Beekman5 std ppt_04


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Beekman5 std ppt_04

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Software Basics: The Ghost in the Machine
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Processing with Programs </li></ul><ul><li>Software Applications: Tools for Users </li></ul><ul><li>System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection </li></ul><ul><li>The User Interface: The Human-Machine Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow’s User Interfaces </li></ul>
  3. 3. Processing with Programs <ul><li>Software programs are: </li></ul><ul><li>Stored in memory </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions that tell the computer what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to solve problems </li></ul>Leonardo da Vinci called music ”the shaping of the invisible,“ and his phrase is even more apt as a description of software . — Alan Kay , developer of the concept of the personal computer
  4. 4. Food for Thought <ul><li>Combine 2 slightly beaten eggs with 1 tsp vanilla extract, ½ tsp cinnamon, 1 cup milk </li></ul><ul><li>Dip 6 slices of bread in mixture </li></ul><ul><li>Fry in small amount of butter until golden brown </li></ul><ul><li>Serve bread with maple syrup, sugar, or tart jelly </li></ul>Suzanne’s French Toast Fantastique:
  5. 5. A Fast, Stupid Machine <ul><li>Computers: </li></ul><ul><li>Perform arithmetic and comparisons capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Follow precise instructions to perform an operation </li></ul><ul><li>Execute instructions quickly and accurately </li></ul>
  6. 6. A Fast, Stupid Machine <ul><li>Programmers begin with an algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>An algorithm is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A set of step-by-step instructions (written in a natural language, e.g., English) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algorithms are ambiguous, error-prone generalities </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithms are translated into the vocabulary of a programming language </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Language of Computers <ul><li>Machine Language numeric codes to represent data </li></ul><ul><li>High-level language fall between machine language and natural human language </li></ul><ul><li>Compliers translates high-level language into </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Languages include the languages spoken by humans </li></ul>
  8. 8. Software Applications: Tools for Users <ul><li>Software applications include: </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Software </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical-market </li></ul><ul><li>Custom Software </li></ul>
  9. 9. Consumer Applications <ul><li>Consumer software differs from other types (music CDs, videos, etc.) based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Upgrade options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compatibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warranty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extent of ownership/license </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Documentation <ul><li>Documentation includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Printed tutorial and reference manuals that explain how to use the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line manuals and help screens which offer immediate help to the user </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Upgrades allow you to pay a fee to get the latest software version </li></ul><ul><li>Newer releases often have additional features and fewer bugs </li></ul>Upgrades
  12. 12. Compatibility <ul><li>Compatibility allows software to function properly with the hardware, operating system, and peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Programs written for one type of computer system may not work on another </li></ul>
  13. 13. Disclaimers <ul><li>Software manufacturers limit their liability for software problems by selling software “as is” </li></ul><ul><li>Given the difficulty of this task, most programs work amazingly well—but not perfectly </li></ul>
  14. 14. Licensing <ul><li>Licensing agreements limit your right to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make copies of software disks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>install software on hard drives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>transfer information to other users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial software is copyrighted so it can’t be legally duplicated for distribution to others. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Distribution <ul><li>Software is distributed through direct sales forces to corporations and other institutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Software is sold to consumers through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>retail stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mail-order catalogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web sites. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Integrated Applications and Suites: Software Bundles <ul><li>Multipurpose software includes most of these modules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Integrated Software: Advantages <ul><li>Costs less than buying the applications individually </li></ul><ul><li>Data is easily transferred between modules </li></ul><ul><li>Commands used in each module are usually the same </li></ul><ul><li>Usually there is a seamless integration of the modules </li></ul>
  18. 18. Vertical-Market and Custom Software <ul><li>Job-specific software: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical billings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Library cataloging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restaurant management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Single-client software needs </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. System Software: The Hardware-Software Connection <ul><li>System software is a class of software that includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What the Operating System Does <ul><li>The operating system controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication with peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordination of concurrent processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring of resources and security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management of programs and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinating network communications </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Utility Programs <ul><li>Upgrades allow you to pay a fee to get the latest software version </li></ul><ul><ul><li>translating files so different software can read them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guarding against viruses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>repairing damaged files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>copying files from one storage device to another </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Where the Operating System Lives <ul><li>Some computers store their operating system in ROM </li></ul><ul><li>Others include only part of it in ROM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The remaining system is loaded into memory (booting) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most of the time it works behind the scenes </li></ul>
  23. 23. The User Interface: The Human-Machine Connection <ul><li>The user interface is what the user sees on the screen </li></ul><ul><li>Two major user interface types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character-based interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. A Character-Based Interface: MS-DOS <ul><li>This is a disk operating system in which the user interacts using characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>symbols </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Character-Based User Interface: MS-DOS <ul><li>MS-DOS™ is the most widely used general-purpose operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Features include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line interface (commands are typed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menu-driven interface (commands are chosen from on-screen lists) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Graphical User Interfaces: Macintosh <ul><li>This is a disk operating system in which the user interacts with the computer by using a pointing device (e.g. a mouse) </li></ul><ul><li>As early as 1984, the Macintosh™ computer was designed with this interface in mind </li></ul>
  27. 27. Graphical User Interfaces: Windows <ul><li>Windows 95 and 98 are similar in many ways to the Mac OS </li></ul><ul><li>Several versions of Windows exist for business and home users </li></ul>
  28. 28. Why WIMP Won <ul><li>W indows, I cons, M enus, and P ointing devices </li></ul><ul><li>They’re intuitive </li></ul><ul><li>They’re consistent </li></ul><ul><li>They’re forgiving </li></ul><ul><li>They’re protective </li></ul><ul><li>They’re flexible </li></ul>
  29. 29. Multiple User Operating Systems: UNIX and Linux <ul><li>UNIX was developed at Bell Labs before personal computers were available </li></ul><ul><li>Linux was created by Linus Torvalds and continues to be a work-in-progress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linux is free for anyone to use or improve </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>UNIX remains a dominant Internet operating system for Internet servers. </li></ul><ul><li>These systems allow a timesharing computer to communicate with several other computers or terminals at once. </li></ul>Multiple User Operating Systems: UNIX and Linux
  31. 31. Hardware & Software Platforms <ul><li>Windows XP </li></ul><ul><li>Windows ME </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Windows CE </li></ul><ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul><ul><li>IBM’s OS/2 </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS/9 </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS/X </li></ul><ul><li>Linux & UNIX </li></ul><ul><li>BeOS </li></ul>
  32. 32. Tomorrow’s User Interfaces <ul><ul><li>Make individual applications obsolete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include more network applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support natural language interfaces such talking to the machine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include artificial intelligence and agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be based on virtual reality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future interfaces will probably: </li></ul>
  33. 33. Rules of Thumb Consumer Concepts <ul><ul><li>Determine what you can afford </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for “extras” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Join a user group or talk with other computer and software owners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Before you buy: </li></ul>
  34. 34. Rules of Thumb: Consumer Concepts <ul><li>If the processor can handle your demands </li></ul><ul><li>If you will be able to upgrade </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of tasks you will be doing </li></ul><ul><li>If your computer can be customized to fit your needs (such as video editing) </li></ul><ul><li>How much computer power you need </li></ul>
  35. 35. Rules of Thumb: Consumer Concepts <ul><ul><li>If you need a high-speed modem or network connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether portability or permanent connection of peripherals is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which kind of user interface will help you do your work easier </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If you should have the same machine as those you work with </li></ul><ul><li>If you are buying from a reputable company </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of support is available </li></ul><ul><li>Consider: </li></ul>