Management defined:“Management is an art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. It is an art of creating an environment in which people can perform and individuals can cooperate towards attainment of group goals”. Harold Koontz“Management is an art of knowing what to do, when to do and see that it is done in the best and cheapest way”. F.W. Taylor
“Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objective by the use of human beings and other resources”. George R. Terry
Management as a Process1. Management is a social process - concerned with developing relationship among people2. Management is an integrated process - undertakes the job of bringing together human physical and financial resources so as to achieve organizational purpose3. Management is a continuous process - concerned with constantly identifying the problem and solving them by taking adequate steps4. Management is an iterative process- All
Management functions George Terry, “There are four fundamental functions of management i.e. planning, organizing, actuating and controlling” Henry Fayol, “To manage is to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, & to control” Koontz and O’Donnel - Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling
Management functions:POSDCoRB Luther Gullick coined the keyword ’POSDCORB’ which formulates the responsibility of a chief executive or administrator. It is developed as a means to structure and analyze management activities and sets a new paradigm in Public Administration.
Management Function:PlanningGULLICK, “Planning is working out in broad outline the things that need to be done and the methods for doing them to accomplish the purpose set for the enterprise.”KOONTZ, “Planning is deciding in advance - what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”.
3 basic steps in planning Formulating objectives – states precisely what results are to be accomplished and when Taking action – follows predetermined plans of actions to fulfill the objective Analyzing results – measures the results achieved against the
Management Function:OrganizingOrganizing – the establishment of a formal structure of authority through which the work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated for the defined objective. In organizing, structures are created, relationships are established and resources are allocated for the accomplishment of activities.According to Henry Fayol, “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i.e. raw material, tools, capital and personnel’s”
Organizing as a processinvolves1. Identification of activities.2. Classification of grouping of activities.3. Assignment of duties.4. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.5. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
Management Function:StaffingStaffing – the whole personnel action of bringing in and training the staff and maintaining favorable conditions of work. It is also known as Human Resource Management.Koontz & O’Donell, “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed into the structure”.
Management Function:DirectingDirecting is a part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes.It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work.It involves guiding and motivating other people to work for a common
Elements of DirectingSupervision - implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiorsMotivation - inspiring, stimulating, or encouraging the subordinates with zeal to work.Leadership – the process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired directionCommunication - process of passing information, experience, opinion from one person to another