Sri Lanka Consequences of Conflict

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Sri Lanka Consequences of Conflict

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Countries Divided <ul><li>What you should not expect? </li></ul><ul><li>A complete lesson – Revision for me!!! </li></ul><ul><li>What you can expect? </li></ul><ul><li>A summary of the content covered </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to prepare for this topic </li></ul><ul><li>Some possible exam questions on this topic and how to answer them </li></ul>
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  5. 5. Citizenship Rights Jobs in the Government Service University Admission Resettlement of Population Reasons for Sinhalese -Tamil Conflict
  6. 6. <ul><li>Citizenship Qualification in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>granted to those who were born in Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>granted to those whose father and grandfather were also born there </li></ul><ul><li>Result of Citizenship Qualification Policy </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indian Tamils brought from India by the British to work in Sri Lanka became stateless </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Tamils not allowed to vote </li></ul>1. Citizenship Rights
  7. 7. <ul><li>In 1964, India wanted to help the stateless Indian Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>talks were held between India and Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>Results of the Talks </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka is to allow certain numbers of Indian Tamils to return to India </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the Indian Tamils were to be granted Sri Lankan citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>In 1980s, this agreement was not fulfilled. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indian Tamils remained stateless </li></ul>
  8. 8. Is Citizenship Rights a reason for the conflict?
  9. 9. <ul><li>Many educated Tamils could enter government service during the colonial period </li></ul><ul><li>They held important jobs in the government </li></ul>2. Jobs in the Government Service
  10. 10. Changes made after Sri Lanka gained independence from the British <ul><li>Sinhala was made the only official language of administration in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamils in the government service were given three years to learn Sinhala or be dismissed from the job. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tamils’ Reaction to the 1956 Official Language Act <ul><li>Unhappy as they were now unable to get jobs or promotions </li></ul><ul><li>Organized a peaceful demonstration against the Official Language Act </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful demonstration was disrupted by the Sinhalese supporters – riots occurred. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3. University Admission <ul><li>Before 1970, university admission criteria was based on merit </li></ul><ul><li>Examinations were held in the English language </li></ul><ul><li>Concern arose over the equal number of Sinhalese and Tamil students in the medical and engineering courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Several educational policies were introduced to rectify this imbalance. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3. University Admission <ul><li>For example, it was made compulsory for Tamil students to score higher marks than the Sinhalese students to enter the same courses in the universities. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tamils youths were now unhappy and dissatisfied with the unfair educational policies </li></ul><ul><li>It difficult was for them to qualify for admission into the university especially in the medical and engineering course </li></ul>
  14. 14. 4. Resettlement of Population <ul><li>transferred Sinhalese from the densely populated south-western and and central areas into the Tamil area. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of this policy was to provide land for the landless Sinhalese peasants to live on and to cultivate rice. </li></ul>
  15. 15. 4. Resettlement of Population <ul><li>How did the Tamils react? </li></ul><ul><li>They were unhappy because the arrival of the peasants was accompanied by Buddhist monks and the Sri Lankan Army which was mostly Sinhalese. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Consequences of the Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict Consequences are : 1. Armed conflict -Violence 2. Unemployment 3. Loss of Investments from Other Countries 4. Fall in Number of Tourists 5. Foreign Intervention 6. Social Problem -Refugee Problems??? 7. Social Problem – Education ???
  17. 17. Armed Conflict - Violence <ul><li>With the formation of the militant group LTTE, violence increased. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTF7Png8S9Y&mode=related&search = </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFp0bjSgwe4&mode=related&search = </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSWsdGCSjRM </li></ul><ul><li>LTTE attacked Sinhalese and even Tamils who support the Sri Lanka govt e.g. 1983 riots </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese – 1956: Tamil’s peaceful demonstration disrupted by Sinhalese </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese Security forces – encouraged violence </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1983 Riots Tamil homes & shops burnt down by Sinhalese.
  19. 19. 1983 Riots This boy was tortured & beaten to death minutes after this photo was taken.
