Conflict in Sri Lanka


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Conflict in Sri Lanka

  1. 1. SRI LANKA
  2. 2. <ul><li>Citizenship Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Jobs in Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>University Admission </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement of Population </li></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Citizenship Rights </li></ul><ul><li>1948 : Citizenship granted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Those who were born in Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b. Those whose fathers and grandfathers were born there </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Excluded </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Indian Tamils brought from India to Sri Lanka </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To work on tea plantations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found themselves stateless </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lived in Sri Lanka for many years yet denied basic rights such as voting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Citizenship Rights </li></ul><ul><li>1964 : India stepped in </li></ul><ul><li>Help those Tamil Indians who were stateless </li></ul><ul><li>Held discussions with Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreed to allow a number of Indian Tamils to return to India </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The rest granted citizenship </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem : Till late 1980s, agreement still not carried out in full by Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 100,000 still stateless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working on tea plantations and contributing to the economy </li></ul></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  5. 5. <ul><li>Jobs in Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>British Rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English-educated Tamils entered government service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Held some of the most powerful jobs although they were a minority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese – majority in the country but could not read or write English </li></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  6. 6. <ul><li>Jobs in Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>Independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese government wanted to improve position of majority Sinhalese </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Made Sinhalese the only language of administration in 1956 under the Official language Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamils were given 3 years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamils upset as they could not be promoted; some could not even secure jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A peaceful demonstartion was disrupted by Sinhalese and riots occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in more than 100 deaths </li></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  7. 7. <ul><li>Jobs in Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>July 1957 : Pact between Sri Lankan PM Bandaranaike and Tamil leader Chelvanayakam </li></ul><ul><li>To make Tamil language of the minority </li></ul><ul><li>To allow Tamil as a language of administration only in the northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka where most Tamils are found </li></ul><ul><li>Met with protests from the Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement was withdrawn in 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>Increased tension in the following months led to fighting </li></ul><ul><li>Many died, more were made homeless </li></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  8. 8. <ul><li>Jobs in Government Service </li></ul><ul><li>1978 : Sri Lankan Constitution granted more recognition to the Tamil language </li></ul><ul><li>Made Tamil language of administration in northern and eastern provinces </li></ul><ul><li>English was encouraged as a link language </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1987, Tamil has been accepted as an official language </li></ul><ul><li>But still not widely used </li></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  9. 9. <ul><li>University Admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>University admission based on merit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exams held in English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Tamil and Sinhalese students in medical and engineering almost equal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1969 : 50% medical students Tamil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>48% engineering students Tamil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinhalese were unhappy because the ratio was not proportionate to the numbers </li></ul></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  10. 10. <ul><li>University Admissions </li></ul><ul><li>After 1970 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change in education policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Compulsory for Tamil students to score higher marks than their Sinhalese counterparts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over the next 4 years, admission criteria were changed to make it more difficult for tamil youths to enter university </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tamil student % for engineering courses fall from 48% in 1969 to 24.4% in 1973 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>14.2& in 1975 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But more Sinhalese students were able to enter university </li></ul></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  11. 11. <ul><li>Resettlement of Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another policy which caused resentment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transferred from densely populated south-western and central areas into Tamil areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Govt implemented this to provide land for landless Sinhalese peasants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tamils were of course unhappy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhist monks and Sri Lankan soldiers(mostly Sinhalese) also came to occupy their land </li></ul></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  12. 12. <ul><li>Next lesson </li></ul><ul><li>We’ll discuss the consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict </li></ul>WHY THE CONFLICT?
  13. 13. a christ church history production Copyright reserved