Successfully reported this slideshow.
Your SlideShare is downloading. ×

Kimberly's group powerpoint presentation

Ad

“Understanding the
Aspirations for the Migration
of Kalinga at Sta. Felomena,
San Mariano, Isabela”
Researchers:
• Kimberl...

Ad

CHAPTER 1
HOME
INTRODUCTION
SIGNIFICANCE OF
THE STUDY
CONCEPTUAL
FRAMEWORK
STATEMENT OF
THE PROBLEM
SCOPE AND
DELIMITATION

Ad

Chapter 1: Introduction
Historically, migration plays a pivotal role throughout the
years in shaping the world as we know ...

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Ad

Upcoming SlideShare
6   Social Migration
6 Social Migration
Loading in …3
×

Check these out next

1 of 68 Ad
1 of 68 Ad

More Related Content

Kimberly's group powerpoint presentation

  1. 1. “Understanding the Aspirations for the Migration of Kalinga at Sta. Felomena, San Mariano, Isabela” Researchers: • Kimberly Domingo • Aurelio Cristobal • Jeric Gerardo • Jovan Ibarra • Benedic Galano • Lovely Somera • Maricris Balisi • Richard Bulfa • John Rey Balisi
  2. 2. CHAPTER 1 HOME INTRODUCTION SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM SCOPE AND DELIMITATION
  3. 3. Chapter 1: Introduction Historically, migration plays a pivotal role throughout the years in shaping the world as we know it today. Migration is linked with global issues including economic growth, human rights, politics and livelihood. Migration has many social and economic benefits but also present challenges in fulfilling aspirations. When we explore determinants of migration, aspiration has the biggest role in migrant’s life and the capacity to aspire is described by Apparadurai as a cultural capacity, which enables one to envision, plan, navigate and achieve a better future. The ability to aspire is a positive way to motivate and perform migration. Apparadurai (2004) argues that capacity to aspire requires strengthening among poor communities and should be mobilized to enable groups of poor people to exercise voice. Aspirations should be used to lead, motivate and seek help in knowing the right path as they enter the realm of migration and the ways to overcome the challenges of their aspirations for migration.
  4. 4. People leave and stay, to adapt, live and survive the journey of the new path they have chosen for their lives. Yann Martel (2012) wrote this paragraph as recited in the Life of Pi movie; ‘Why do people move? What makes them uproot and leave everything they’ve known for a great unknown beyond the horizon? Why climb this Mount Everest of formalities that makes you feel like a beggar? Why enter this jungle of foreignness where everything is new, strange and difficult? The answer is the same the world over; people move in the hope of a better life.’ This paragraph seek reasons why people abandon the place from where they were born and risen, learned and survived. These struggles in political, social, cultural and economic dimensions will motivate people especially migrants that these challenges will aspire them in achieving the triumph of a better life.
  5. 5. Apparently, problems and desires lead people to leave their place of origin and migrate to the place where they will live just to fulfill their aspirations in life. Migration happens when there are unsolved problems and unachieved ambitions, so the role of migration is to help people specially families to develop their way of living and to achieve their set of goals and desires in life. The victims of migration or the emigrants are usually the ethnic groups like Kalinga families who are one of the major ethno-linguistic groups inhabiting Northern Luzon. Kalinga and other Cordillera peoples are believed to have arrived in separate migrations from southeastern or eastern Asia. Numbers apart, migration is important because of the way it shapes and re-shapes societies, making them more diverse and complex. But it also creates sharp divisions between those who accept the need for migrants and welcome the economic and cultural contributions they make, and those who oppose them.
  6. 6. According to Lee’s ‘Push and Pull Theory of Migration’ (2015), there are two factors that identify migration ; first is the push factor, which composes of problems surrounded by people in their original place and the less opportunities in their place (i.e., not enough jobs, primitive conditions, desertification, famine or drought, political fear or persecution, poor medical care, loss of wealth, natural disasters, death threats, lack of political or religious freedom, pollution, poor housing, bullying, discrimination, poor chances of marrying) and; second is the pull factor that consists of opportunities and aspirations of people that they can only attain in other places (i.e., job opportunities, better living conditions, political and/or religious freedom, enjoyment, education, better medical care, attractive climates, security, family links, industry, better chances of marrying). The push factors drive people to migrate in order to succeed the pull factors.
  7. 7. In this theory the migration process can be delayed and retard by the called intervening obstacles like the distance that aspires migrants to travel and it can also be the society’s politics, culture and economy. Migration is not just outside forces and pull/push factors but a deep conscious decision that individuals make. The differences in people’s age, gender and social class will be the basis on how they will pass the intervening obstacles and shape their ability to conquer the current problems they’re facing. Furthermore personal factors such as a person’s education, knowledge of a potential receiver population, family ties, and the like can facilitate or retard migration. Migration is the movement of people from one location to another and widely associated with change of permanent place of residence. Reasons of migration are inter-regional and intraregional disparities at macro level
