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EARTH’S HUMAN & CULTURAL
GEOGRAPHY
BIG QUESTION
 What factors bring about change in
cultures?
Brainstorm and write in a one-paragraph
response.
Main Idea: Geographers study how people and
physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface.
WORLD POPULATION
POPULATION INCREASE IN INDIA
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74ej9loZI-
c
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cG3aZgZ
OlWM...
POPULATION GROWTH
 The world’s
population has
increased rapidly in
the past two
centuries, creating
many new
challenges.
...
REASONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH
 Death rate has
decreased
 Better health care
 Better living
conditions
 Food supplies m...
 http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/world-life-
expectancy-map
 http://www.prb.org/publications/datasheets/2013
/2013-wo...
ISSUES WITH POPULATION GROWTH
 More food is needed for larger populations.
 Warfare and crop failures can lead to famine...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #1 (ANSWER ON A SEPARATE PIECE OF
PAPER)
 What has caused population growth in the
last 200 years?
WHERE PEOPLE LIVE
 The Earth’s
population is not
evenly distributed.
 Land only covers
30% of the Earth’s
surface.
 Hum...
TURN AND TALK
 Talk to your partner and convince them of the
right answer!
POPULATION DISTRIBUTION
 Even on usable land, population is not
evenly distributed.
 People prefer areas that include:
...
POPULATION DENSITY
 Some parts of the world are thickly settled while
some areas are not.
 The eastern seaboard of the U...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #2
 Why does much of the world’s population live
on a relatively small area of the Earth?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #3
 Answer with your flashcards (A, B, C, D)
A population will most likely grow if…
A. Its fertility rate...
POPULATION MOVEMENT
 Large numbers of
people migrate from
one place to another.
 Throughout history,
millions of people
...
ESSAY ASSIGNMENT- HOMEWORK
 Use internet research to identify at least
two potential problems that may result
from a cont...
TYPES OF MIGRATION
 Internal migration: moving from place to
place within the same country.
 Urbanization: growth of cit...
REASONS PEOPLE MOVE
 “Push” Factors: convince people to leave
their current home. (for example, a shortage
of jobs.)
 “P...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #4- WRITE THEN TURN AND
TALK
 What are some reasons a person may leave
a country? (Push factors)
 What a...
IMPACT OF MIGRATION
 Country experiences a decrease in
population (this can ease overcrowding)
 If the skilled workers l...
EXIT TICKET
 What is one effect of migration on another
country?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #5
 Why have so many rural citizens moved to
cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America?
USING ALL THE TERMS ON P. 1 AND THE
FOLLOWING
Push factor
Pull factor
Land
immigrant
VOCABULARY SORT
 Now that we’ve learned some vocab. Terms,
organize/sort them according to categories.
 You make up the ...
Main Idea: Culture influences people’s perceptions
about places and regions.
GLOBAL CULTURES
COMPLETE THE CHART
Cultur
e
WHAT IS CULTURE?
 Culture refers to the
many shared
characteristics that
define a group of
people.
 Think about the clot...
CULTURE
 Culture is the way of life of a group of people
who share similar beliefs and customs.
 Eight things make-up a ...
SOCIAL GROUPS
 We all belong to multiple social groups.
 We all have social status
 Most groups have rules of behavior ...
LANGUAGE
 Sharing a language is one of the strongest
unifying forces for a culture.
 There are more than 2,000 languages...
RELIGION
 In many cultures, religious beliefs and
practices help people answer basic
questions about life’s meaning.
 Mo...
HISTORY
 History shapes how a culture views itself and
the world.
 Stories about the challenges and successes
of a cultu...
DAILY LIFE
 Food, clothing, and shelter are
basic human needs.
 Do you use chopsticks or a fork?
 Do you live in an apa...
ARTS
 Through music, painting,
sculpture, dance, and literature,
people express what they think is
beautiful and meaningf...
GOVERNMENT
 Governments fulfill the need to prevent
conflict so people can live together.
 Democracy: power is held by t...
ECONOMY
 People in every culture must earn a
living.
 An economy’s success can be
seen in people’s quality of life—
how ...
CULTURAL CHANGE
 Cultures are
constantly changing
and influencing each
other.
 New inventions &
technology can
change a ...
ACCULTURATION
 The blending and cultural change that
results in the meeting of two or more
cultures.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #6
 Describe three elements that help unify a
culture.
 How can different cultures better live together
...
INVENTIONS & TECHNOLGY
 Humans were once hunter-gatherers.
 The Agricultural Revolution led to
civilizations.
 Civiliza...
CULTURAL DIFFUSION
 Cultures influence each other.
 This can happen through trade, migrations,
conquest, and mass commun...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 Describe one way that cultural diffusion takes
place.
REGIONAL AND GLOBAL CULTURES
 As countries and
regions share
cultural traits, a
global culture is
emerging.
 A culture r...
CULTURE REGIONS
 The countries in each culture region
generally have similar social groups,
governments, economic systems...
