Psalm Joseph Blanco April 10, 2010
Mr. Sandoval BS-Info. Tech – III
1. What is a Software?
2. What is a Different type of Software? and describe each
3. What do you think of Operating System to the Computer System?
4. Give 10 example of O.S.
5. What is your expectation of ITEP-132 (Operating System Application).?
Answer no. 1
Computer software, or just software is a general term primarily used for digitally stored
data such as computer programs and other kinds of information read and written by
computers. Today, this includes data that has not traditionally been associated with
computers, such as film, tapes and records. The term was coined in order to contrast to
the old term hardware (meaning physical devices); in contrast to hardware, software is
intangible, meaning it "cannot be touched". Software is also sometimes used in a more
narrow sense, meaning application software only.
• Application software, such as word processors which perform productive tasks for
• Firmware, which is software programmed resident to electrically programmable
memory devices on board mainboards or other types of integrated hardware
• Middleware, which controls and co-ordinates distributed systems.
• System software such as operating systems, which govern computing resources
and provide convenience for users.
• Software testing is a domain independent of development and programming.
Software testing consists of various methods to test and declare a software product
fit before it can be launched for use by either an individual or a group.
• Testware, which is an umbrella term or container term for all utilities and
application software that serve in combination for testing a software package but
not necessarily may optionally contribute to operational purposes. As such,
testware is not a standing configuration but merely a working environment for
application software or subsets thereof.
• Video games (except the hardware part)
Software includes all the various forms and roles that digitally stored data may have and play in
a computer (or similar system), regardless of whether the data is used as code for a CPU, or other
interpreter, or whether it represents other kinds of information. Software thus encompasses a
wide array of products that may be developed using different techniques such as ordinary
programming languages, scripting languages, microcode, or an FPGA configuration.
The types of software include web pages developed in languages and frameworks like HTML,
PHP, Perl, JSP, ASP.NET, XML, and desktop applications like OpenOffice, Microsoft Word
developed in languages like C, C++, Java, C#, or Smalltalk. Application software usually runs on
an underlying software operating systems such as Linux or Microsoft Windows. Software (or
firmware) is also used in video games and for the configurable parts of the logic systems of
automobiles, televisions, and other consumer electronics.
Computer software is so called to distinguish it from computer hardware, which encompasses the
physical interconnections and devices required to store and execute (or run) the software. At the
lowest level, executable code consists of machine language instructions specific to an individual
processor. A machine language consists of groups of binary values signifying processor
instructions that change the state of the computer from its preceding state. Programs are an
ordered sequence of instructions for changing the state of the computer in a particular sequence.
It is usually written in high-level programming languages that are easier and more efficient for
humans to use (closer to natural language) than machine language. High-level languages are
compiled or interpreted into machine language object code. Software may also be written in an
assembly language, essentially, a mnemonic representation of a machine language using a
natural language alphabet. Assembly language must be assembled into object code via an
The term "software" was first used in this sense by John W. Tukey in 1958. In computer
science and software engineering, computer software is all computer programs. The theory that
is the basis for most modern software was first proposed by Alan Turing in his 1935 essay
Computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem (Decision problem).
Answer no. 2
Different type of Sofware and Description
Types of software
Practical computer systems divide software systems into three major classes: system
software, programming software and application software, although the distinction is arbitrary,
and often blurred.
System software helps run the computer hardware and computer system. It includes a
combination of the following:
• device drivers
• operating systems
• windowing systems
The purpose of systems software is to unburden the applications programmer from the often
complex details of the particular computer being used, including such accessories as
communications devices, printers, device readers, displays and keyboards, and also to partition
the computer's resources such as memory and processor time in a safe and stable manner.
Examples are - Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X.
Programming software usually provides tools to assist a programmer in writing computer
programs, and software using different programming languages in a more convenient way. The
• text editors
An Integrated development environment (IDE) is a single application that attempts to manage all
Application software allows end users to accomplish one or more specific (not directly computer
development related) tasks. Typical applications include:
• industrial automation
• business software
• video games
• quantum chemistry and solid state physics software
• telecommunications (i.e., the Internet and everything that flows on it)
• educational software
• medical software
• military software
• molecular modeling software
• image editing
• simulation software
• Word processing
• Decision making software
Application software exists for and has impacted a wide variety of topics.