  8. 8. and fundamentally lack of employment opportunities resulting low standard of living conditions among different socio-economic groups at micro level. There are two types of migration; the internal migration and the international migration. The internal migration is the movement of people from rural-to-urban, urban-to-rural, rural-to-rural and urban- to-urban migration while international migration is the movement of people from one country to another. Migration focuses on many questions, problems, reasons and desires that we really need to respond and study and one of the most important aspects the we need to specify is the aspirations of migrants in moving on another place neither local, national nor international because migration is a global phenomenon cause not only by economic factors but also by social, political, cultural, environmental, health, education and transportation factors of a country in order for us to be knowledgeable of what are the particular reasons that cause the increase of the number of migration.
  9. 9. The current situation in our country reveals that problems are on our political and economic system. Some rural communities in our country need immediate actions and programs to uplift their lives such as for transportation, electricity, medical care, education and livelihood that cause people especially the ethnic families to leave their place of origin and move to a place that will fulfill their needs and aspirations in life. Nowadays, people from ethnic groups like the kalinga tend to move from rural-to-rural areas, the kalinga’s place of origin is in Brgy. Delomanay, Palanan, Isabela and their current residency is in Sta. Felomena, San Mariano, Isabela. This rural-to-rural movement of kalinga has captured our attention to investigate their perspectives on why they aspire to move on rural areas and not in urban areas nor cities.
  10. 10. This intraregional migration is needed to be studied in order to know the reasons and history of kalinga’s movement if the economic stability, the public services and the livelihood at their place is poor and unstable that results to a low standard of living conditions, (i.e., The agricultural land of the ethnic families was took or claimed by the government in order to make the land to be industrialize or to be a commercial/recreational land.). So in order to help our brothers and sisters let’s work together hand in hand to make the government do its duty righteously to its countrymen and to retard migration in order to control and balanced the number of people in rural areas, to allocate properly the services of the local government to present equal treatment and prevent casualties. HOME
  11. 11. Statement of the Problem This study attempted to understand the aspirations of the migration of kalinga at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano. Specifically, the study sought to answers the following questions: 1. What are the aspirations of the Kalinga in migrating at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano in terms of: A. Educational opportunities B. Weather C. Livelihood D. Electricity E. Living condition F. Security G. Medical care
  12. 12. 2. How many families of Kalinga migrated at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano? 3. What are the problems encountered by the Kalinga at their place of origin in terms of: A. Land Property B. Economic Stability C. Education D. Security E. Electricity F. Medical Care G. Transportation 4. How did the Kalinga Families migrate at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano? 5.What are the implications of the migration of the kalinga to local development? HOME
  13. 13. Conceptual Framework According to the (UNDP, 2009), there are 740 million internal migrants around the world exceeding international migration with only 214 million migrants therefore internal migration is a massive phenomenon rather than international migration. Many countries mostly less developed countries around the world is experiencing more internal migration like the movement of people in rural-to-urban, urban-to- rural, urban-to-urban and mostly rural-to-rural migration among ethnicities that rise difficulties in the population of a country’s society. HOME
  14. 14. The ever-elusive and deceptively simple question animating much of migration research today is: why do people migrate?” Since the inception of the academic study of migration, which many argue began with Ravenstein’s The Law of Migration (1885), migration theories have evolved and proliferated to explain the different types and patterns of migration from the macro to the micro level. Nevertheless, Jansen’s (1969) statement: “Perhaps the question most asked and least understood about migration is “why do people move?”. ‘Why do people move?’ a very short and simple question but contains a broad answer, in this question it seeks the important details on the problems or the reasons of emigrants and their goal and ambition in migrating. Regardless on the differences migration theories, regardless on the researchers and authors, still all studies purposes are similar to each other in order to make knowledgeable on the migration history of migrants.
  15. 15. As explained by the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), migration is an important force in development and a high- priority issue for both developing and developed countries. In addition, almost half of all migrants are women, and most are of reproductive age. They have specific needs and human rights concern so in order to take control the condition, UNFPA works to increase understanding of migration issues, advocate for better migration data, and promote the incorporation affirmation. In the migration process not all people who moved from other place succeed on the path they’ve chosen, before migrants succeed to the journey they’ve entered, there are many problems and consequences that they need to faced and overcome to achieve the set goals and aspirations in their life that they have, but there are only few migrants who attained a better quality of living not because people will migrate their lives will become better, it depends on the plan and decision and how brave you are to enter the world of foreign environment. From the abovementioned concepts, this research study on understanding the problems and identifying the aspirations of people specifically the ethnic families in moving at another place is based. The research paradigm below is used in the study.