GLOBAL CULTURE
 Recent advances in communications &
technology have helped break down barriers
between culture regions.
...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #7
 What are culture regions?
 How and why do cultures change?
Main Idea: Patterns of economic activities result in
global interdependence.
RESOURCES, TECHNOLOGY, AND WORLD TRADE
NATURAL RESOURCES
 Earth’s resources are
not evenly
distributed, nor do
they all exist in
endless supply.
 What natural ...
NATURAL RESOURCES
 Natural Resources: materials from
the Earth that people use to meet
their needs.
 Such resources prov...
RENEWABLE RESOURCES
 Renewable Resources: natural resources
that cannot be used up or that can be
replaced.
 Examples in...
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES
 Nonrenewable Resources: natural resources
that are finite, or limited in supply.
 Examples inclu...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 Which energy resources are renewable?
Nonrenewable?
ECONOMIES & TRADE
 An economy is the
way people use and
manage resources.
 What kinds of goods and
services do the peopl...
ECONOMIC SYSTEMS
 Economic System: the method used to
answer what goods and services to produce,
how to produce them, and...
DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
 Developed Country: has a mix of agriculture,
a great deal of manufacturing, and service...
WORLD TRADE
 Trade is important because most countries
have more than what they need of one
resource, but not enough of a...
BARRIERS TO TRADE
 Tariffs: taxes to increase the price of
imported goods—encourage purchase of
products made within your...
FREE TRADE
 Recently, many countries have eliminated
trade barriers.
 Free Trade: the removal of trade limits so
that go...
INTERDEPENDENCE & TECHNOLOGY
 Free trade is leading to increased
globalization.
 More Interdependence: countries rely on...
KNOWLEDGE CHECK
 Explain why trade barriers exist, and
describe two types of trade barriers.
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Chapter 3 powerpoint- Human Geography

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Chapter 3 powerpoint- Human Geography

  1. 1. EARTH’S HUMAN & CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY
  2. 2. BIG QUESTION  What factors bring about change in cultures? Brainstorm and write in a one-paragraph response.
  3. 3. Main Idea: Geographers study how people and physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface. WORLD POPULATION
  4. 4. POPULATION INCREASE IN INDIA  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=74ej9loZI- c  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cG3aZgZ OlWM  Why is this a problem? How may it be solved?
  5. 5. POPULATION GROWTH  The world’s population has increased rapidly in the past two centuries, creating many new challenges.  More than 6 billion people live on the Earth today.  Has the population in our community increased or decreased in recent years? (Think about new schools
  6. 6. REASONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH  Death rate has decreased  Better health care  Better living conditions  Food supplies more available  Birth rate has increased  High birth rates in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.  Death rate (mortality rate) is the number of deaths per year fro every 1,000 people.  Birth rate is the number of children born each year for every 1,000 people.
  7. 7.  http://www.worldlifeexpectancy.com/world-life- expectancy-map  http://www.prb.org/publications/datasheets/2013 /2013-world-population-data-sheet/world- map.aspx#map/world/population/2013  What conclusions can you draw from this map?  List at least 3 on your paper
  8. 8. ISSUES WITH POPULATION GROWTH  More food is needed for larger populations.  Warfare and crop failures can lead to famine.  Shortages of water & housing.  More schools & hospitals required.  Famine is a severe lack of food.
  9. 9. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #1 (ANSWER ON A SEPARATE PIECE OF PAPER)  What has caused population growth in the last 200 years?
  10. 10. WHERE PEOPLE LIVE  The Earth’s population is not evenly distributed.  Land only covers 30% of the Earth’s surface.  Humans live on only half the available land.  Deserts, mountains, and ice-covered  Do we live in an urban, suburban, or rural area? What are the advantages & disadvantages of living
  11. 11. TURN AND TALK  Talk to your partner and convince them of the right answer!
  12. 12. POPULATION DISTRIBUTION  Even on usable land, population is not evenly distributed.  People prefer areas that include:  Fertile soil  Mild climates  Natural resources  Water resources  Cities (access to jobs)
  13. 13. POPULATION DENSITY  Some parts of the world are thickly settled while some areas are not.  The eastern seaboard of the United States (the area from Boston, MA to Richmond, VA) has a high population density.  The area of the United States that includes the Rocky Mountains (Montana to New Mexico) has a low population density.  Population density is the average number of people living in a square mile. To arrive at this figure, divide total population by total land area.
  14. 14. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #2  Why does much of the world’s population live on a relatively small area of the Earth?
  15. 15. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #3  Answer with your flashcards (A, B, C, D) A population will most likely grow if… A. Its fertility rate is greater than its birthrate B. Its infant mortality rate is greater than its mortality rate C. Its mortality rate is greater than its birth rate D. Its birthrate is greater than its mortality rate
  16. 16. POPULATION MOVEMENT  Large numbers of people migrate from one place to another.  Throughout history, millions of people have moved from one place to another.  People continue to move today as individuals or as part of a larger group.  Have you or your family ever moved?
