Migration – Why Do Cities Grow


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AS and A2 Geography

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Migration – Why Do Cities Grow

  1. 1. Migration – Why Do Cities Grow<br />AS Geography<br />
  2. 2. Thinking of the DTM...<br />At What stage do you feel people began to migrate to cities?<br />Why Do cities grow?<br />
  3. 3. Why did cities grow?<br />Increase in natural population growth<br />Net migration from rural areas<br />Rural depopulation<br />Industrialisation<br />So why do people move to cities?<br />
  4. 4. Reasons to move?<br />To find work<br />Earn money to send home (Remittances)<br />Shortage of land, food or opportunities is rural areas<br />Freedom from traditional rural society<br />Pull of the bright lights<br />War, Natural disasters<br />Hope to receive support from Govt or NGO’s in the event of food shortages<br />
  5. 5. You can categorise migration into Push and pull factors<br />Physical<br />Demographic<br />Economic<br />Social<br />Political<br />
  6. 6. Birth Rates always fall when people migrate to cities... WHY?<br />Education levels are higher especially for girls<br />Children are less economically advantageous<br />Large families can be a drag on economic progress for newcomers<br />Generally not the same extended family structure<br />
  7. 7. How are Death Rates affected then?<br />Housing – often poor quality when under rapid growth but generally improves later<br />Water – Has a similar issue<br />Sewage Treatment – Again is poor but improves<br />Food Supply – Often better than rural areas because cities are centre for storage and distribution<br />Health Care – Can be better than rural areas<br />
  8. 8. Cities Depend on Wealth<br />Often huge ranges of income in cities and access to services.<br />This is still apparent today in many societies around the globe<br />Can you think of areas where wealth plays a part?<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Types of Migration<br />
  11. 11. Forced Migration<br />Religious or political persecution, war, natural disaster, forced labour or famine<br />
  12. 12. Voluntary<br />Climate<br />Employment<br />Family<br />Better services<br />
  13. 13. Internal Migration<br />Migration within countries<br />Moving house<br />Urban to urban<br />Urban to rural<br />Rural to urban<br />Such as Pioneer advances across USA 1800’s +<br />
  14. 14. International Migration<br />Voluntary<br />Colonisation of countries such as the USA upto around 1924<br />Most is now forced due to the tightening of immigrant policy<br />
  15. 15. Lee’s Model 1966<br />
  16. 16. Does not isolate push pull factors<br />Looks at attributes for each place <br />Decisions based on personal factors reliant on <br />Age<br />Gender<br />Marital Status<br />Education<br />Socio-economic class<br />Some are positive factors some are seen as negative others as neutral all this influences personal decision making process<br />
  17. 17. Lee’s model introduces a refinement to push pull factors<br />Intervening Obstacles Both real or perceived <br />International boundaries, language, anxieties etc.<br />
  18. 18. Consequences of Migration <br />Overview<br />
  19. 19. Demographic Consequences<br />Changes in the numbers and distribution of people within a region are changed. <br />Intermarriages are created, leading to a new group of people. <br />
  20. 20. Social Consequences<br />Migration brings different people together leading to conflicts. <br />Migration however also creates understanding between different groups of people. <br />Rural-Urban migration creates ghettoes in cities. <br />
  21. 21. Economic Consequences<br />This depends on the &quot;quality&quot; of the migrants and the economic needs of the origin and destination. Quality refers to skills, age, educational attainment, health etc. <br />In overpopulated areas, emigration is beneficial because it reduces the pressure on the land. <br />In under populated areas, emigration may slow down development. <br />
  22. 22. Class Work<br />‘Most migrants travel short distances, with increased distance the number of migrants decrease’<br />‘The major direction of migration is from agricultural to areas of industry and commerce’<br />‘Most migrants are adults and families rarely migrate out of their own countries of birth.’<br />These remarks were made 150yrs ago how well do they stand up today, write notes on your own and then discuss in small groups<br />