  16. 16. PROBLEMS a. A. Land Property b. B. Economic Stability c. C. Education d. D. Security e. E Electricity f. F. Medical Care g. G. Transportation  MIGRATION (Intraregional; Movement from Rural-to-Rural Areas) ASPIRATIONS a. Educational Opportunities b. Weather c. Livelihood d. Electricity e. Living Conditions f. Security g. Medical Care HOME
  17. 17. Significance of the Study This study aims to understand the aspirations of the migration of kalinga at Sta.Felomena, San MarianoThe researchers fully believed that the result of the study will be beneficial to the following:  To the kalinga. This study will give the favor to the kalinga to deliver their complains and messages to the local government in order to give importance to the problems they encountered at their place of origin and the opportunities that they can only attain in another place. This will also help them to accept the other way of living in terms of economic life, political life and their own personal life. It can be a way to fulfill their aspirations, what they need and how they react in migrating. In other cases this findings will provide important information and greater understanding with regards of the ambitions kalinga at Sta. Felomena.  To the residents of Sta.Felomena. This study will provide people with the historical background of the kalinga on their migration to answer why and how did they migrate and what are their aspirations that they can only fulfill at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano and to help ethnic families be accepted and respected.
  18. 18.  To the community. This study will provide community with the background of the ethnic family’s migration so as to help the community on how should it accept and treat the emigrants to be part of its residency.  To the researchers and future researchers. This study will serves as a basis for the researchers and future researchers to conduct investigation or a springboard to create books on why ethnicities in the Philippines chooses to live in rural areas rather than urban areas and cities, in order to validate and strengthen this study as a reference foundation.  To the local government. This study will provide an evidence for the local government to conduct policies and programs to support the needs especially livelihood for kalinga in order to uplift their way of living, to prevent other people regardless of ethnicity in moving at another place in order to balance the number of people living in rural-to-rural areas. HOME
  19. 19. Scope and Delimitation This study focused in understanding the aspirations of migration of the kalinga at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano and the different problems they encountered from their original residence. This study doesn’t answer and investigate the culture, tradition, lifestyle, religion and demographic profile of the kalinga. The study is limited to the history of kalinga in accordance to the problems at their original place and their aspirations in migrating. HOME
  20. 20. CHAPTER 2 HOME
  21. 21. This chapter presents and discusses the wealth of literature and studies related to the present research topic being studied. This chapter will begin with an investigation of migration through a broad review of migration definitions, migration theories, problems encountered by migrants on their place of origin and their aspirations in migrating. The part of this chapter will explore literature and studies related to internal migration and the positive and negative impacts of migration to the community and migrants.
  22. 22. Review of Related Literature MOBILITY Mobility is a fundamental element of human freedom, as argued in the global Human Development Report 2009, Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. Mobility entails the freedom to seek opportunities to improve living standards, and health and education outcomes, and/or to live in safer, more responsive communities. Mobility is the movement and the process of migration and mobility depends on the system of migration. Mobility supports and motivates migrant’s aspirations and their expectations in the place where they migrate.
  23. 23. DISTANCE Distance discourages migration. It is not always quite clear why distance matters but, at least with respect to internal relocation, it is dubious that the principal underlying cause is transport costs. It is more likely that the root of this effect lies in lack of familiarity and of information. Whatever the cause, rural-urban migration is less likely to occur from villages that are ‘remote’ from metropolitan areas. Similarly, countries that are far from the industrialized regions send less emigrants to the OECD countries, especially less low-skilled migrants. Where more remote rural areas tend to be lower income, and given that many of the least developed countries are further removed from higher income ones, migration is selective and leaves pockets of poverty.
  24. 24. RURAL-RURAL MIGRATION Rural-rural migration is far more common in lower income countries than is rural-urban migration. This is largely a product of the high proportion of the populations residing in the rural areas of the lower income countries. To ignore this common form of migration is to presume that the rural sector presents a homogeneous whole, which it does not. Movements between subsistence and plantation agriculture, between dry farming and irrigated areas, between villages subject to low correlations in their incidence of droughts, can play roles quite comparable to the strategies modeled with respect to rural-urban migrations. Yet to a very large extent rural-rural migration and its impacts remain neglected in the development literature. The role of rural-rural migration in rural development warrants much closer scrutiny.
