Beekman5 std ppt_08

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Beekman5 std ppt_08

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Database Applications and Implications
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>No Secrets: Computers and Privacy </li></ul>“ The goal is information at your fingertips.” Bill Gates
  3. 3. <ul><li>Database software is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>application software (like word processing and spreadsheet software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to maintain databases (collections of information) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Database is… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a collection of information stored in an organized form on a computer </li></ul></ul>The Electronic File Cabinet: Database Basics
  4. 4. What Good Is a Database? <ul><li>An electronic database allows you to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>store large quantities of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>retrieve information quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organize and reorganize information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>print and distribute information in a variety of ways </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Database Anatomy <ul><li>A database is a collection of one or more database files </li></ul>A file is a collection of related information (records)
  6. 6. <ul><li>A record is the information relating to one person, product, or event </li></ul>Database Anatomy A field is a discrete chunk of information in a record
  7. 7. Database Anatomy <ul><li>The view is a display of the information in fields based on a particular layout of field data. </li></ul>Form View List View
  8. 8. <ul><li>These operations are used to manipulate the information in the database: </li></ul>Database Operations <ul><ul><li>Import: receives data in the form of text files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Browse: navigates through information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Query : finds records that match a specific criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort : rearranges records (alpha or numerically) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report : printout of an ordered list of records </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Special-Purpose Database Programs <ul><li>Specialized database software is preprogrammed for specific data storage and retrieval purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical information systems (GISs): include geographic and demographic data in map form. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Special-Purpose Database Programs <ul><li>Personal information managers (PIMs) : an electronic organizer that is customized to fit individual needs. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>A file manager is a program that allows users to work with one file at a time. </li></ul>Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems
  12. 12. Beyond the Basics: Database Management Systems <ul><li>Database Management Systems (DBMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is a program or system of programs that can manipulate data in a large collection of files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>redundant information is stored as a key field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different users see different points of view </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>may be interactive </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What Makes a Database Relational? <ul><li>A database is relational when files are related to each other, such as this Student ID field in the Student file. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Database Trends <ul><li>Real-Time Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows instant access to information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Downsizing and Decentralizing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using a client/server approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data Mining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows technology to find valuable information </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Database Trends <ul><li>Databases and the Web </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is available via a company’s Intranet and the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Object-Oriented Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make database construction and usage more flexible </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Database Trends <ul><li>Multimedia Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as an index for art, photographs, maps, video clips, and other media files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Language Databases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows users to ask for data using the same language used to address humans </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Privacy Problem <ul><li>More than 15,000 specialized marketing databases contain 2 billion names. </li></ul><ul><li>These databases contain characteristics like age, income, religion, and even sexual preference. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Rules of Thumb: Your Private Right <ul><li>Your social security number is yours – don’t give it away </li></ul><ul><li>Say no to direct mail and phone solicitations, sharing of personal information, and pollsters </li></ul><ul><li>Know your electronic rights </li></ul>
  19. 19. Big Brother and Big Business <ul><li>Government uses record matching to locate criminals ranging from tax evaders to mass murderers. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit bureaus collect information about us and allow us to borrow money where ever we go. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Big Brother and Big Business <ul><li>With the increased amount of information available: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data errors are common </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can become nearly immortal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data isn’t secure </li></ul></ul>

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