Causes of Sri Lanka Conflict

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  • Causes of Sri Lanka Conflict

    1. 1. UNIT 4: CONFLICT INMULTI-ETHNIC SOCIETIES CASE STUDY OF SRI LANKAcauses of conflict between the sinhalese and the tamils
    2. 2. Multi-Ethnic Societies
    3. 3. Multi-Ethnic Societies
    4. 4. Multi-Ethnic SocietiesWhen ethnic harmony falls apart...
    5. 5. Multi-Ethnic SocietiesWhen ethnic harmony falls apart...
    6. 6. Multi-Ethnic SocietiesWhen ethnic harmony falls apart...
    7. 7. Welcometo Sri Lanka!
    8. 8. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    9. 9. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    10. 10. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    11. 11. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    12. 12. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka • Known as Ceylon before 1972
    13. 13. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka • Known as Ceylon before 1972 • Sri Lanka means ‘beautiful island’ in Sinhala
    14. 14. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka • Known as Ceylon before 1972 • Sri Lanka means ‘beautiful island’ in Sinhala • Formerly a British colony, who had governed Ceylon as two separate nations
    15. 15. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka • Known as Ceylon before 1972 • Sri Lanka means ‘beautiful island’ in Sinhala • Formerly a British colony, who had governed Ceylon as two separate nations
    16. 16. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    17. 17. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka
    18. 18. Quick Introduction to Sri LankaWe are Sinhalese. Our ancestors are nativesof this country. Most of us are Buddhists,and we speak Sinhala.
    19. 19. Quick Introduction to Sri LankaWe are Sinhalese. Our ancestors are nativesof this country. Most of us are Buddhists,and we speak Sinhala.
    20. 20. Quick Introduction to Sri LankaWe are Sinhalese. Our ancestors are nativesof this country. Most of us are Buddhists,and we speak Sinhala. We are Sri Lankan Tamils. Our ancestors have been living in Sri Lanka since a loooong time ago. We are Hindu and we speak Tamil!
    21. 21. Quick Introduction to Sri LankaWe are Sinhalese. Our ancestors are nativesof this country. Most of us are Buddhists,and we speak Sinhala. We are Sri Lankan Tamils. Our ancestors have been living in Sri Lanka since a loooong time ago. We are Hindu and we speak Tamil!
    22. 22. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka I am an Indian Tamil. MyWe are Sinhalese. Our ancestors were brought here ancestors are natives by the British during colonialof this country. Most times. My religion is Hindu of us are Buddhists, and I speak Tamil too!and we speak Sinhala. We are Sri Lankan Tamils. Our ancestors have been living in Sri Lanka since a loooong time ago. We are Hindu and we speak Tamil!
    23. 23. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka Moor Sri Lankan and Indian Tamil Others Sinhalese
    24. 24. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka Moor Sri Lankan and Indian Tamil Others Sinhalese 8.0% 9.4% 0.7% 81.9%
    25. 25. Quick Introduction to Sri Lanka Moor Sri Lankan and Indian Tamil Others Sinhalese 8.0% 9.4% 0.7% 81.9%
    26. 26. A Tamil woman in distress
    27. 27. A Tamil woman in distress
    28. 28. A Tamil woman in distress Young Tamil Tigers
    29. 29. A Tamil woman in distress Young Tamil TigersWhy are the Sinhalese and Tamils fighting?
    30. 30. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights
    31. 31. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Ceylon Citizenship Act, 1948
    32. 32. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Ceylon Citizenship Act, 1948 • Citizenship only given to those born in Sri Lanka or those whose forefathers were born there
    33. 33. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Ceylon Citizenship Act, 1948 • Citizenship only given to those born in Sri Lanka or those whose forefathers were born there • This meant that many Indian Tamils became stateless, even though they had lived in Sri Lanka for many years and contributed to the economy
    34. 34. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights
    35. 35. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights
    36. 36. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights
    37. 37. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights • Negotiations with India, 1964
    38. 38. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights • Negotiations with India, 1964 • Some Indian Tamils to return to India
    39. 39. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights • Negotiations with India, 1964 • Some Indian Tamils to return to India • The rest to be granted citizenship
    40. 40. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights • Negotiations with India, 1964 • Some Indian Tamils to return to India • The rest to be granted citizenship • BUT: interrupted by ethnic violence
    41. 41. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights
    42. 42. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Grant of Citizenship to Persons of IndianOrigin Bill, 2003
    43. 43. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Grant of Citizenship to Persons of IndianOrigin Bill, 2003 • The bill gave citizenship to any person of Indian origin, who had lived in Sri Lanka since 1964 or descended from someone who had done so
    44. 44. Reason 1: Citizenship Rights• Grant of Citizenship to Persons of IndianOrigin Bill, 2003 • The bill gave citizenship to any person of Indian origin, who had lived in Sri Lanka since 1964 or descended from someone who had done so • Ended the issue of citizenship rights as an area of discontent for the Tamils