  25. 25. FORCED MIGRATION Fourth feature of today’s migrations that differs from the traditional development perceptions of migration is the incidence of forced migration. Both international refugees and internally displaced persons are currently large in number, though these are hardly new phenomena. Although there is typically some degree of selectivity as to who leaves and who stays, the proximate causes of forced migration lie beyond the elements normally modeled in migration choices, whether those of the individual or family. These mass displacements of people and the associated loss of assets can severely impact economic development, including rural development, not only in the country from which the refugees flee but also in the bordering states that normally provide asylum on a more or less permanent basis. Yet again our understanding of these impacts, both in the short term and longer term, remains exceedingly poor.
  26. 26. FAMILY STRATEGIES AND RURAL INCOME These many forms of migration offer a range of mechanisms through which economic development of rural areas in the developing regions can be affected in important ways. These mechanisms can be divided into two. First migration may offer a route out of poverty for the migrants themselves. This is the more traditional set of mechanisms emphasized. Second, migrants’ departures may serve, directly or indirectly, to enhance or possibly worsen the consumption, incomes and well-being of those who remain in the rural areas. It should be emphasized that both sets of mechanisms affect rural development, provided that our reference group is those initially in the rural area. Instead of a sharply dualistic view, the focus shifts to families straddling the urban-rural divide or international boundaries, with intra-family transfers actively linking the geographically disparate unit. In the world of incomplete markets, typical of rural settings in developing regions, this migration-remittance nexus can provide channels for insurance and access to credit. In turn, these provisions enable greater risk- taking and investments, both of which can enhance rural incomes.
  27. 27. Household selectivity is a central theme in migration research, yet a paucity of data exists on this topic for rural- frontier migration. Limited data suggest that, in contrast to non-migrants and migrants to other destinations, rural-frontier migrants are poorer, less educated, and have less wage-labor experience. As a result, they aim for household security in the form of land, rather than competing against better skilled laborers in urban or international destinations. Other potential selectivity characteristics merit further research, including ethnicity (Hawrylyshyn 1977), religion (Guest and Uden 1994), and the topic of the next section, ecological change.
  28. 28. MICRO VS. MACRO MODEL Why do people migrate? The first question calls for micro theory models, which focus on the migration decision process. The object of the analysis is the single individual (or potential migrant unit) behaviour and the factors that influence the decision of whether to migrate or not. Where are the migrants coming from and where are they going? In contrast, the second question calls for macro theory models, which refers to “places” rather than “people”, aggregate flows of migrants rather than the single individual. Even though the distinction between micro and macro models reflects two different literature strands, there are significant relationships between the two approaches. The decision- making process of the single individual affects the aggregate utility function, which in turn determines the aggregate migration flows.
  29. 29. The aggregate migration flows represent the outcome of the underlying individual decision-making process. Modelling migration as a human deeds is, therefore, a complementary more than a substitute approach. Rational individuals exploit their expected utility function, consequently, the decision of whether to migrate or not depends on the cost- benefit calculation. Migrations is a life changing and a discrete choice usually taken early in life in order to obtain the benefits over a longer time limit. The initial arrangement structure is thus needed and is based on three distinct aspects; the first aspect concerns the spatial context of migration flows and separates studies between international and internal migration.
  30. 30. International migration studies focus on the movement of people across different countries, whereas internal migration involves the reallocation of people within the national borders; the second important aspect involves migration modelling, a key distinction here is between micro and macro approaches. The micro approach focuses on individuals’ behaviour, while the macro approach focuses on places or location (e.g., countries, regions, municipalities); lastly is an aspect refers to the aim of the study, which can be directed to identify the determinants of migration or to explore the consequences of migration (Etzo 2008).
  31. 31. Mary Grace A. Tirona the Undersecretary Commission on Filipinos Overseas said that in the 2000 census of population and housing, there are about forty-eight percent (48%) Filipinos living in the urban areas compared to thirty-seven percent (37%) more than two decades ago. The urban population grew rapidly at an annual rate of about five percent (5%) from 1960 to 1995, albeit showing a decline to approximately three percent (3%) annually from 1995 to 2000. It is estimated that by 2030, about eight (8) out of ten (10) Filipinos will be living in cities and urban agglomerations. This shows that in the Philippines, most Filipinos where living in urban areas or cities because there are many better opportunities like better living conditions, sustainable electricity, better medical care and well improved transportation unlike in rural areas there are many inconveniencies and problems.
  32. 32. People choose to leave rural areas and stay at urban areas in order to fulfill their desires and needs to uplift their lives. Peripheral rural areas receive much of the spillovers of population from the highly urbanized cities. This is observable in Central Luzon and the Calabarzon regions where rural-urban or “rurban” communities accommodate relocating residents from Metro Manila. The impact of internal migration is a burden to the local government which causes overcrowding, congestion, traffic, flooding, and environmental degradation in urban areas though it contribute to economic gains.