See also: Software architecture
Users often see things differently than programmers. People who use modern general purpose
computers (as opposed to embedded systems, analog computers and supercomputers) usually see
three layers of software performing a variety of tasks: platform, application, and user software.
• Platform software: Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system,
and typically a graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the
computer and its peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes
bundled with the computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the
• Application software: Application software or Applications are what most people think of
when they think of software. Typical examples include office suites and video games.
Application software is often purchased separately from computer hardware. Sometimes
applications are bundled with the computer, but that does not change the fact that they
run as independent applications. Applications are usually independent programs from the
operating system, though they are often tailored for specific platforms. Most users think
of compilers, databases, and other "system software" as applications.
• User-written software: End-user development tailors systems to meet users' specific
needs. User software include spreadsheet templates, word processor [Platform software:
Platform includes the firmware, device drivers, an operating system, and typically a
graphical user interface which, in total, allow a user to interact with the computer and its
peripherals (associated equipment). Platform software often comes bundled with the
computer. On a PC you will usually have the ability to change the platform software.
Even email filters are a kind of user software. Users create this software themselves and
often overlook how important it is. Depending on how competently the user-written
software has been integrated into default application packages, many users may not be
aware of the distinction between the original packages, and what has been added by co-
Main article: Software documentation
Most software has software documentation so that the end user can understand the program,
what it does, and how to use it. Without a clear documentation, software can be hard to use—
especially if it is a very specialized and relatively complex software like the Photoshop or
Developer documentation may also exist, either with the code as comments and/or as separate
files, detailing how the programs works and can be modified.
Main article: Software library
An executable is almost always not sufficiently complete for direct execution. Software libraries
include collections of functions and functionality that may be embedded in other applications.
Operating systems include many standard Software libraries, and applications are often
distributed with their own libraries.
Main article: Software standard
Since software can be designed using many different programming languages and in many
different operating systems and operating environments, software standard is needed so that
different software can understand and exchange information between each other. For instance, an
email sent from a Microsoft Outlook should be readable from Yahoo! Mail and vice versa.
Main article: Execution (computing)
Computer software has to be "loaded" into the computer's storage (such as a [hard drive],
memory, or RAM). Once the software has loaded, the computer is able to execute the software.
This involves passing instructions from the application software, through the system software, to
the hardware which ultimately receives the instruction as machine code. Each instruction causes
the computer to carry out an operation – moving data, carrying out a computation, or altering the
control flow of instructions.
Data movement is typically from one place in memory to another. Sometimes it involves moving
data between memory and registers which enable high-speed data access in the CPU. Moving
data, especially large amounts of it, can be costly. So, this is sometimes avoided by using
"pointers" to data instead. Computations include simple operations such as incrementing the
value of a variable data element. More complex computations may involve many operations and
data elements together.
Quality and reliability
Main articles: Software quality, Software testing, and Software reliability
Software quality is very important, especially for commercial and system software like Microsoft
Office, Microsoft Windows and Linux. If software is faulty (buggy), it can delete a person's
work, crash the computer and do other unexpected things. Faults and errors are called "bugs."
Many bugs are discovered and eliminated (debugged) through software testing. However,
software testing rarely – if ever – eliminates every bug; some programmers say that "every
program has at least one more bug" (Lubarsky's Law). All major software companies, such as
Microsoft, Novell and Sun Microsystems, have their own software testing departments with the
specific goal of just testing. Software can be tested through unit testing, regression testing and
other methods, which are done manually, or most commonly, automatically, since the amount of
code to be tested can be quite large. For instance, NASA has extremely rigorous software testing
procedures for many operating systems and communication functions. Many NASA based
operations interact and identify each other through command programs called software. This
enables many people who work at NASA to check and evaluate functional systems overall.
