyklar (Umeå) Bitcoin Stockholm Autoresurs Bilpool (Malmö) Coffice Coop (Stockholm) Klädbytardagar Freelway Lundahoj (Lund) Bitcoin Hackers (Stockholm) Car2Go D82 (Stockholm) Klädbyte MyWays Cykelköket (Gothenburg) Linköping Bitcoin Meetup Delebilen (Denmark) EntreprenörKyrkan (Stockholm) Klädbibliotek (Uppsala) Urbit Stockhom City Bikes Malmö Bitcoin Users Driveback Epicenter (Stockholm) Klädoteket Styr & Ställ (Gothenburg) Swedizen (Stockholm) Göteborgs Bilkoop (Majornas BillkooperaSv) Hus24 (Stockholm) Lånegarderoben Hertz Freerider Hoffice Sabina and friends (Stockholm) Hertz BilPool (Norway) Impact Hub (Stockholm) Second Lounge Move About Knäckeriet (Stockholm) SwopShop SamBil (cooperaSve 1980 - inacSve) Kolonien (Stockholm) The Wardrobe Stockholm BilPool Start-Up People of Sweden (SUP46) StudentBilen (Nissan) StudioVerket SunFleet (Hertz) The Castle (Stockholm) UbiGo The Park (Stockholm) Vivallabil (cooperaSve 1983Orebro - inacSve) THINGS (Stockholm) United Space We Have Co (Stockholm) Work Around FabLab/MakerSpace Food Sharing Knowledge sharing On-Demand Services RedistribuDng/Selling Ridesharing FabLab@School.dk AirDine beady.se Butlr Bjussa.se (rensavinden.nu) Ants (Norway) Gothenburg Hackerspace AllWin Digiref.se DoMyTask Blocket.se Bilplats.se IX Sthlm EatnJoy Directory of Open Access Journals Grannar.se Bortskänkes/mobages/ges/doneras/301 GoMore MarkersLink (Linköping) Solikyl (Gothenburg) Fruktkartan: map free fruits Haxi (Norway) Bortskänkes.se Mobil Samåkning Mikrofabriken (Gothenburg) FriSdsbanken Helping Bort.nu Roadmate (Hertz First Rent A Car - inacSve) Open Lab (Stockholm) Gapminder Hinner Inte Hinner Du Endast BORTSKÄNKES i Majorna! Samåkning.se Recompile (Malmö) MabeHjälpen (Linköping) TaskRunner Freeshop.se Samlats.se (inacSve) SIS AFK (Blekinge) MinFarm Uber PoP [stopped May 2016] Freecycle GBG (Gothenburg) Skjutsgruppen ("Ridesharing Movement") Sparvnästet (Stockholm) Time Village Vint: P2P workout Garaget (Malmö) We Are Together Stockholm Makerspace Tutopia (Linköping) WayWay Il Recycling THINGS (Stockholm) Tuva: Internet sharing Jumblets ToolPool (Malmö) Köpes/Säljes/Bortskänkes , Göteborg Umeå Hackerspace Möbler säljes/köpes/bortskänkes Myrorna off2off Schpock SyndAbKasta Tiptapp P2P Car Rentals P2P Home Rentals P2P Lending/Funding P2P parking space P2P RenDng Professional Services Flexidrive (SnappCar) Airbnb CrowdCube ApParkingSpot Delbar Coompanion GoMore FriTiden.se CrowdCulture GrannSaker eWork ridebite.com HemByte.nu (HomeExchange) FundedByMe Hygglo Kompanjoner HomeLink.org (bostadsbyte.com) Lendify Rentl PopUpMore Meet The Swedes ToBorrow Swinga Bazaar Re:TexSle Semesterbyte.com (inacSve) Trustbuddy Tjikko SpaceTime ToBorrow (Guyader 2017)
  • 28. Lisa Gansky (2010). “The Mesh: Why the Future of Business Is Sharing.” — Chelsea Rustrum, Gabriel Stempinski & Alexandra Liss (2014). “It's a shareable life: A Practical Guide to Sharing.”  — Jasper Ribbers & Huzefa Kapadia (2014). “Get Paid For Your Pad: How to Maximize Profit From Your Airbnb Listing.”  — Warren Bell (2014). “The Airbnb Entrepreneur: How To Earn Big Profits, Even If You Don't Own a Property.”  — Christopher M. Jennings (2014). “Darebnb: The truth about turning your unused space into real income on Airbnb.”   — John Dale (2015). “Learn how to make an extra income renting your short-term rental or spare room all over the world!”  — Alex Stephany (2015). “The Business of Sharing: Making it in the New Sharing Economy.”  — Claire Marshall (2015). “How to make money (and a whole lot more) by Sharing. A quick start guide to the sharing economy.”  — Glenn Carter (2015). “Secrets of the Sharing Economy: Unofficial Guide to Using Airbnb, Uber, & More to Earn $1000’s.”  — Michael James (2015). “Airbnb Super-Host: The Ultimate Guide to Hosting Success: Unlock Your Home's Earning Potential The Right Way To Make More Money with Airbnb.”  — Michael Fertik & David C. Thompson (2015). “The Reputation Economy: How to Optimize Your Digital Footprint in a World Where Your Reputation Is Your Most Valuable Asset.”   — Sally Miller (2015). “Make Money On Airbnb: How To Quickly And Easily Earn $2,500 A Month From Your Home.”  — Billee Howard (2015). “We-Commerce: How to Create, Collaborate, and Succeed in the Sharing Economy.”  — Bryan Kramer (2015). “Shareology: How Sharing is Powering the Human Economy.”  — Diane Mulcahy (2016). “The Gig Economy: The Complete Guide to Getting Better Work, Taking More Time Off, and Financing the Life You Want.”  — Nick Loper (2016). “Buy Buttons: The Fast-Track Strategy to Make Extra Money and Start a Business in Your Spare Time. [Featuring 300+ Apps and Peer-to-Peer Marketplaces]” — Jared Meyer (2016). “Uber-Positive: Why Americans Love the Sharing Economy.”  — Beandrea July (2016). “Airbnb Your Life: The Host Edition:”  — Vince Hinojosa (2016) “Confessions of an AirBNB Host: How I made $17,623 on AirBNB and So Can You!.”
  • 31. everybody does not stand equal opportunities in the sharing economy because of race, religion, gender, or disability shareable.net
  • 32. Is ‘sharing’ just a fancy word for ‘rental’? • Some organisations are public initiatives or small cooperatives, others develop platform business models capitalising on existing communities and enhancing the P2P services with powerful matchmaking algorithms in exchange of a transaction fixed fee and/or a commission. Sharing Economy “unicorns”: ‣ Uber = $70 billion ‣ Airbnb = $30+ billion • VCs and business angels have invested about billions in tech- startups with sharing schemes. - e.g., automotive industry incumbents (Daimler, Ford, GM, VW, BMW, etc.) acquire startups by the dozens!
  • 33. Ride-hailing • BMW ➠ ReachNow • Daimler ➠ Careem, Chauffeur Privé, MyTaxi, Taxibeat, Uber • Ford ➠ Chariot, Lyft • Fiat-Chrysler ➠ Waymo • GM ➠ Lyft, Sidecar • Honda ➠ GrabTaxi • Nissan ➠ Easy Ride • Toyota ➠ Uber • Volvo Cars ➠ Uber • Volkswagen ➠ Gett (Juno) P2P Car Rental • Daimler ➠ Turo (Mercedes Croove) • Ford ➠ GetAround • GM ➠ Turo (RelayRides) • Opel (CarUnity) ➠ Tamyca • Peugeot-Citroën ➠ Koolicar Carpooling • Daimler ➠ Flinc, Via • Enterprise ➠ Zimride • GM ➠ Flinc B2C Car Sharing/Rental • Avis Budget ➠ Zipcar • BMW ➠ DriveNow • Daimler ➠ Car2Go • Ford ➠ EasyCar Club, FlightCar, GoDrive • GM ➠ Maven • Hertz ➠ Hertz Freerider • Nissan ➠ MoveAbout • Peugeot-Citroën ➠ Free2Move • Renault ➠ Zity • Volvo Cars ➠ Sunfleet • Volkswagen ➠ Audi On-Demand, AudiUnite, Porsche Passport, Audi Silvercar (Guyader 2018)
  • 34. Collaborative consumption is nothing new recirculation of goods
 - eBay increased utilisation of durable assets 
 - CouchSurfing exchange of services 
 - time banks sharing of productive assets 
 - farmers’ cooperatives
  • 35. False Promises? Cheaper than market alternatives. Really? Green? Less resource-intensive practices reducing carbon footprints, and reducing demand for new goods/facilities? Increasing social connections? Commitment to social transformation: emphasis on the ideological values of sharing and collaboration? While the for-profit companies may be “acting badly,” these new technologies of peer-to-peer economic activity are potentially powerful tools for building a social movement centred on genuine practices of sharing and cooperation in the production and consumption of goods and services. But achieving that potential will require democratising the ownership and governance of the platforms. (Schor 2014)
  • 36. Disruption? ‣ The most common model is to take a commission on transactions; something businesses have been doing for centuries. ‣ Technology has done many things, but to date it hasn't been able to completely do away with the middleman. ‣ Despite their power to disrupt incumbents, sharing economy businesses make use of the same traditional business models.