  33. 33. According to the article of Boccagni (2017) aspirations are emotionally thick representation of what ones future might and should look like, given the present circumstances and the experience of the past as re-codified from the “here and now”. Kalinga’s aspirations is the foundation to mirrors kalinga’s future outlook. Their past and future life condition has a big role in fulfilling their aspirations. They expect better for their future to escape the burdens of their past lives. Aspirations construct migrant’s future living condition, new family formation and a new community. Movement takes place when there’s people aspirations that they didn’t meet at their place of origin.
  34. 34. In the journal of Robert E.B. Lucas (2007) emigration of low- skill workers is more likely to have a direct impact on rural areas than is the emigration of the highly skilled, yet departure of unskilled workers does not need to be confined to rural origins to have such an impact. Even where workers are actually drawn from the urban regions, their departure may induce internal, replacement migration from the rural areas. In general, such replacement migration remains poorly documented though it probably varies a good deal from country to country. Much depends upon the propensity to migrate internally which clearly varies a good deal depending upon geographic factors, language and ethnic homogeneity. One difficulty in examining the rural and urban origins of emigrants is that contract workers from rural areas may spend a brief period in town en route abroad, so that their point of departure appears to be urban. Nonetheless, it seems that most contract workers from the Philippines, for example, are indeed drawn from the Manila region. Certainly there has also been substantial migration into the Manila area from other parts of the Philippines.
  35. 35. According to Dr. Juan Antonio Perez III executive director, POPCOM (2015) there is a need to understand internal migration patterns and factors to foster a more balanced spatial distribution of the population by promoting in an integrated manner the equitable and ecologically sustainable development of major sending and receiving areas. Migration is often a rational and dynamic effort to seek new opportunities in life. Movement is economically motivated due to lack of employment, livelihood and economic opportunities in their locality. Somehow, the local governments are supportive of their health and social needs although much is to be desired. There is a need to assess how the consequences of economic and environmental policies, sectoral priorities, infrastructure investment and balance of resources among regional, central, provincial and local authorities influence population distribution and internal migration, both permanent and temporary. In order to achieve a balanced spatial distribution of production employment and population, there is a need formulate sustainable regional development strategies and strategies for:
  36. 36. a.) growth of small or medium-sized urban centers and the sustainable development of rural areas, including the adoption of labor- intensive projects; b.) training for agricultural and non-agri jobs for youth; c.)Effective transport and communication systems; c.) To create an enabling context for local development, including the provision of services, there is a need to consider decentralizing administrative systems; d.) Provision of incentives to encourage the redistribution and relocation of industries and businesses from urban to rural areas; e.) There is a need quantitative study on internal migration for development planning and policy-making; f.) There is a need to establish reliable mechanism for tracking population movement for planning and program development (as mandated in the UDHA law). People of faith have witnessed firsthand the suffering caused by poverty, food insecurity, violent conflict, political insecurity, persecution, and environmental destruction. Such realities prompt individuals to leave their homes in search of safety and a better life.
  37. 37. DETERMINANTS OF MIGRATION Migration is also affected by spatial characteristics of origin and destination places. The study of these spatial determinants of migration, which are aggregate measure (i.e., macro variables), pertains to a large body of research. The different factors that determine migration flows can be classified in four main categories (Van der Gaag and Wissen, 2003): a. Gravity variables; the standard gravity variables are the population size and distance. These two variables form the basic gravity model introduced earlier. According with the gravity model, migration is directly correlated with population size and inversely correlated with the distance between the origin and the destination region. Distance is a key variable, it represents a proxy for all the migration costs, both psychological and monetary, that are spatially related with the sending and destination region. Information costs about the destination region are also likely to rise with physical distance (Anjomani, 2002);
  38. 38. b. Economic variables; a high economic prosperity means also more activities, services and opportunities for people living in that area; c. Labour market variables; another variable that is often included as explanatory variable in migration analysis is the unemployment rate. Fachin (2007) studies the long-run determinants of internal migration, finding a weak impact of unemployment rate; d. Environmental variables; the reason why people decide to move from one region to another one may be related not only to economic factors. The last group of variables that can affect internal migration flows is quite broad and is related with the quality of life. In this sense, these kinds of variables reflect all those factors that can affect the quality of life. All these factors concern the public safety, social services, environmental quality, political and many other aspects.