Programs containing command software enable hardware engineering and system operations to
function much easier together.
Main article: Software license
The software's license gives the user the right to use the software in the licensed environment.
Some software comes with the license when purchased off the shelf, or an OEM license when
bundled with hardware. Other software comes with a free software license, granting the recipient
the rights to modify and redistribute the software. Software can also be in the form of freeware or
Main articles: Software patent and Software patent debate
Software can be patented; however, software patents can be controversial in the software
industry with many people holding different views about it. The controversy over software
patents is that a specific algorithm or technique that the software has may not be duplicated by
others and is considered an intellectual property and copyright infringement depending on the
Design and implementation
Main articles: Software development, Computer programming, and Software engineering
Design and implementation of software varies depending on the complexity of the software. For
instance, design and creation of Microsoft Word software will take much longer time than
designing and developing Microsoft Notepad because of the difference in functionalities in each
Software is usually designed and created (coded/written/programmed) in integrated development
environments (IDE) like Eclipse, Emacs and Microsoft Visual Studio that can simplify the
process and compile the program. As noted in different section, software is usually created on
top of existing software and the application programming interface (API) that the underlying
software provides like GTK+, JavaBeans or Swing. Libraries (APIs) are categorized for different
purposes. For instance, JavaBeans library is used for designing enterprise applications, Windows
Forms library is used for designing graphical user interface (GUI) applications like Microsoft
Word, and Windows Communication Foundation is used for designing web services. Underlying
computer programming concepts like quicksort, hashtable, array, and binary tree can be useful to
creating software. When a program is designed, it relies on the API. For instance, if a user is
designing a Microsoft Windows desktop application, he/she might use the .NET Windows Forms
library to design the desktop application and call its APIs like Form1.Close() and Form1.Show()
to close or open the application and write the additional operations him/herself that it need to
have. Without these APIs, the programmer needs to write these APIs him/herself. Companies
like Sun Microsystems, Novell, and Microsoft provide their own APIs so that many applications
are written using their software libraries that usually have numerous APIs in them.
Software has special economic characteristics that make its design, creation, and distribution
different from most other economic goods. A person who creates software is called a
programmer, software engineer, software developer, or code monkey, terms that all essentially
have a same meaning.
Industry and organizations
Main article: Software industry
The software industry is made up of different entities and peoples that produce software, and as a
result there are many software companies and programmers in the world. Because software is
increasingly used in many different areas like in finance, web searching, data mining,
mathematics, space exploration, gaming and mining and such, software companies and people
usually specialize in certain areas. For instance, Electronic Arts primarily creates video games.
Also selling software can be quite a profitable industry. For instance, Bill Gates, the founder of
Microsoft is the richest person in the world in 2009 largely by selling the Microsoft Windows
and Microsoft Office software programs. The same goes for Larry Ellison, largely through his
Oracle database software.
There are also many non-profit software organizations like the Free Software Foundation, GNU
Project, Mozilla Foundation. Also there are many software standard organizations like the W3C,
IETF and others that try to come up with a software standard so that many software can work
and interoperate with each other like through standards such as XML, HTML, HTTP or FTP.
Some of the well known software companies include Microsoft, Oracle, Novell, SAP, Symantec,
Adobe Systems, and Corel.
Many small companies provide innovation. This is particularly important in the Internet
information age where individuals set up small websites that compete with big companies.
Job of O.S. (Operating System) to the Computer System
The O.S. Derives from a word Operating System is a software that acts as an interface
between user of a computer system and the computer hardware and at this point the O.S. acts a
host of whole computer system’s consist of (input/output data, printer/scanner, motherboard,
processor, memory, storage media such a hard-disk and other peripherals).
And as a host or like a Bridge between user and computer system/hardware they manage
and coordinate all input and output data through a hardware of computer.
Aside from this, our generation in a computer has evolved and many software
corporations such as Microsoft built a new GUI (Graphical User Interface) O.S. for the user who
actually didn’t know how to use a computer. For the instance copying, deleting and moving files
and surfing the net using only mouse and graphics deliver by the O.S.
