EXPERTS DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONS OF
3. WHAT IS MANAGEMENT ?
Definition: “The process of working with people and
resources to accomplish organizational goals.”
Managers must be :
effective: achieve organizational goals.
efficient: achieve organizational goals with
minimum waste of resources.
4. EXPERTS’ FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
Different experts have classified functions of management:
According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental
functions of management i.e.
planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”.
Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword POSDCORB
where P stands for Planning,
O for Organizing,
S for Staffing,
D for Directing,
Co for Co-ordination,
R for reporting
& B for Budgeting.
5. EXPERTS’ FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT
According to Henry Fayol,
“To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to
command, & to control”.
Functions of management given by KOONTZ and
Planning is deciding in advance –
what to do,
when to do
& how to do.
It bridges the gap from where we are & where we
want to be.
A plan is a future course of actions.
To organize a business is to provide it with
everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw
material, tools, capital and personnel’s.
Organizing as a process involves:
Identification of activities.
Classification of grouping of activities.
Assignment of duties.
Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
Managerial function of staffing involves manning
the organization structure through proper and
effective selection, appraisal & development of
personnel to fill the roles designed in the structure.
Recruitment, selection & placement.
Training & development.
Promotions & transfer.
Direction is that inter-personnel aspect of
management which deals directly with influencing,
guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinates for
the achievement of organizational goals.
Direction has following elements:
Coordinating helps the organization to follow
methods to work efficiently for achievement of
Managers are required to create coordination in
the team to get the task completed on the desired
Coordination has following elements:
Reporting is keeping those to whom the executive is
responsible informed as to what is going on, which
thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates
informed through records, research and inspections.
In simpler words, it is the process of creating the
report and mentioning the higher authorities
regarding the progress and process followed, and the
teammates or group about the information they need
to know to lead the project.
Budgeting is the step followed by the manager to
perform all budget related processes in the form of
planning, accounting and control.
All the resources which are used by the team are
valuable to the company, and therefore the team is
accountable to higher authorities regarding the use
of resources which is informed to them by the
14. MANAGEMENT SKILLS
The skills of a manager can be further subdivided in
Conceptual and Decision Skills
Interpersonal and Communication Skills
15. TECHNICAL SKILLS
Technical skill is the ability to perform a specialized
task involving a particular method or process.
The tasks can be in the areas of
engineering, business, computer, etc.
Technical skill in a manager increases the
productivity of the manager.
16. CONCEPTUAL AND DECISION SKILLS
The need of conceptual and decision skills evolve
in following situations:
To recognize complex and dynamic issues;
To examine the numerous and conflicting factors that
influence these issues and problems;
To resolve the problems for the benefit of the
organization and its members.
17. INTERPERSONAL & COMMUNICATION SKILL
Interpersonal and communication skills are “people
skills”. They are about the ability to lead, motivate
and communicate effectively with others.
This skill is very important because managers spend
most of their time interacting with people. The
ability to get along with many diverse types of people
is vital for a successful management career.
18. Case study
When managerial actions fail to address needs and
concerns of employees.
ANJU MALIK a senior counseling executive in a large
hospital is concerned about her career. Earlier personal
circumstance did not allow her to make any major move in
her job. Now that her family pressure has eased and both
her children have grown up she decides to concentrate
more on her career. Anju has been working efficiently till
now and has also acquired many formal qualifications
recently .There is a new managerial post in community
care for which Anju is interested as well as is qualified for
that. Anju feels that this position would prove a good career
move for her.
19. When managerial actions fail to address needs and concerns
Satyawati is Anju’s immediate boss and feels that a
senior level managerial job would mean more working
hours that may not suit a lady with two children. Also
she is surprised as why Anju wants a career change
now after 7 to 8 years. She suggests Anju to wait for
annual appraisals as they will suit her. Satyawati does
not want some one as experienced as Anju to leave her
department but does not say so to Anju.
Meanwhile she suggests a semi managerial post for
training nurses and other staff to Anju.
Anju then met a senior consultant Mr. Bhargava she
had earlier worked with and discussed the issue with
him. He promised to do the best he could.
20. When managerial actions fail to address needs and concerns
Satyawati called in Anju for a meeting. She asked her
not to discuss her concerns with other consultants like
Bhargava. She tells Anju that because she is
dissatisfied with her job here she is transferred to
clinical department as a executive counselor.
Anju feels that this wont help her much as she will be
doing same kind of job she earlier did.
Anju comes to know that the managerial post she
applied for is now filled by a novice with 1 year
experience in clinical department. This candidate was
internally recommended by Satyawati.
Anju is now looking for a new job as soon as possible.
21. The major issues worthy of consideration in this case are
Sensitivity towards employee
Self management and career planning
Management of change