  39. 39. The researchers of this study interviewed Jovita Collado Flores, the legal wife of the biological father of the Agta who brought his family at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano. We asked her the question; why did the agta family migrate at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano? And she answered; “Ti ammok lang nga rason nu apay nga nagdiyan da dituy kit haan nga gapu kin tatang na, ta adda idi ti trabaho na a CAST-DNR kit nabigla kami ta bigla na mit insangpit ti pamilya na idtuyin kit naipatang mit nga adda ni tatang sa idi idtuyin” “I think that the only reason why they live in our place is not because of his father, rather he used to be a CAST-DENR employee back then, we are very shocked because we didn’t expect that he brought his family here, and suddenly his father actually went back home.”
  40. 40. “Idi nagtungtung kami kin Teresita kuna na nga kayat na nga makita iti kakabsat ni Floro tapno maam ammo na isuda kin maka adal ti annak na ta narigat ti iskwela idjay, bumal lasiw ka iti maysa karayan bago ka nga makadanon” “When I talked with Teresita she said that she want to see Floro’s siblings to know them and open educational opportunities for his children, because the school there is not just like that easy, they need to pass the river before they arrive.” The agta family moved at Sta.Felomena not just for the purpose of the family formation but rather to grab the better job opportunity for a better income and aspired to school their children for a better future. They choose to migrate to escape the burdens that block their desires in achieving a better living condition, better security, better transportation system and education. It is also viewed that in the migration of kalinga they have the similar aspirations and problems encountered in which the agtas also inhabited Palanan for how many years.
  41. 41. REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES As stressed by the UN Global Migration Group (GMG, 2017), migration is recognized to be a powerful tool for development when manage by “humane, fair and well- governed migration policies”. The social, cultural, and political context is responsible on the movement of people which largely determines whether migration translates into increased opportunities and well-being or deprivation and vulnerability. It is important to know the nature of migration and its determinants to weigh its acceptability and its contribution to the development.
  42. 42. According to the research of Kerilyn Schewel (2015) on understanding the aspiration to stay, in order to understand why people migrate we need to take account for the larger political, economic, social and cultural factors working within their place of origin and their destination environments. To know and appreciate why people aspire to migrate needs to account for the broader life aspirations and motivations. It’s like knowing the problems and reasons of migrants in moving to another place. Migration was continuously appreciated to be a part of human society. Individuals, families and groups have always moved and will continue to do so. It is also viewed in the migration of the kalinga at Sta.felomena, San Mariano that in order to know the reasons of the movement of kalinga is to identify the root of their problems in their place of origin and it also includes the understanding of the aspirations in life of the kalinga in place where they moved.
  43. 43. In some regions of the world, migration is a normalized livelihood strategy to the point where a ‘culture of migration’ has taken root (Kandel & Massey 2002). Ali (2007) argues, “People learn to migrate, and they learn to desire to migrate”. In this statement when people plan to migrate, people will learn to desire and migrate to another place as long as they can to fulfill these aspirations in the means of migration. Nevertheless, even in regions where a culture of migration exists, there are still individuals who do not aspire to migrate and just plan to stay where they originate. The non-migrants values most their place of origin, problems are just challenges it’s not a hindrance on how they want to live and survive.
  44. 44. Migrants believed that migration is the key to improve long- term wellbeing. As explained by Schewel (2015), most migration occurs between the poorest and wealthiest places and countries so it means developed and wealthy societies have lower overall levels of migration (e.g., internal or external/international migration) unlike poorer societies who has the highest number of migration. In addition, highly developed societies tend to experience not only high immigration, but also substantial emigration and internal movement.
  45. 45. People’s general aspirations in life form part in the background of migration desires; such desires can also be described as migration aspirations. When a person wishes to migrate, it could either be because migration has an intrinsic value, or because migration is instrument for achieving another objective. If the latter is in the case, migration has instrumental value. The objectives that migration helps achieve are, of course, often linked to a person’s broader aspirations in life. And rising aspirations are part of the reason why migration tends not to be reduced by development (Clemens 2014, Vothknecht 2014, and de Haas 2007). According to de Brauw and Mueller (2012), when the land is owned and allocated by the government and households maintain the right to farm it through residence and use of the land, this mitigates against migration. It is true that when the government properly distributes or allocates land to households not to convert into commercial lands, many people will stay for the opportunities that government distribute.
  46. 46. Mwesigye, Matsumoto and Otsuka (2014) migration leads to changes in the population density and ethnic composition in host communities, it may affect the costs and benefits of maintaining traditional communal land ownership systems or establishing private land ownership systems and hence cause a change in land tenure arrangements. According to Adam and Grouse (2007) to reach goals is to create future. When there’s intelligence and will, actions takes place just like the process of people movement. When people set their goals and migrate future takes place. Migration needs to take account on the credibility or the critical thinking of aspiring migrants. Migrating to reach goals is a practical way of achieving a better future and take the consequences responsibly.