Example of a new GUI Operating System is a Windows Seven a finish product of
Microsoft Corp. in October last year. And so Win. Seven has a side-bar such as clock, calendar,
picture frame and performance monitor of CPU & RAM/Memory.
And as far as I know the only reason why the O.S. is built in all computer micro
Computer to Super Computer is to do a Job or a Task concern by the user and also to modified
according to the user and for the purpose.
Aside from being modified Operating System, some machine have the O.S. that it can not
be modified or change. They programmed and attach on a ROM chip & in PCB board to work
alone in a according to the device job. Example of a device has a constant Operating System:
Television, washing machine, and even PS2 Game.
Answer no. 4
10 Example of O.S.
Mac OS X
Mac OS X (pronounced /mæk oʊ ɛs tɛn/ mak oh es ten) is a series of operating systems and
graphical user interfaces developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. Since 2002, Mac OS X
has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, the
final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since
UBUNTU Operating System
UBUNTU 9.10 Karmic Koala UBUNTU LTS Beta 2
Ubuntu (pronounced /ʊˈbʊntu/), is a computer operating system based on the Debian GNU/
Linux distribution. It is named after the Southern African ethical ideology Ubuntu ("humanity
towards others") and is distributed as free and open source software with additional proprietary
software available. Ubuntu provides an up-to-date, stable operating system for the average user,
with a strong focus on usability and ease of installation. Web statistics from late 2009 suggest
that Ubuntu's share of Linux desktop usage is between 40 and 50%.
Ubuntu is composed of multiple software packages, of which the vast majority are distributed
under a free software license (also known as open source). The main license used is the GNU
General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License
(GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change,
develop and improve the software. Ubuntu is sponsored by the UK-based company Canonical
Ltd., owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. By keeping Ubuntu free and
open source, Canonical is able to utilize the talents of community developers in Ubuntu's
constituent components. Instead of selling Ubuntu for profit, Canonical creates revenue by
selling technical support and from creating several services tied to Ubuntu.
Canonical endorses and provides support for three additional Ubuntu-derived operating systems:
Kubuntu, Edubuntu and Ubuntu Server Edition. There are several other derivative operating
systems including local language and hardware-specific versions.
Canonical releases new versions of Ubuntu every six months and supports Ubuntu for eighteen
months by providing security fixes, patches to critical bugs and minor updates to programs. LTS
(Long Term Support) versions, which are released every two years, are supported for three
years on the desktop and five years for servers. The latest version of Ubuntu, 9.10 (Karmic
Koala), was released on October 29, 2009.
OS/2 Warp 4 Desktop
OS/2 is a computer operating system, initially created by Microsoft and IBM, then later
developed by IBM exclusively. The name stands for "Operating System/2," because it was
introduced as part of the same generation change release as IBM's "Personal System/2 (PS/2)"
line of second-generation personal computers. OS/2 is no longer marketed by IBM, and IBM
standard support for OS/2 was discontinued on 31 December 2006. Currently, Serenity
Systems sells OS/2 under the brand name eComStation.
OS/2 was intended as a protected mode successor of PC-DOS. Notably, basic system calls were
modeled after MS-DOS calls; their names even started with "Dos" and it was possible to create
"Family Mode" applications: text mode applications that could work on both systems. Because
of this heritage, OS/2 shares similarities with Unix, Xenix, and Windows in many ways.
Solaris is a Unix operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to
Solaris is known for its scalability, especially on SPARC systems, and for originating many
innovative features such as DTrace and ZFS. Solaris supports SPARC-based and x86-based
workstations and servers from Sun and other vendors, with efforts underway to port to additional
Solaris is certified against the Single Unix Specification. Although it was historically developed
as proprietary software, it is supported on systems manufactured by all major server vendors, and
the majority of its codebase is now open source software via the OpenSolaris project.
Windows 3.1 – 3.11
Win. 3.11 Desktop
Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal
computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor
to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded
by Windows 95.