  • 37. What’s Yours is Mine ✦ Unfulfilled promises of the Sharing Economy
 openness, democratisation, equality, communitarian values, personal exchanges/interactions, trust between strangers, micro-entrepreneurship, less materialism with access over ownership, sustainability, etc. ✦ In reality: - creates new forms of commerce and new marketplaces, - not 100% safe and trustworthy - centralised control or mutual surveillance system, - money for investors but not the workers - deregulated free-market in private lives, etc. ✦ Conflicting languages: (Slee 2016) community, collective action, libertarian/progressive politics, grassroots activism, social change private/corporate financial/commercial gains VS
  • 38. We-Washing Share-Washing 
 Collaborative Washing ➡ Online platforms claim to foster communal belonging by borrowing the semantics of the sharing ethos, whereas they actually foster a market professionalisation of P2P exchange (e.g., into rental services). ➡ The “true sharing” movement raises awareness of this loss of communities and criticises Sharing Economy unicorns.
  • 39.
  • 41. What is an authentic sharing platform? BlaBlaCar (FR) has been criticised of killing the original ridesharing ideology for changing its business model (2012: from free to fees) and “forcing” an online registration system. Direct contact between users (exchange of emails, phone numbers) became impossible and forbidden, and the price rose to take into consideration the driver’s car depreciation and the platform’s commission. The social aspect diminished (i.e. riders listen to music, sleep, claim reserved seats; direct communication is impossible before a reservation) and the economic aspect reversed (i.e. 12% commission, less flexibility with booking and pricing). Users perceive that digital security became a hassle, trust between members faded, the original communal spirit vanished and monetary benefits became the norm.
  • 42. Sharing Belk (2007) definition of sharing: “voluntary lending, pooling and allocation of resources, and authorized use of public property, but not contractual renting, leasing, or unauthorized use of property by theft or trespass” => the Sharing Economy is not true sharing (Belk 2014): - presence of profit motives
 - absence of feelings of community
 - expectations of reciprocity “sharing is a phenomenon as old as humankind, 
 while collaborative consumption and the ‘sharing economy’ 
 are phenomena born of the Internet age.”
  • 43. Sharing ✓ True sharing involve caring and love, it is driven by altruistic motives (i.e. not , personal), indirect reciprocity (i.e. not direct reciprocity), in-direct economic benefits (i.e. non-monetary), communal belonging, and relying on mutual trust and social bonds without contracts or legal requirements (Belk 2010, 2014, 2017). ✓ Sharing out (vs. Sharing in) “involves giving to others outside the boundaries separating self and other, and is closer to gift giving and commodity exchange” (Belk 2010 p.725). ✓ “If we conceive of a continuum commodity exchange lies at one end and sharing at the other, with gift giving somewhere in the middle” (Belk, 2007, p.127). commodity exchange gift giving sharing
  • 44. • Acts of collaborative consumption can be defined as “events in which one or more persons consume economic goods or services in the process of engaging in joint activities with one or more others”. • Collaborative consumption may or may not involve direct physical contact between collaborators: – ‘direct-contact collaboration’ = same place at the same time – ‘system-hookup collaboration’ = different places but at the same time – ‘segregated collaboration’ = different times and places (Felson & Spaeth 1978) (Outdated) Academic Definitions
  • 45. • The term “The Share Economy” dates back to 1984 • Martin Weitzman argues that full employment and social welfare could be achieved if workers were paid a ‘share’ of the firm revenues. • Companies would have an incentive to create jobs because more workers would be paid only in proportion to what they have brought in. (Outdated) Academic Definitions
  • 46. Heart and Wallet paradox Sharing Economy’s ideological tensions: 1. a logic of economic market-mediated exchange with aspects of profit-maximization, negative reciprocity, independence between parties who have self-interested motivations 2. a logic of non-market exchange with elements of solidarity, mutuality, generalized reciprocity, and communal norms establishing interdependence between participants
  • 47. Platform Cooperativism • Sharing platforms that facilitate P2P service exchange should adopt a cooperative business structure with a “multi-stakeholder model that could include providers, customers, founders, investors, geographic communities, and nature” • “produser-owned platforms = users are producers” • The rationale is that most P2P platforms rely on the supply side of the network for their revenue stream, so these users/providers should own and control the platforms.  (Gansky 2014; Gorenflo 2015; Scholz 2014, 2016; Schneider 2014)
  • 48.