  47. 47. The migration literature has largely overlooked land use and land cover change (LUCC) as an outcome of rural-rural migration. All but a few million of the several hundred million people worldwide who migrate each year do so within the borders of their own countries; however, demographic research is distributed almost exactly the opposite way, with the vast majority of studies on immigration (and mainly to the developed world) or on rural-urban migration— usually based on survey data obtained only in destination areas (Bilsborrow, Oberai and Standing 1984; Boyle et al, 1998).
  48. 48. However, detailed household and community-level research has yet to be conducted from settlers’ origin regions to complement work in areas of frontier colonization. Thus, rural-rural migrants have been largely ignored, although they are the key migrants in population environment relationships (Zimmerer, 2004; Bilsborrow 2002). The main initial questions are then twofold: (1) who migrates from rural areas of origin and (2) who chooses the agricultural frontier as their destination—that is, how are they different (selected) from those choosing other destinations. If we are interested in understanding variables that influence land use and land cover change, we must inquire not only how people are managing land, but why people come to be there in the first place. It not only the because of the land why they move but it also involves where their family reside for the purpose of family formation.
  49. 49. Tasneem Siddiqui (2003) argues the migration has long been an important livelihood strategy for people around the world. Whenever the population rose to such an extent that people could no longer secure a livelihood, they migrated elsewhere. Even today, both poor and better off people pursue migration as a livelihood strategy in Philippines. Choice of destination and levels of benefits and risks, however, vary significantly, according to the economic and social power of the migrant. Both international and internal migration is defined as movement of people inside and outside the country to improve their livelihoods. It can be of long-term or short- term duration and may even be seasonal in nature.
  50. 50. Chapter 3 Methodology HOME RESEARCH METHOD DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE SELECTION and DESCRIPTION of the RESPONDENTS RESEARCH LOCALE DATA GATHERING INSTRUMENT RESEARCH DESIGN SAMPLING
  51. 51. Presented in this chapter are the descriptions of the research method used, research design, research locale, selection and description of respondents, research sampling, data gathering instrument, data gathering procedure and data analysis employed in the investigation of the study. Presented in this chapter are the descriptions of the research method used, research design, research locale, selection and description of respondents, research sampling, data gathering instrument, data gathering procedure and data analysis employed in the investigation of the study.
  52. 52. Research Method The researchers have employed the qualitative method in conducting the research study. Qualitative research can be defined as a form of systematic empirical inquiry into meaning (Shank 2002: 5, italics FD). It is applied to gain insight into people's attitudes, behaviours, value systems, concerns, motivations, aspirations, culture or lifestyles. Qualitative research method is the most applicable method in the study because the researchers wanted to know the reasons, problems and the goals of kalinga in migrating from barangay to barangay or rural to rural areas. The research was classified as qualitative research because it is appropriate in the investigation of complex, interdependent issues, and allows for the collection of rich data that can answer the “what” and “why” qualitative questions,
  53. 53. and not just the “how many” quantitative research questions so there’s a need to perform observation and interview in studying the process of kalinga’s migration. It aims to understand the kalinga’s problems at their place of origin and their aspirations in migrating from rural to rural areas rather than migrating at urban areas. It needs preceding interviews and observations on the respondents to know the reasons why they migrate in terms of their aspirations in life, how did they migrate, and what are their contributions in the local government and to the community of Sta.Felomena, San Mariano.
  54. 54. Research Design The study research design is a Historical analysis which focuses on the end-product on what kind of study is being planned and what kind of results are aimed at. (e.g. 1. Historical - comparative study, exploratory study, inductive or deductive study). It also focuses on the logic of research on the evidences that is required to address the question adequately. Historical analysis accentuate the connection of the past and present events in people’s life.
  55. 55. The researchers would like to study the kalinga’s migration specifically on the problems that they encountered at Brgy.Delomanay, Palanan and their aspirations on why did they moved at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano considering that the places are rural areas. It was a historical analysis because the researchers will investigate the connection of kalinga’s past and present life to understand the future that they desired especially for their children. Through this research design the history of the kalinga’s migration will be discovered. HOME
  56. 56. Research Locale At present, San Mariano is a first class municipality subdivided into thirty-six barangays. Sta.Filomena, is one of the thirty-six barangays in the municipality of San Mariano. The municipality lies in the eastern part of the Province of Isabela. It is bounded on the North by the Municipality of Ilagan, on the East by the Municipality of Palanan, on the South by the Municipality of San Guillermo and on the West by the Municipality of Benito Soliven. It is approximately 404 kilometers from Metro Manila and 46 kilometers from Ilagan, the provincial capital. HOME