Acorn command line interface
Acorn's Machine Operating System (MOS) or OS was a computer operating system used in
the Acorn BBC computer range. It included support for four-channel sound and graphics, file
system abstraction, and digital and analogue I/O including a daisy-chained fast expansion bus.
The implementation was single-tasking, monolithic and non re-entrant.
Versions 0.10 to 1.20 were used on the BBC Micro, version 1.00 on the Electron, version 2 was
used on the B+, and versions 3 to 5 were used in the BBC Master Series range.
The final BBC computer, the BBC A3000, was 32-bit and ran RISC OS. Its operating system
used portions of the Acorn MOS architecture and shared a number of characteristics (commands,
VDU system) with the earlier 8-bit MOS.
Versions 0 and 1 of the MOS were 16KiB in size, written in 6502 machine code, and held in
ROM on the motherboard. The upper quarter of the 16-bit address space (0xC000 to 0xFFFF) is
reserved for its ROM code and I/O space.
Versions 2 to 5 were still restricted to a 16KiB address space but managed to hold more code and
hence more complex routines, partly because of the alternative 65C102 CPU with its denser
instruction set plus the careful use of paging.
Workbench 1.0 desktop New OS of Amiga
The 1.x series of Amiga OS defaults to a distinctive blue and orange color scheme, designed to give high
contrast on even the worst of television screens (the colors can be changed by the user). Versions 1.1
consists mostly of bug fixes and, like version 1.0, was distributed only for the Amiga 1000. The entire
Amiga OS consists of three floppy disks: Kickstart, Workbench and ABasic by MetaComCo.
The Amiga1000 model needs a Kickstart disk to be inserted into floppy drive to boot up. An image of a
simple illustration of a hand on a white screen, holding a blue Kickstart floppy, invited the user to
perform this operation. After the kickstart was loaded into a special section of memory called the writable
control store (WCS), the image of the hand appeared again, this time inviting the user to insert the
Workbench Version 1.2 was the first to support Kickstart stored in a ROM. Kickstart disk was still
necessary for Amiga1000 models, but it was no longer necessary for Amiga500 or 2000, but the users of
these systems must change the ROMs (which were socketed) to change the kickstart version.
AmigaOS now spanned two floppy disks, and supported installing and booting from hard drive (assuming
the Amiga was equipped with one), the name of the main disk was still named "Workbench" (the user
interface portion of the operation system). The second disk was the Extras disk. AmigaOS set of disks
was still three disks, due to abolition of Kickstart disk. Users of A1000 could ask a Commodore dealer to
obtain one. The third disk was now AmigaBasic by Microsoft.
Kickstart Version 1.2 corrected various flaws and added AutoConfig support. AutoConfig is a protocol
similar to and is the predecessor of Plug and Play, in that it can configure expansion boards without user
Kickstart Version 1.3 improved little on its predecessor, the most notable change being auto booting from
hard drives. Into Workbench 1.3 floppy disk, on the other hand, users can find several significant
improvements to AmigaOS, including FFS a faster file system for hard disks storage which resolved the
problem of old Amiga filesystem which wasted too much hard disk space due to the fact it could store
only 488bytes any block of 512bytes keeping 24 bytes for checksums. Many improvements were made to
the CLI (command line interface) of Amiga which was now a complete text based Shell, named
AmigaShell, and various additional tools and programs.
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by
Microsoft, introduced on 24 April 2003. An updated version, Windows Server 2003 R2, was
released to manufacturing on 6 December 2005. Its successor, Windows Server 2008, was
released on 4 February 2008.
According to Microsoft, Windows Server 2003 is more scalable and delivers better performance
than its predecessor, Windows 2000.
New and updated features
Manage Your Server
See also: Features new to Windows XP
• Internet Information Services (IIS) v6.0 - A significantly improved version of IIS.
• Increased default security over previous versions, due to the built-in firewall and having
most services disabled by default.
• Significant improvements to Message Queuing.
• Manage Your Server - a role management administrative tool that allows an administrator
to choose what functionality the server should provide.
