Organizational BehaviorABOUT MANAGEMENT AND ITS FUNCTION GROUP A
Content ABOUT MANAGEMENT EXPERTS DEFINITION OF FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT POSDCoRB PLANNING ORGANIZING STAFFING DIRECTING COORDINATION REPORTING BUDGETING MANAGEMENT SKILLS CASE STUDY
WHAT IS MANAGEMENT ? Definition: “The process of working with people and resources to accomplish organizational goals.” Managers must be : effective: achieve organizational goals. efficient: achieve organizational goals with minimum waste of resources.
EXPERTS’ FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENTDifferent experts have classified functions of management: According to George & Jerry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling”. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword POSDCORB where P stands for Planning, O for Organizing, S for Staffing, D for Directing, Co for Co-ordination, R for reporting & B for Budgeting.
EXPERTS’ FUNCTIONS OF MANAGEMENT According to Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control”. Functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL are: Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling.
PLANNING Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be. A plan is a future course of actions.
ORGANIZING To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s. Organizing as a process involves: Identification of activities. Classification of grouping of activities. Assignment of duties. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
STAFFING Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed in the structure. Staffing involves: Manpower Planning. Recruitment, selection & placement. Training & development. Remuneration. Performance appraisal. Promotions & transfer.
DIRECTING Direction is that inter-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinates for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication
COORDINATION Coordinating helps the organization to follow methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. Managers are required to create coordination in the team to get the task completed on the desired time. Coordination has following elements: Easy functioning No conflicts Team spirit
REPORTING Reporting is keeping those to whom the executive is responsible informed as to what is going on, which thus includes keeping himself and his subordinates informed through records, research and inspections. In simpler words, it is the process of creating the report and mentioning the higher authorities regarding the progress and process followed, and the teammates or group about the information they need to know to lead the project.
BUDGETING Budgeting is the step followed by the manager to perform all budget related processes in the form of planning, accounting and control. All the resources which are used by the team are valuable to the company, and therefore the team is accountable to higher authorities regarding the use of resources which is informed to them by the manager.
MANAGEMENT SKILLS The skills of a manager can be further subdivided in following types: Technical Skills Conceptual and Decision Skills Interpersonal and Communication Skills
TECHNICAL SKILLS Technical skill is the ability to perform a specialized task involving a particular method or process. The tasks can be in the areas of engineering, business, computer, etc. Technical skill in a manager increases the productivity of the manager.
CONCEPTUAL AND DECISION SKILLS The need of conceptual and decision skills evolve in following situations: To recognize complex and dynamic issues; To examine the numerous and conflicting factors that influence these issues and problems; To resolve the problems for the benefit of the organization and its members.
INTERPERSONAL & COMMUNICATION SKILL Interpersonal and communication skills are “people skills”. They are about the ability to lead, motivate and communicate effectively with others. This skill is very important because managers spend most of their time interacting with people. The ability to get along with many diverse types of people is vital for a successful management career.
Case studyWhen managerial actions fail to address needs andconcerns of employees. ANJU MALIK a senior counseling executive in a largehospital is concerned about her career. Earlier personalcircumstance did not allow her to make any major move inher job. Now that her family pressure has eased and bothher children have grown up she decides to concentratemore on her career. Anju has been working efficiently tillnow and has also acquired many formal qualificationsrecently .There is a new managerial post in communitycare for which Anju is interested as well as is qualified forthat. Anju feels that this position would prove a good careermove for her.
When managerial actions fail to address needs and concerns of employees Satyawati is Anju’s immediate boss and feels that a senior level managerial job would mean more working hours that may not suit a lady with two children. Also she is surprised as why Anju wants a career change now after 7 to 8 years. She suggests Anju to wait for annual appraisals as they will suit her. Satyawati does not want some one as experienced as Anju to leave her department but does not say so to Anju. Meanwhile she suggests a semi managerial post for training nurses and other staff to Anju. Anju then met a senior consultant Mr. Bhargava she had earlier worked with and discussed the issue with him. He promised to do the best he could.
When managerial actions fail to address needs and concerns of employees Satyawati called in Anju for a meeting. She asked her not to discuss her concerns with other consultants like Bhargava. She tells Anju that because she is dissatisfied with her job here she is transferred to clinical department as a executive counselor. Anju feels that this wont help her much as she will be doing same kind of job she earlier did. Anju comes to know that the managerial post she applied for is now filled by a novice with 1 year experience in clinical department. This candidate was internally recommended by Satyawati. Anju is now looking for a new job as soon as possible.
The major issues worthy of consideration in this case are Managerial communication Sensitivity towards employee Employee development Motivation Self management and career planning Management of change