Types of software


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Types of software

  1. 1. Think for a minute about theThink for a minute about the computer system you use. Itcomputer system you use. It probably has a monitor, aprobably has a monitor, a mouse, and a case thatmouse, and a case that contains electroniccontains electronic components such as a hardcomponents such as a hard disk and the CPU (thedisk and the CPU (the computercomputer’’ss ““brainbrain””).).
  2. 2. These physical components are called hardware. They are the parts of the computer system that we can actually see and touch.
  3. 3. You may wonder how thisYou may wonder how this computer hardware knowscomputer hardware knows what it is supposed to do.what it is supposed to do.
  4. 4. The answer is that we give itThe answer is that we give it instructions.instructions. These instructions are calledThese instructions are called software or programs.software or programs.
  5. 5. All software can be dividedAll software can be divided into two main categories:into two main categories: • Operating systems• Operating systems • Application software• Application software
  6. 6. Operating SystemsOperating Systems Each time you start yourEach time you start your computer, the computer loadscomputer, the computer loads the operating system (OS)the operating system (OS) into the computerinto the computer’’s memorys memory so that it can be used. Thisso that it can be used. This process is sometimes calledprocess is sometimes called booting the system.booting the system.
  7. 7. The operating system acts asThe operating system acts as an interface, or link, betweenan interface, or link, between the user and the computerthe user and the computer hardware.hardware.
  8. 8. There are four main jobs anThere are four main jobs an operating system isoperating system is responsible for:responsible for:
  9. 9. 1.1. It provides a userIt provides a user interface. The userinterface. The user interface lets you giveinterface lets you give commands to the OS.commands to the OS.
  10. 10. 2. It gives instructions to the2. It gives instructions to the computer hardware, such ascomputer hardware, such as the printer and monitor.the printer and monitor.
  11. 11. 3. It manages the way in3. It manages the way in which the computer storeswhich the computer stores data and applications.data and applications.
  12. 12. 4. It keeps track of different4. It keeps track of different jobs. For example, if you arejobs. For example, if you are using both a spreadsheet andusing both a spreadsheet and a word processing applicationa word processing application at the same time, the OS willat the same time, the OS will run both of theserun both of these applications and let youapplications and let you switch back and forthswitch back and forth between them.between them.
  13. 13. There are only few OperatingThere are only few Operating Systems that are commonlySystems that are commonly used in microcomputers:used in microcomputers:
  14. 14. Microsoft Windows, AppleMicrosoft Windows, Apple Macintosh, Linux and UnixMacintosh, Linux and Unix
  15. 15. ApplicationsApplications
  16. 16. Applications are softwareApplications are software programs that performprograms that perform specific tasks for us. You havespecific tasks for us. You have probably used many differentprobably used many different types of applications.types of applications.
  17. 17. Activity managementActivity management programs likeprograms like calendars and address bookscalendars and address books
  18. 18. •• Word processingWord processing applications forapplications for creating documents that arecreating documents that are attractivelyattractively formattedformatted
  19. 19. •• Spreadsheet applications forSpreadsheet applications for creatingcreating documents to manage anddocuments to manage and organizeorganize numerical datanumerical data
  20. 20. •• Presentation applicationsPresentation applications for making slide showsfor making slide shows
  21. 21. •• Graphics applications forGraphics applications for editingediting picturespictures
  22. 22. •• Database applications forDatabase applications for developing databases that candeveloping databases that can organize and retrieve largeorganize and retrieve large amounts of informationamounts of information
  23. 23. •• Communications programsCommunications programs like e mail and faxinglike e mail and faxing software for sending andsoftware for sending and receiving messagesreceiving messages
  24. 24. •• Multimedia applications forMultimedia applications for creating video and musiccreating video and music
  25. 25. •• Utilities for performing aUtilities for performing a variety of tasks that maintainvariety of tasks that maintain or enhance the computeror enhance the computer ’’ss operating systemoperating system
  26. 26. UtilitiesUtilities Utility programs areUtility programs are generally fairly small. Eachgenerally fairly small. Each type has a specific job to do.type has a specific job to do. Below are some descriptionsBelow are some descriptions of utilities.of utilities.
  27. 27. •• Anti-virus applicationsAnti-virus applications protect your computer fromprotect your computer from the damage that can bethe damage that can be caused by viruses and similarcaused by viruses and similar programs.programs.
  28. 28. •• Compression utilities makeCompression utilities make files smaller for storage (orfiles smaller for storage (or sending over the Internet)sending over the Internet) and then return them toand then return them to normal size.normal size.
  29. 29. •• Data recovery utilitiesData recovery utilities attempt toattempt to restore data and files thatrestore data and files that have been damaged orhave been damaged or accidentally deleted.accidentally deleted.
  30. 30. •• Disk defragmentersDisk defragmenters reorganize thereorganize the data stored on disks so that itdata stored on disks so that it is more efficiently arranged.is more efficiently arranged.
  31. 31. •• Firewalls prevent outsidersFirewalls prevent outsiders from accessing yourfrom accessing your computer over a networkcomputer over a network such as the Internet.such as the Internet.
  32. 32. Both operating systemBoth operating system software and applicationssoftware and applications have specific jobs tohave specific jobs to perform. It is important toperform. It is important to realize that the OS you arerealize that the OS you are using must be compatibleusing must be compatible with your hardware.with your hardware.