  • 49. • Fairmondo (DE, UK) Cooperative online marketplace for ethical goods and services. Owned and run by its users: buyers, sellers, workers, investors. Anybody can join as a stakeholder. • Stocksy United (Canada) Co-operative owned by the photographers themselves, that is accepting and providing royalty-free stock photos. • Loconomics (USA) Worker-owned online marketplace that allow people to freelance. Instead of charging a commission (cf. Etsy), joining as an owner is open for all for a monthly ownership fee, which also allows the members to vote. • VTC Cab (France) Taxi drivers created their own platform to regain control over their business. It is owned and operated by an NGO, so it does not collect commissions but a membership fee. Platform Cooperativism
  • 50. Collaborative Economy Evolution • Collaborative Economy 1.0 | Collaborative Consumption “What’s Mine is Yours” Wikipedia (2001), The Pirate Bay (2003), CouchSurfing (2004), Linux (1991), carsharing communal motives, moral/environmental concerns, mostly institution-based work creation/ occupation (employees), civil society initiatives  • Collaborative Economy 2.0 | Gig Economy, Crowd-based Capitalism, “What’s Yours is Mine” Uber (2008), Airbnb (2009), La Ruche Qui Dit Oui (2010), VC funding, extractive business models, profit-maximizing, end of employment (micro- entrepreneurs), value cocreation facilitated by platform • Collaborative Economy 3.0 | platform cooperativism Fairmondo (2012), BackFeed (2015), Juno (2016) stakeholders shareholders, open source, decentralization  - direct people-based (peer-to-peer) credit relationships between individuals, 
 - direct asset-based (peer-to-asset) credit relationships between individuals and productive assets
  • 51. ✦ Individual travellers share a vehicle for a trip and split travel costs with others that have similar itineraries and time schedules. (Furuhata et al. 2013) My research: ridesharing Liftsharing (UK) or Carpooling (US) two-sided platforms e.g. Blablacar hitchhiking, slugging TNCs: Uber, Lyft, Sidecar
  • 52. Ridesharing Two-sided platforms facilitating ridesharing between individual car drivers and passengers. Ridesharing can include small detours, but it does not concern for-profit taxis and chauffeured vehicles in which drivers make a special trip to carry a passenger and enable them to make profits (e.g. the passenger pays more than the gas costs). 
 - Transportation Network Companies provide such “ridesourcing service”.
  • 53. Ridesharing In Denmark, a ridesharing study reports the user perceptions as positive thanks to cost savings, greater comfort, flexibility and speed (vs. public transportation), and socialisation with other ridesharing participants 
 …but also negative because of a lack of ride availability and inconvenience in finding them, viewing ridesharing as unsafe or unsecure, and expectations of social awkwardness and exclusion. ➡ Economic and social attributes are the strongest choice determinants for adopting ridesharing. (Nielsen et al. 2015)
  • 55. BlaBlaCar ‣ 
 covoiturage.fr (“carpooling” in French) ‣ 
 new “transactional booking model” based on an online registration system replacing the exchange of cash and reducing no-shows and cancellations business model: 
 passengers pay a 11.88% commission and a 0,89€ fixed-fee per reservation ‣ 
 24 countries
 60 million members
 Average shared distance: 350km
 Average car occupancy: 3 persons
  • 56.
  • 57. Skjutsgruppen • civil society movement participatory culture • no commission • no peer-reviews • institutional partners (e.g., cities, regional transport.)
  • 59. ridesharing ·P2P car rentals ·leasing “Revolutionalizing the way people travel, and the overall infrastructure”
  • 60. GoMore Founders imported ridesharing from Germany to Denmark, seeing an opportunity in the Danes’ concern for the environment and their discontent with public transportation (prices, delays, cancellations). 
 Organic growth as a non-profit platform for 6 years. Website enhanced with technological developments (e.g., online payment). Ridesharing commission for the drivers (currently 12.5%). Launch of P2P car rentals (commission: 20.5%).
 
 Launch of leasing (in partnership with a supplier): when the leased car is not used, it can be rented out to other GoMore members. By renting out their leased car 8 days/month, the Leasers can make up the leasing cost, so the car can be used for free the rest of the month (≈5% commission on partner’s leasing contract). Presence in Spain, France, Sweden, and Norway (800.000 members in Scandinavia).