Hardware & Software Taufiq H. Ghilan firstname.lastname@example.org
Agenda or Summary Layout IntroductionPart 1 What is Hardware ? Hardware componentsPart 2 What is Software? What are Software Types ? Software key featuresPart 3 Relationship between Hardware & Software Conclusion
IntroductionComputers Has Made Our Life Different.They Changed Our Behaviors, Habits, And EvenOur Course Of Life.So, What Are Computers? What Is This CreatureMade Of? And, Does It Have A Body And Soul?Lets Navigate Deeper To Know More….
What is Hardware ?- It is a Collection of physical components that comprises thecomputer system.- Something that can be touched. It is the body of the computerHardware ComponentsMotherboard • Electronic components including all embedded ICs; • Central processing unit, CPU; • Memory, Random Access Memory; • Sound Card; • Video Card; and • Network Interface Card, NIC.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Central processing unit – also called “ CPU”, a Processor, “The Chip”, or Microprocessor. CPU is often described as the brain of the computer. CPU is an integrated circuit which processes instructions anddata. CPU has many types, i.e. Intel Pentium processors, AMDAthalon Processors, and Sun Microsystems Sparc Processors.CPU speed measured by the number of completed instructioncycle per second.CPU has different families depending on the usage of theprocessor of the platform of the computer using it, i.e. laptopprocessors, workstation processors, servers processors, smartphones processors.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Random Access Memory, RAM – it is the waiting room for thecomputer’s “ CPU”. Holds instructions for processing data, processed data, and raw data. RAM is measured by: capacity ( in Megabytes or Gigabytes), and speed( in nanoseconds) Amount of Ram installed determines : Which software applications will run efficiently? All applications has certain memory requirements listed on their package for the minimum and recommended memory. How many applications can be opened simultaneously ?RAM are cost-effective to and upgrade and easy to install.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Sound Card – it has line-in, line-out, and microphoneinterfaces. process sound signals from digital to analog and vise- versa. Microphone interface sends the sound waves to the PC to be thenprocessed, recorded, and saved in the PC. line-out interface sends the digital signal of the voice from the PCto other media like speakers.Line-in interface receives analogue signal from analogue device,like tape-recorder, and process it in the PC in digital form.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Video card – it is connected on the Motherboard, sometimesintegrated, and has inside and outside interfaces on the case of thecomputer. process the picture from the digital form to the analogue form to bedisplayed on the monitor.Has a small microprocessor that is used to process the picture details likethe 3D and the high density pictures.Has a separate memory of its card for high definition of the pictures.Developed a lot in the past years high resolution cards with multiple interfaces of multiple purposes hashigh price reaching the price of PC itself, $ 2000.Network interface card – it is used to connect the computer to thenetwork and share data with other computers or devices.
What is Hardware ? Continued.. Pointing device • Touchpad; • Trackball; • Mouse; and • Touch- screen. Storage Fixed storage - hard-disk Drives. Removable data storage : • Optical disc drive: CD/DVD RW discs. • Floppy disk; • Memory Cards; and • Flash Disk.
What is Hardware ? Continued..Pointing device – is used to guide the user on thescreen to access different objects and icons on the screen. Has many forms: • Touchpad – used in laptops to move the mouse cursor • Trackball – A small ball especially on laptops used to move the cursor of the mouse to perform specific action; • Mouse – An external device used to move the cursor on the screen in Graphical interfaces; and • Touch- screen – An electronic sensitive screens that translates the movements of the finger into signals understood by the operating system to perform specific action.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Storage – Electronic devices that store, retrieve, and save data. Forms of Storage Fixed storage - hard-disk Drives. It is a magnetic storage device used to store, OS, applications, and data. Capacity started in kilobytes, now in Gigabytes & Terabytes. Removable data storage : • Optical disc drive: CD/DVD RW discs. • Floppy disk – started capacity in Kilobytes up to 2.88 Megabytes, and finally disappeared from the market industry; • Memory Cards – new technology that has great demand and many new devices, i.e. digital cameras, are using it; and finally • Flash Disk- a media that is using flash memory technology to store data on demand, plug, save or retrieve, then go… Capacity & speed are important factors when selecting a new storage device or media.