  57. 57. The research locale is at Sta.felomena, San Mariano, Isabela because it is the place where kalinga families migrated to fulfil their aspirations in life. It is important to conduct the study in the current residency of kalinga families for we can only perform the research in where the migration happened. HOME
  58. 58. Sampling The researchers employed purposive sampling as the sampling method in this study that is a non-probability sample that is selected based on characteristics of a population and the objective of the study. Purposive sampling is also known as judgmental, selective, or subjective sampling. This type of sampling is very useful in situations when there is a need to reach a targeted sample quickly, and where sampling for proportionality is not the main concern. We’ve chosen Purposive sampling because we can allocate people whom we are sure could correspond to the objectives of our study, like selecting those with rich experience or interest on your study.
  59. 59. The researchers will use the total population purposive sampling wherein the researchers chooses to examine the entire population of kalinga families who migrate at Sta.Felomena, San Mariano. This kind of purposive sampling technique is commonly used to generate reviews of events or experiences which the researchers will focus on the history of kalinga’s migration. This sampling is helpful in which we can identify the problems and aspirations of the kalinga in their former and current place. It also allow us to have better review toward the connection of their past and present life to know the how they shape their future.
  60. 60. Selection and Description of the Respondents The ideal key informants of this study were the migrants’ kalinga families within the barangay and the local government of Sta.Felomena, San Mariano. The researchers identified the respondents through qualitative observations. Qualitative observations are those in which the Researchers took field notes on the problems and aspirations of the kalinga families in migrating at Sta.Filomena, San Mariano. HOME
  61. 61. Data Gathering Instrument Since the study is a qualitative research, the researchers used semi-constructed interviews and observations as methodology in data gathering, the key instruments are researchers themselves. Observational Protocol and Interview Protocol were used as another data collecting instruments in the study. According to Creswell (2009), these instruments are used to collect and describe the gathered data from the respondents. OBSERVATION is a technique that involves systematically selecting, watching and recording behaviour and characteristics of living beings, objects or phenomena. Without training, our observations will heavily reflect our personal choices of what to focus on and what to remember. We will heighten our sensitivity to details that some would normally ignore and at the same time to be able to focus on phenomena of true interest of our study.
  62. 62. In gathering answers to the questions posed during an interview can be recorded by writing them down or by tape-recording the responses, or by a combination of both. Qualitative data collection methods play an important role in impact evaluation by providing information useful to understand the process behind observed results and assess changes in people’s perceptions of their wellbeing. The researchers employed rigid observations to identify the problems at the kalinga’s place of origin and their aspirations at Sta.Filomena, San Mariano, Isabela. Furthermore, in an interview, the researchers themselves shall draft questionnaires and semi- constructed interview guide based on the rural-to-rural movement, problems, aspirations and the implications of kalinga in local development.
  63. 63. The researchers shall assess the authenticity or originality and the validity or truthfulness of the observed and written data through focused group discussion for the criticism of data using internal and external criticism (Goods & Scates, 1972). Through this data gathering instruments the researchers will able to better collect all detailed information from the kalinga to have better data in order to have validity in the study of the process of kalinga’s migration
  64. 64. Data Gathering Procedure  The following is the step-by-step process in the data gathering: 1. The researchers will get a permit letter from the school to be disseminate in the Brgy.Captain of Sta.Felomena, allowing researchers to conduct the study in Brgy.Sta.Felomena for their safety and security.
  65. 65. 2. A research instrument in a form of semi- constructed interview guide shall be used in the oral data collection. All the migrant members of kalinga families will be the target respondents for the interview involving their movement from Delomanay, Palanan to Sta.Felomena, San Mariano and their attempts of achieving their aspirations as to the improvement of their quality of life in the barrio.
  66. 66. 3. In the first phase of the interview, the researchers shall gather and locate all the kalinga families with the help of the local authorities. 4. Interviews shall be held in the place where they move or residents of the informants. Interviewees and key informants shall be oriented regarding the purpose and importance on the conduct of the study within the locale.
  67. 67. 5. The researcher shall use different devices in the gathering of oral data. Aside from note-taking and rigid observation, participant observation shall also be used. Camera and cellular phones shall be the primary materials to document the business, informants, and interviewer. The researchers will communicate in a respectful and good way to attain a better understanding of shared information of the respondents. The researchers will be aware and lessen nonverbal communication in interviewing to avoid misinterpretation.
  68. 68. 6. The researchers must conduct their study at Sta. felomena, San Mariano 3 inconsecutive times. 7. After the interviews and observations the researchers must gather and analyze the data confidentially.

×