    45. 45. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ Policy
    46. 46. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyWhat was the Official Language Act, 1956 policy?
    47. 47. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyWhat was the Official Language Act, 1956 policy?What was it about?
    48. 48. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyWhat was the Official Language Act, 1956 policy? 1. Changed official language from English toWhat was it Sinhala about? 2. Tamils in government service given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed
    49. 49. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyWhat was the Official Language Act, 1956 policy? 1. Changed official language from English toWhat was it Sinhala about? 2. Tamils in government service given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissedWhat did it result in? (Impact)
    50. 50. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyWhat was the Official Language Act, 1956 policy? 1. Changed official language from English toWhat was it Sinhala about? 2. Tamils in government service given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissedWhat did it The policy upset many Tamils, who organized a peaceful demonstration against the policy. result in? However, the peaceful demonstration turned into (Impact) violent riots when it was disrupted by supporters of the Sinhala language
    51. 51. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ PolicyHow was the problem resolved?
    52. 52. Reason 2: ‘Sinhala Only’ Policy In 1957, Tamil was made the language of a national minority and allowed to be used as aHow was the language of administration, but only in Northern problem and Eastern parts of Sri Lanka, where most resolved? Tamils lived. Today, the Tamil language has been declared as a national language, as well as an official language.
    53. 53. One document, three languages:An example of anofficial document.
    54. 54. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria
    55. 55. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• Before 1970, university admission was basedon merit and the examinations were in English
    56. 56. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• Before 1970, university admission was basedon merit and the examinations were in English • Benefitted the English-educated Tamils
    57. 57. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• Before 1970, university admission was basedon merit and the examinations were in English • Benefitted the English-educated Tamils • The proportion of Tamils admitted to university was significantly higher than their proportion in the population
    58. 58. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria
    59. 59. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• New university admission criteria introduced in1970
    60. 60. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• New university admission criteria introduced in1970 • Fixed number of places reserved for the Sinhalese
    61. 61. Reason 3: Biased University Admission Criteria• New university admission criteria introduced in1970 • Fixed number of places reserved for the Sinhalese • Tamils had to score higher marks than Sinhalese to enter the same courses
    62. 62. An angry Tamil man
    63. 63. We Tamils are not given equal opportunities to enter universities!!! An angry Tamil man
    64. 64. We Tamils are not given equal opportunities to enter universities!!! I am sure this is a way by the Sinhalese to block Tamils from moving up the social ladder!!! An angry Tamil man
    65. 65. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies
    66. 66. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies• Resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants in the1950s
    67. 67. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies• Resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants in the1950s • The government wanted to provide land for poor Sinhalese peasants to cultivate padi
    68. 68. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies• Resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants in the1950s • The government wanted to provide land for poor Sinhalese peasants to cultivate padi• Transferred Sinhalese people from Southwesternand Central areas to Tamil areas
    69. 69. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies• Resettlement of poor Sinhalese peasants in the1950s • The government wanted to provide land for poor Sinhalese peasants to cultivate padi• Transferred Sinhalese people from Southwesternand Central areas to Tamil areas•Together came Buddhist monks and Sri LankanArmy
    70. 70. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies
    71. 71. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies Textbook, p. 97
    72. 72. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies View of a Sinhalese Textbook, p. 97
    73. 73. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies Sri Lanka is a free country! Obviously we can move anywhere we want to! View of a Sinhalese Textbook, p. 97
    74. 74. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies Sri Lanka is a free country! Obviously we can move anywhere we want to! View of a Sinhalese View of a Tamil Textbook, p. 97
    75. 75. Reason 4: Resettlement Policies Sri Lanka is a free country! Obviously we can move anywhere we want to! View of a Sinhalese But you are moving into OUR territory and depriving us of OUR land! View of a Tamil Textbook, p. 97

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