Power Point Lesson 04


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Power Point Lesson 04

  1. 1. Computing Fundamentals Module Lesson 4 — Computer Software Computer Literacy BASICS
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Distinguish between software and hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a computer software program works. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the steps involved in software development. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the difference between applications software and systems software. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Describe the three categories of systems programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe operating systems for microcomputers, including network operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Define a user interface. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Explain the difference between a command-line user interface and a graphical user interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the boot process a computer goes through when you start it. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Vocabulary <ul><li>Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>Applications software </li></ul><ul><li>Boot </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Language translators </li></ul><ul><li>MS-DOS </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Network operating system </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Software development </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software </li></ul><ul><li>Unix </li></ul><ul><li>User interface </li></ul><ul><li>Utility software </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hardware vs. Software <ul><li>Computer systems consist of both hardware and software. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware has little value without software. </li></ul><ul><li>Software cannot run without hardware to run it. </li></ul>
  7. 7. What Is Hardware? <ul><li>Hardware refers to anything you can physically touch: </li></ul><ul><li>The keyboard and the mouse </li></ul><ul><li>The monitor and the printer </li></ul><ul><li>The motherboard and expansion cards </li></ul><ul><li>All the other components in the computer case or attached to the computer </li></ul>
  8. 8. What Is Software? <ul><li>Software consists of the instructions issued to the computer to perform specific tasks: </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Operating System refers to the programs that make the computer run </li></ul><ul><li>Software programs are lists of instructions in code that the computer understands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tells the computer what to do </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How Software Programs Work <ul><li>A computer processes data by applying rules called algorithms. </li></ul><ul><li>An algorithm creates a logical progression of steps needed to accomplish a task. </li></ul>
  10. 10. An Algorithm to Solve a Household Problem: Dirty Laundry
  11. 11. Software Development <ul><li>Software development is a multistep process that begins with a need to perform a task more efficiently using a computer: </li></ul><ul><li>First, the programmer breaks down the problem into a series of steps in an algorithm. </li></ul><ul><li>The programmer may use a flowchart to show different paths the program will take. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Software Development (cont.) <ul><li>Next, the programmer writes the steps in a computer programming language or code, using formal terms and syntax. </li></ul><ul><li>Then the computer translates the code into machine language it can understand and uses the translated commands to execute a program. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Debugging Software <ul><li>The software development process does not end when the computer executes the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Errors in syntax or even spelling can cause problems and distort program results. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of the software find and fix “bugs” or errors in the code so it will run properly. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of Software <ul><li>There are literally thousands of software programs you can buy, but all of them can be grouped into one of two categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Applications software </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software </li></ul>
  15. 15. Applications Software <ul><li>Application software consists of programs that were created to perform a specific task. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft® Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TurboTax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet Explorer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application software is also called productivity software. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Systems Software <ul><li>Systems software refers to the programs that are used to manage computer system resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software coordinates and controls the resources and operations of the computer itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The three categories of systems software are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language translators </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Operating Systems <ul><li>Operating systems provide an interface between the user and the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many brands and versions of operating systems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MVHS uses Windows XP </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An operating system is designed to work with a specific processor. </li></ul>
  18. 18. An Operating System Is an Interface Between Users and Computers
  19. 19. Utility Programs <ul><li>Utility programs are designed to help perform housekeeping chores for the computer: </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the computer’s resources </li></ul><ul><li>Perform file and folder management tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up unused files from the hard disk </li></ul><ul><li>Defragment disk storage </li></ul><ul><li>Copy files from one disk to another </li></ul><ul><li>Back up data to disk or tape </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language Translators <ul><li>Computers cannot read program statements in programming language format, such as Visual Basic or Java program statements. </li></ul><ul><li>Language translator programs convert program language code into machine code that can be understood by the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Once converted to machine code, the program can be run and executed by the computer. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Microcomputer Operating Systems <ul><li>If your computer is a Macintosh, you are probably using a Mac OS. </li></ul><ul><li>If your computer is a PC or is PC compatible, you are most likely using one of these operating systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A combination of DOS and Windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standalone version of Windows </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Mac OS <ul><li>Macintosh computers were introduced by Apple Computer in 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>Macintosh had one of the first GUI operating systems, with icons that represented programs, documents, and disks. </li></ul><ul><li>This was also the first operating system to provide an on-screen help system. </li></ul>
  23. 23. DOS <ul><li>IBM introduced its first PC in 1981. Its operating system was called DOS, which stands for Disk Operating System. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS is a command-line interface operating system. The user had to enter commands at a screen prompt. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a single-tasking operating system, which meant that only one program at a time could be executed. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Windows <ul><li>Windows was Microsoft’s first GUI operating system, released in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>The first versions were called operating environments because they acted as a shell around the DOS operating system and worked in combination with DOS. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Windows <ul><li>Applications installed on a Windows system appeared as icons that were activated by clicking them, similar to the Mac OS Finder interface. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest versions of Windows were labeled Windows 3.0, 3.1, and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The first true multitasking version of Windows was Windows 95, which also included support for networking computers. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Windows <ul><li>Windows 98 improved on Windows 95 and offered Internet integration and support for the USB bus. </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 was an update to Windows 98 and Windows NT and included tools for Web site creation. </li></ul><ul><li>The latest version is Windows XP, which provides increased stability and device recognition. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Windows XP Operating System