• Improvements to Active Directory, such as the ability to deactivate classes from the
scheme, or to run multiple instances of the directory server (ADAM)
• Improvements to Group Policy handling and administration
• Provides a backup system to restore lost files
• Improved disk management, including the ability to back up from shadows of files,
allowing the backup of open files.
• Improved scripting and command line tools, which are part of Microsoft's initiative to
bring a complete command shell to the next version of Windows.
• Support for a hardware-based "watchdog timer", which can restart the server if the
operating system does not respond within a certain amount of time.
WINDOWS 98 First and Second Edition
Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It was released to
manufacturing on 15 May 1998 and to retail on 25 June 1998. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows
95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit monolithic product with an MS-DOS based boot
loader. Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows Me on 14 September 2000. Microsoft support for
Windows 98 ended on 11 July 2006.
Windows 98 Second Edition (often shortened to SE) is an updated release of Windows 98, released on
5 May 1999. It includes fixes for many minor issues, improved USB support, and the replacement of
Internet Explorer 4.0 with Internet Explorer 5.0. Also included is Internet Connection Sharing, which
allows multiple computers on a LAN to share a single Internet connection through Network Address
Translation. Other features in the update include Microsoft NetMeeting 3.0 and integrated support for
DVD-ROM drives. A memory overflow issue was resolved which in the older version of Windows 98
would crash most systems if left running for 49.7 days (equal to 2 32 milliseconds). Windows 98 SE
could be obtained as retail upgrade and full version packages, as well as OEM and a Second Edition
Updates Disc for existing Windows 98 users.
• 486DX-2/66 MHz or higher processor (Pentium processor recommended)
• 16 MB of RAM (24 MB recommended, it's possible to run on 8 MB machines with /im
option used during the installation process)
• At least 500 MB of space available on HDD. The amount of space required depends on
the installation method and the components selected, but virtual memory and system
utilities as well as drivers should be taken into consideration.
• Upgrading from Windows 95 (FAT16) or 3.1 (FAT): 140-400 MB (typically 205 MB).
• New installation (FAT32): 190-305 MB (typically 210 MB).
• Note 1: Both Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE can have significant problems associated
with hard drives that are over 32 Gigabytes (GB) in size. This issue only occurs with
certain Phoenix BIOS settings. A software update has been made available to fix this
• Note 2: Also, both Windows 98 and Windows 98 SE are unable to handle hard drives
that are over 137 Gigabytes (GB) in size with the default drivers, because of missing 48
Bit LBA support. Data corruption is possible. An experimental third party software
update is available to fix this shortcoming.
• VGA or higher resolution monitor
• CD-ROM or DVD-ROM drive
• Microsoft Mouse or compatible pointing device (optional).
Like its predecessor, Windows 95, and its successor, Windows Millennium Edition (Me), users
can bypass hardware requirement checks with the undocumented /im setup switch. This allows
installation on computers with processors as old as the 80386.
Windows 7 is a version of Microsoft Windows, a series of operating systems produced by
Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops,
netbooks, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July
22, 2009, and reached general retail availability on October 22, 2009, less than three years
after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7's server counterpart, Windows
Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time.
Unlike its predecessor, which introduced a large number of new features, Windows 7 was
intended to be a more focused, incremental upgrade to the Windows line, with the goal of being
fully compatible with applications and hardware with which Windows Vista is already
compatible. Presentations given by Microsoft in 2008 focused on multi-touch support, a
redesigned Windows Shell with a new taskbar, referred to as the Superbar, a home networking
system called HomeGroup, and performance improvements. Some applications that have been
included with prior releases of Microsoft Windows, including Windows Calendar, Windows
Mail, Windows Movie Maker, and Windows Photo Gallery, are not included in Windows 7;
most are instead offered separately as part of the free Windows Live Essentials suite.
New and changed features
Main article: Features new to Windows 7
The new Action Center, which replaces Windows Security Center
When the action center detects a security threat, it displays a thumbnail with problems listed.