  20. 20. Impact of armed conflict & violence: <ul><li>Many people died. </li></ul><ul><li>Many missing. </li></ul><ul><li>Many more injured or paralyzed, etc.  can’t find jobs/ go to school. </li></ul><ul><li> People have no more confidence in the country. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 2. Unemployment <ul><li>Business in the conflict areas/districts slowed down or some stopped totally. </li></ul><ul><li>Many factories were closed and plantation workers lost their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>The jobless started to take part in vandalising, looting and burning their places of work. </li></ul><ul><li>People lost confidence in government </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>It resulted in the loss of investments as investors lost the confidence in investing in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Many decided to invest in other countries instead. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>The economy suffered as business activities in the country slowed down. </li></ul>3. Loss of Investments from other countries
  23. 23. <ul><li>Tourism was a big income earner for the country. </li></ul><ul><li>But with the violence, tourism dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>loss of jobs e.g. tour guides, agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>fall in the Sri Lanka’s earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>The economy was badly affected. </li></ul>4. Fall in Number of Tourists
  24. 24. <ul><li>The conflict caught India’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>India played the role of a mediator </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated between the Sinhalese and the Tamils after the 1983 riots but was unsuccessful </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka loses part of its free will in making decisions for the country. </li></ul>5. Foreign Intervention
  25. 25. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The conflict in Sri Lanka was caused by the Sri Lankan government. How far do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, caused by the Sri Lankan government </li></ul><ul><li>No, not caused by the Sri Lankan government – efforts taken by the government; other possible causes like Tamil Tigers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The Tamil Tigers should take the blame for the conflict in Sri Lanka . Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, explain how Tamil Tigers caused the conflict </li></ul><ul><li>No, explain how others caused the conflict – like the Sri Lankan government. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>India was wrong to intervene in the affairs of Sri Lanka in the 1980s . Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, India was wrong – how India was negatively affected. </li></ul><ul><li>No, India was right – how this brought about possibility of peace talks. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>India contributed positively by getting involved in the affairs of Sri Lanka in the 1980s . Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, India contributed positively – how peace talk was initiated. </li></ul><ul><li>No, India did not contribute positively – worsen matter as Tamil Tigers became more violent – even against the Indian government. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>As the citizenship right issue was not an issue in northern Sri Lanka, it cannot be considered a reason for the conflict in Sri Lanka. Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, it cannot be considered – explain citizenship rights as an issue within central Sri Lanka. </li></ul><ul><li>No, it can be considered – explain how Tamil Tigers see themselves as representatives of Tamils in Sri Lanka; further evidence of Sri Lankan government’s discrimination against Tamils in general </li></ul>
  30. 30. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The Sri Lankan government was justified to have made the admission to some courses in the university difficult for the Tamils . Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, it is justified. Sinhalese were disadvantaged during the British rule. </li></ul><ul><li>No, it is not justified. It placed the Tamils in a disadvantageous position </li></ul>
  31. 31. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The Sri Lankan government was fair in introducing the Official Language Act in 1956 . Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, it is fair – explain situation of Sinhalese in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>No, it is not fair – explain the disadvantage to the Tamils </li></ul>
  32. 32. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The Sri Lankan government’s policy of resettlement was meant to weaken the position of the Tamils in the north eastern provinces of Sri Lanka. Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, it is to weaken. Explain how government did nothing about monks, soldiers moving to the provinces. </li></ul><ul><li>No, it is not to weaken. Explain intend of government – move people from over crowded southern area. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Type 4 Questions on Sri Lanka <ul><li>The Tamils in Sri Lanka were left with no other alternatives but violence to solve their problems. Do you agree to this? Explain your answer. </li></ul><ul><li>Yes, they are left with no other alternatives. Explain how the non violent moves did not work out. </li></ul><ul><li>No, they do have alternatives. Explain how Sri Lankan government has compromised on some of its policies – thus possibility / intend of peace without violence. </li></ul>

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