  28. 28. Other Operating Systems <ul><li>Unix was developed by AT&T and is another early operating system that is still used today. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a portable operating system, which means it can run on any hardware platform. </li></ul><ul><li>Variants of Unix include the freeware operating system Linux and IBM’s AIX. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Network Operating Systems <ul><li>A network operating system (NOS) is designed to allow multiple computers to be connected and talk to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>The most popular networking operating systems include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows NT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell’s Netware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IBM’s Warp Server </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. User Interfaces <ul><li>User interface of an operating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it is what you see when you use the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The user interface determines how “user friendly” the operating system is. </li></ul><ul><li>Two commonly used types of operating system interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>command-line interfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>graphical user interfaces . </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Command-Line Interfaces <ul><li>you must type exact commands into the computer from a command prompt </li></ul><ul><li>You must memorize many commands and keywords </li></ul><ul><li>Command-line interfaces are not as user friendly as graphical user interfaces. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) <ul><li>Menu-based interfaces were easier to use, providing options so that commands did not need to be memorized. </li></ul><ul><li>The breakthrough in ease of use came with the introduction of graphical user interfaces (GUIs). </li></ul>
  33. 33. Graphical User Interfaces (cont.) <ul><li>Users manipulate on-screen icons to perform functions, usually with a mouse or other pointing device. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of today’s personal computers are equipped with some type of user-friendly GUI. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Comparing User Interfaces Command-Line Interface Graphical User Interface Command prompt Icons representing programs or files
  35. 35. Starting Your Computer <ul><li>When you start your computer, operating system commands are loaded into memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Each operating system starts the computer in its own individual way. </li></ul><ul><li>When you turn on a computer, you boot the system. </li></ul><ul><li>POST (Power-on Self Test), a series of tests that check RAM and verify that the keyboard and disk drives are connected to the computer, runs when you start your computer. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Starting Your Computer (cont.) <ul><li>BIOS (Basic Input Output System) searches for the boot record </li></ul><ul><li>Hard disk drive C is typically the startup drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BIOS will look on C first for the boot record </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIOS is built-in software on a ROM chip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains all of the code that controls the monitor, keyboard, disk drives, and other components. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Starting Your Computer (cont.) <ul><li>Boot record is loaded into RAM. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has files contain programming configuration instructions for hardware devices and software applications that you may have installed on your computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next, the software drivers are loaded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drivers enable you to use your printer, modem, scanner, or other devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally, when you add a new device to your system, drivers are installed for that device. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Starting Your Computer (cont.) <ul><li>GUI is loaded next </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When loading the GUI, the operating system reads the commands for your desktop configuration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It also loads whatever programs you have previously specified into the Windows Startup Folder. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If everything goes as it should, the GUI displays the desktop and the computer is ready to use. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Summary <ul><li>Hardware refers to anything you can touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Software is instructions that tell the computer what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Software is also called a program. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer processes data by applying rules called algorithms. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>An algorithm creates a logical progression of steps needed to accomplish a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Software development is a multistep process that includes writing the command code in a programming language, having the computer translate the code into machine language, and then debugging and testing the program. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>The two basic types of computer software are applications software, also called productivity software, and systems software. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems software coordinates and controls the resources and operations of a computer system. </li></ul><ul><li>Three major categories of systems software are operating systems, utilities, and language translators. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Operating systems provide an interface between the user and application program and the computer hardware. </li></ul><ul><li>Utility programs help users complete specialized tasks, such as file management. </li></ul><ul><li>Language translators convert code written in English-based software programs into machine language. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>All computers have operating systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS is used with Apple’s Power Macintosh computers and Power Macintosh clones. </li></ul><ul><li>DOS was introduced with the IBM PC in 1981 and is a character-based operating system. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Microsoft introduced the first version of Windows in 1987; this was an operating environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Windows 95 was Microsoft’s first true multitasking operating system. </li></ul><ul><li>Unix is a portable operating system. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Network operating systems allow a group of two or more microcomputers to be connected. </li></ul><ul><li>The user interface is the part of the operating system with which we are most familiar. </li></ul><ul><li>The two most common user interfaces are command-line interfaces and graphical user interfaces. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Most of today’s computers come with some type of graphical user interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Icons are symbols that represent documents, software programs, disks, and so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>A graphical interface includes standard text and graphics so that data processed in one application program can be shared by other applications. </li></ul>