Windows 7 includes a number of new features, such as advances in touch and handwriting
recognition, support for virtual hard disks, improved performance on multi-core processors,
improved boot performance, DirectAccess, and kernel improvements. Windows 7 adds
support for systems using multiple heterogeneous graphics cards from different vendors
(Heterogeneous Multi-adapter), a new version of Windows Media Center, a Gadget for
Windows Media Center, improved media features, the XPS Essentials Pack and Windows
PowerShell being included, and a redesigned Calculator with multiline capabilities including
Programmer and Statistics modes along with unit conversion. Many new items have been added
to the Control Panel, including ClearType Text Tuner, Display Color Calibration Wizard,
Gadgets, Recovery, Troubleshooting, Workspaces Center, Location and Other Sensors,
Credential Manager, Biometric Devices, System Icons, and Display. Windows Security Center
has been renamed to Windows Action Center (Windows Health Center and Windows Solution
Center in earlier builds), which encompasses both security and maintenance of the computer.
The default setting for User Account Control in Windows 7 has been criticized for allowing
untrusted software to be launched with elevated privileges by exploiting a trusted application.
Microsoft's Windows kernel engineer Mark Russinovich acknowledged the problem, but noted
that there are other vulnerabilities that do not rely on the new setting. Windows 7 also supports
Mac-like RAW image viewing through the addition of WIC-enabled image decoders, which
enables raw image thumbnails, previewing and metadata display in Windows Explorer, plus full-
size viewing and slideshows in Windows Photo Viewer and Window Media Center.
The taskbar has seen the biggest visual changes, where the Quick Launch toolbar has been
replaced with pinning applications to the taskbar. Buttons for pinned applications are integrated
with the task buttons. These buttons also enable the Jump Lists feature to allow easy access to
common tasks. The revamped taskbar also allows the reordering of taskbar buttons. To the far
right of the system clock is a small rectangular button that serves as the Show desktop icon. This
button is part of the new feature in Windows 7 called Aero Peek. Hovering over this button
makes all visible windows transparent for a quick look at the desktop. In touch-enabled
displays such as touch screens, tablet PCs, etc., this button is slightly wider to accommodate
being pressed with a finger. Clicking this button minimizes all windows, and clicking it a
second time restores them. Additionally, there is a feature named Aero Snap, that automatically
maximizes a window when it is dragged to either the top or left/right edges of the screen, similar
to Linux. This also allows users to snap documents or files on either side of the screen to
compare them. When a user moves windows that are maximized, the system restores their
previous state automatically. This functionality is also accomplished with keyboard shortcuts.
Unlike in Windows Vista, window borders and the taskbar do not turn opaque when a window is
maximized with Windows Aero applied. Instead, they remain translucent.
The Windows 7 taskbar.
For developers, Windows 7 includes a new networking API with support for building SOAP-
based web services in native code (as opposed to .NET-based WCF web services), new
features to shorten application install times, reduced UAC prompts, simplified development of
installation packages, and improved globalization support through a new Extended Linguistic
Services API. At WinHEC 2008 Microsoft announced that color depths of 30-bit and 48-bit
would be supported in Windows 7 along with the wide color gamut scRGB (which for HDMI 1.3
can be converted and output as xvYCC). The video modes supported in Windows 7 are 16-bit
sRGB, 24-bit sRGB, 30-bit sRGB, 30-bit with extended color gamut sRGB, and 48-bit scRGB.
Microsoft has also implemented better support for solid-state drives, including the new
TRIM command, and Windows 7 is able to identify a solid-state drive uniquely. Microsoft is
planning to support USB 3.0 in a subsequent patch, support not being included in the initial
release due to delays in the finalization of the standard.
Internet Spades, Internet Backgammon and Internet Checkers, which were removed from
Windows Vista, were restored in Windows 7. Windows 7 includes Internet Explorer 8 and
Windows Media Player 12.
Users are also able to disable many more Windows components than was possible in Windows
Vista. New additions to this list of components include Internet Explorer, Windows Media
Player, Windows Media Center, Windows Search, and the Windows Gadget Platform.
