Chapter 4 - Causes of Sri Lanka Conflict


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These slides are used to explain the causes of Sri Lanka conflict in the Social Studies syllabus in Singapore. There are 4 causes of conflict leading up to the rise of the Tamil Tiger or Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). Find out more in these slides.

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Chapter 4 - Causes of Sri Lanka Conflict

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Conflict in Sri Lanka
  2. 2. Where is Sri Lanka?
  3. 3. Where is Sri Lanka?
  4. 4. Capital of Sri Lanka Colombo
  5. 5. The Flag of Sri Lanka
  6. 6. Population Sinhalese Tamil Sri Lankan Indian Others
  7. 7. Sinhalese 73.3% Sri Lankan Tamils 11.0% Indian Tamils 4.1% Others 11.6% Racial Composition of Sri Lanka
  8. 8. Sinhalese Most speak Sinhalese. Most practise Buddhism. Few practise Christianity.
  9. 9. Most speak Tamil. Most practise Hinduism. Few practise Christianity. Tamils
  10. 10. Indian Tamils Brought in by British rulers to work in tea plantations. Sri Lankan Tamils Descended from Tamil migrants who lived in Sri Lanka since 300 BCE.
  11. 11. A Divided Island
  12. 12. Independence Under the British Colonial Rule Tamil minority are favoured in terms of jobs and education Could read or write in English Under Sinhalese- majority government Introduced policies that favoured the Sinhalese 1948
  13. 13. How bad was the conflict?
  14. 14. 13 May 2009 More than 50 people died when two shells hit the zone's main hospital compound.
  15. 15. 29 May 2009 More than 20,000 civilians were killed in the final months of Sri Lanka's civil war.
  16. 16. Citizenship Rights “Sinhala Only” Policy University Admission Criteria Resettlement Lesson Objective Identify 4 causes of conflict in Sri Lanka
  17. 17. Citizenship Rights
  18. 18. Ceylon Citizenship Qualification Act 1. Those who were born in Sri Lanka 2. Those whose father and grandfather were also born there 1948
  19. 19. Many Indian Tamils brought from India by the British to work in Sri Lanka became stateless. Result of the Act
  20. 20. Indian Tamils lost their basic rights. Education Jobs Housing Voting
  21. 21. How does this lead to conflict?
  22. 22. Indian Tamils are denied of Citizenship Tamils will not be given voting rights. Tamils will not gain political power.
  23. 23. India tried to help but was unsuccessful. 1964
  24. 24. Citizenship to any person of Indian origin who has lived in Sri Lanka since 1964 or was descended from someone who had stayed in Sri Lanka since that date. 2003 Grant of Citizenship to Persons of Indian Origin Bill
  25. 25. ‘Sinhala Only’ Policy
  26. 26. Under the British Rule Many educated Tamils could enter government service and hold important jobs.
  27. 27. After Independence Sinhala was made the only official language of administration in 1956.
  28. 28. years is the time given to Tamils in the government service to learn Sinhala or be dismissed from the job.
  29. 29. Tamils’ Reaction to the 1956 Official Language Act They were unhappy as they were now unable to get jobs or promotions.
  30. 30. A peaceful demonstration turned into a riot when it was disrupted by Sinhalese supporters.
  31. 31. How does this lead to conflict?
  32. 32. Sinhala The only language of administration
  33. 33. Stir nationalistic feelings Win support of Sinhalese voters Provide Sinhalese with more and better job opportunities Why?
  34. 34. This made it difficult for Tamils to get government jobs.
  35. 35. Tamil is recognised as a national language and a language of administration in Tamil-majority areas. 1978Compromise
  36. 36. University Admission
  37. 37. University Admission was based on merit. The examinations were in English. University Admission reserved a fixed number of places for Tamils and Sinhalese Tamil students had to score higher marks than the Sinhalese students to enter the same courses in the universities. 1970
  38. 38. How does this lead to conflict?
  39. 39. Tamil 1971 Higher entry standards for Tamils for medical faculties Sinhalese 250 229out of 400out of 400
  40. 40. Sinhalese Tamil More Sinhalese can now enter University . Less Tamil students can now enter University
  41. 41. Resettlement of Population
  42. 42. The aim of this policy was to provide land for the landless Sinhalese peasants to live and cultivate rice.
  43. 43. The Sinhalese-majority government transferred Sinhalese from the densely populated south-western and central areas into the Tamil areas.
  44. 44. Before After
  45. 45. How does this lead to conflict?
  46. 46. Allow landless Sinhalese peasants to make a living Change population representation Increase Sinhalese population so that the area becomes Sinhalese majority Why did the government resettle Sinhalese into Tamil areas?
  47. 47. 1. made Tamils a minority in the area 2. made life more difficult for Tamils with the arrival of the army and militant monks Resettlement of Sinhalese
  48. 48. In Conclusion
  49. 49. Racial Differences Sinhalese vs. Tamils
  50. 50. Citizenship Rights “Sinhala Only” Policy University Admission Criteria Resettlement Lesson Objective Identify 4 causes of conflict in Sri Lanka
  51. 51. Created by Goh Bang Rui Follow me on @slideshare. @gohbangrui