What is Hardware ? Continued..Output devices • Monitor; • Printer; and • Speakers.Input devices • Keyboard • Scanner; • Microphone; • Webcam; • Joystick;
What is Hardware ? Continued…Output devices – receives different digital signals, i.e. video, audio, data, and translate them into different forms according to the ending device, i.e. Monitor, Printer, speaker. Types of output devices Monitor – h transforms the digital signal into an analogue type and display the picture on the screen. Has different types, i.e. CRT, LCD, LED. Has different resolution capabilities, some with HD & 3D features. Printers – receives digital data and process it to produce printed copies on paper. Different types – dot matrix, ink jet, laser jet, bubble jet. Has different resolutions when printing on paper. Colored or black & white Different paper sizes used according to the model and type of printer. Different printing speeds. Multipurpose printers has capabilities of scan, copy, print, and send to fax or e-mail. Speaker - transforms the digital signal from computer into analogue signal, sound waves.
What is Hardware ? Continued…Input devices – Receives different signals from different devices, i.e. scanners, microphones, webcam, joystick, and keyboards and translates the output into the proper form. Types of output devices Keyboard – process the finger strikes into an electronic signals that is translated into different characters, by a decoder, then sent to the computer to perform the actions. Scanner – process the light signal into digital signal and send it to computer to display the image captured using special software. Microphone – transforms the sound wave signal into an electronic signal and computer process it into a digital form to be heard using speakers or headphone. Webcam – used to take pictures and video streaming images. Widely used in internet chatting. Joystick - useful in education as an adaptive or assistive input device.
What is Hardware? Continued.. Computer Case One of the most important components that is used to include all the primary components inside, motherboard, RAM, CPU, Sound/NIC cards, VGA cards, etc.
Packaging the ComputerThe physical forms of the generalpurpose computer: Fast Expensive Complex Large • All follow general Super Computers organization: Mainframe Computers • Primary memory • Input units Minicomputers • Output units Microcomputer • Central Processing Unit Palmtop Computer • Grouped according Calculator to: speed, cost, size, and Slow Cheap Simple Small complexity.
What is Software ? It is collection of computer programs & related data thatinstructs the computer what to do and how to do it. The term was coined to contrast to and distinguish it fromthe term hardware. It is like the soul that brings life to the hardware.It is something that can not be touched but sensed.It s the interpreter between the human and the machine.
SoftwareOperating Programming ApplicationSystem Language softwareSoftware Software It is designed to Are used to assist a Software developed operate the computer programmer in writing to perform in any task hardware. computer programs. and utilize the It provides platform Has tools to hardware capabilities. for application to run. create, debug, maintai Examples: Microsoft Examples: Microsoft n other applications of office, SAP, Norton OS, Unix OS, Linux programs. Anti-virus Program. OS, Sun Solaris OS . Examples: C, Java,C++, PHP, HTM L.
Software Key FeaturesReliability & Quality• Any software should be reliable to well accepted.•Softwarethat has many errors and faults are considered to have bugs andneeds more test.•Bigsoftware companies such as Microsoft, Sun Microsystems has testingdepartments.Updates and service packs are used by the users of the software toeliminate bugs and make it more reliable.
Software Key Features continued… License•software has license agreement that enables the user to use the software legally. ExecutionIn order to use the software:•it should be installed on the operating system.•thecomputer is able to execute the software by passing instructions from theapplication, to the operating system.•then the hardware that, at the end, receives the instructions as machine code tocarry out certain operation.
Software Key Features continued…Documentation•software has to have documentation to let end user understand the program,what it can do, and how to use it.
Moving Information Within the ComputerWithout the integration between Software andHardware, computers will never be able to speakwith us.Software is like the blood in the artery of thehardware, without it computers are pile of metalpieces.Software instructs the hardware to moveinformation from place to place.Software without hardware is only an imaginarycreature that only exists in our minds.
Moving Information Within the ComputerHow do binary numerals move into, out of, and within thecomputer? • Information is moved about in bytes, or multiple bytes called words. • Words are the fundamental units of information. • The number of bits per word may vary per computer. • A word length for most large IBM computers is 32 bits= 4 bytes= 1 word:
Moving Information Within the ComputerBits that compose a word are passed inparallel from place to place. • Ribbon cables: • Consist of several wires, molded together. • One wire for each bit of the word or byte. • Additional wires coordinate the activity of moving information. • Each wire sends information in the form of a voltage pulse.
ConclusionWe Conclude That Computers Are Two Parts, Software &Hardware, That Can Never Be Useful Without Its TwoComponents.Software And Hardware Are Complimentary To EachOther and That Made It A Creature With TwoComponents.That Is The Secret Behind This Mysterious Creature ThatChanged Our Life…
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