Windows 7 includes 13 additional sound schemes, titled Afternoon, Calligraphy, Characters,
Cityscape, Delta, Festival, Garden, Heritage, Landscape, Quirky, Raga, Savanna, and Sonata.
A new version of Microsoft Virtual PC, newly renamed as Windows Virtual PC was made
available for Windows 7 Professional, Enterprise, and Ultimate editions. It allows multiple
Windows environments, including Windows XP Mode, to run on the same machine. Windows
XP Mode runs Windows XP in a virtual machine and redirects displayed applications running in
Windows XP to the Windows 7 desktop. Furthermore, Windows 7 supports the mounting of a
virtual hard disk (VHD) as a normal data storage, and the bootloader delivered with Windows 7
can boot the Windows system from a VHD, only in the Professional and Ultimate editions
however. The Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) of Windows 7 is also enhanced to support real-
time multimedia application including video playback and 3D games, thus allowing use of
DirectX 10 in remote desktop environments. The three application limit, previously present in
the Windows Vista Starter Edition, has been removed from Windows 7.
Main article: List of features removed in Windows 7
A number of capabilities and certain programs that were a part of Windows Vista are no longer
present or have been changed, resulting in the removal of certain functionality. These include the
classic Start Menu user interface, Windows Ultimate Extras and InkBall. Four applications
bundled with Windows Vista — Windows Photo Gallery, Windows Movie Maker, Windows
Calendar and Windows Mail — are not included with Windows 7, but are instead available for
free in a separate package called Windows Live Essentials which can be found on the Microsoft
Microsoft has published their minimum specifications for a system running Windows 7.
Requirements for the 32-bit version are much the same as recommendations for premium
editions of Vista, but the 64-bit versions are higher. Microsoft has released an upgrade advisor
that scans a computer to see if it is compatible with Windows 7.
Minimum hardware requirements for Windows 7
Architecture 32-bit 64-bit
Processor 1 GHz 32-bit processor 1 GHz 64-bit processor
Memory (RAM) 1 GB of RAM 2 GB of RAM
Graphics Card DirectX 9 graphics processor with WDDM driver model 1.0 (For Aero)
HDD free space 16 GB of available disk space 20 GB of available disk space
Optical drive DVD drive (only to install from DVD/CD Media)
Additional requirements to use certain features:
• Windows XP Mode (available on Professional, Ultimate and Enterprise), requires an
additional 1 GB of RAM, an additional 15 GB of available hard disk space and a
processor capable of hardware virtualization with Intel VT or AMD-V enabled. The
requirement for a processor capable of hardware virtualization has been lifted.
• Windows Media Center (included with Home Premium, Professional, Ultimate and
Enterprise), requires a TV tuner to receive and record TV.
Windows 7 Service Pack 1 (SP1) was announced on 18 March 2010 and is currently in
development, planned for release in autumn 2010. After months of speculation by analysts,
Microsoft confirmed that the service pack is to be on a much smaller scale than those released
for previous versions of Windows, particularly Windows Vista. Service Pack 1 is expected to
contain minor updates, including all patches and hotfixes already delivered through Windows
Update, and add USB 3.0 support, improvements to Bluetooth performance and an updated
Remote Desktop client implementing upcoming RemoteFX technology.
On 7 April 2010, a build of Windows 7 Service Pack 1 dated from 27 March 2010 was leaked
onto torrent sites. The leaked service pack has a build number of
6.1.7601.16537.amd64fre.win7.100327-0053 and installation has been reported to be much
quicker than service packs for previous versions of Windows.
Answer no. 5
My Expectation about ITEP132
My expectation about the subject ITEP132 is to make me familiarize some of the
Operating System from old to new O.S., having a GUI or without. And teach me how to use
different type of O.S., installing O.S and to configure it according to what type or Setting.
Also helping me to become good listener, worker, and a leader
And Making me more capable and more flexible in my future work and becoming
generously to others by having class seminars, group projects not only to gain knowledge but
also to help others by creating projects for others.