  17. 17. ESSAY ASSIGNMENT- HOMEWORK  Use internet research to identify at least two potential problems that may result from a continued growth in world population. 2-3 paragraphs, describe one problem /paragraph
  18. 18. TYPES OF MIGRATION  Internal migration: moving from place to place within the same country.  Urbanization: growth of cities caused by people moving from farm areas to cities in search of work.  International migration: moving from one country to another.  Emigrate: to leave the country where you were born and move to another country.  Immigrant: a person moving into a country from another country.
  19. 19. REASONS PEOPLE MOVE  “Push” Factors: convince people to leave their current home. (for example, a shortage of jobs.)  “Pull” Factors: attract people to come to a new place. (for example, availability of jobs.)  Refugees: people who are forced to flee to another country to escape wars, persecution, or disasters.
  20. 20. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #4- WRITE THEN TURN AND TALK  What are some reasons a person may leave a country? (Push factors)  What are some reasons a person may enter a country? (Pull factors)
  21. 21. IMPACT OF MIGRATION  Country experiences a decrease in population (this can ease overcrowding)  If the skilled workers leave a country, it can hurt that country’s economy.  Positive effects on immigrant’s country: bring new forms of music, art, foods, and language  Negative effects on immigrant’s country: nativists don’t like immigrants leading to violence and unjust treatment
  22. 22. EXIT TICKET  What is one effect of migration on another country?
  23. 23. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #5  Why have so many rural citizens moved to cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America?
  24. 24. USING ALL THE TERMS ON P. 1 AND THE FOLLOWING Push factor Pull factor Land immigrant
  25. 25. VOCABULARY SORT  Now that we’ve learned some vocab. Terms, organize/sort them according to categories.  You make up the categories, and one term can be used in more than one category!  Examples:  Factors that decrease population  Factors that increase population  Migration
  26. 26. Main Idea: Culture influences people’s perceptions about places and regions. GLOBAL CULTURES
  27. 27. COMPLETE THE CHART Cultur e
  28. 28. WHAT IS CULTURE?  Culture refers to the many shared characteristics that define a group of people.  Think about the clothes you wear, the music you listen to, and the foods you eat. These are part of your culture.
  29. 29. CULTURE  Culture is the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs.  Eight things make-up a person’s culture:  Social Groups  Language  Religion  History  Daily Life  Arts  Government  Economy
  30. 30. SOCIAL GROUPS  We all belong to multiple social groups.  We all have social status  Most groups have rules of behavior that group members learn.  Ethnic Group: group that shares a language, history, religion, and some physical traits.  Examples:  Old vs. young  Male vs. female  Student vs. worker  Wealthy vs. middle class vs. poor
  31. 31. LANGUAGE  Sharing a language is one of the strongest unifying forces for a culture.  There are more than 2,000 languages spoken in the world. Dialect: a local form of a language that may have a distinct vocabulary and pronunciation.
  32. 32. RELIGION  In many cultures, religious beliefs and practices help people answer basic questions about life’s meaning.  More than 2/3’s of the world’s population follow one of the five major religions.  The major religions are Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, & Judaism.
  33. 33. HISTORY  History shapes how a culture views itself and the world.  Stories about the challenges and successes of a culture support certain values and help people develop cultural pride.  Cultural holidays enable people to celebrate their heritage.
  34. 34. DAILY LIFE  Food, clothing, and shelter are basic human needs.  Do you use chopsticks or a fork?  Do you live in an apartment or a house?  Do you wear sandals or sneakers?
  35. 35. ARTS  Through music, painting, sculpture, dance, and literature, people express what they think is beautiful and meaningful.  Arts can also tell stories about important figures and events in a culture.
  36. 36. GOVERNMENT  Governments fulfill the need to prevent conflict so people can live together.  Democracy: power is held by the people.  Dictatorship: The leader rules by force, individual freedoms are limited.  Monarchy: government is led by a king or queen who inherits power by being born into the ruling family.
  37. 37. ECONOMY  People in every culture must earn a living.  An economy’s success can be seen in people’s quality of life— how well they eat and live and what kind of health care they receive.
  38. 38. CULTURAL CHANGE  Cultures are constantly changing and influencing each other.  New inventions & technology can change a culture.  Change in one culture can influence other cultures.  What influences from other cultures can you see in your community?
  39. 39. ACCULTURATION  The blending and cultural change that results in the meeting of two or more cultures.
  40. 40. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #6  Describe three elements that help unify a culture.  How can different cultures better live together in the same place? (assimilation)  What may be some challenges in Acculturation?
  41. 41. INVENTIONS & TECHNOLGY  Humans were once hunter-gatherers.  The Agricultural Revolution led to civilizations.  Civilizations led to cities, governments, religions, and writing systems.  1700s: the Industrial Revolution changes society.  Computers, mass communication, & medical technology have greatly influenced recent cultures.
  42. 42. CULTURAL DIFFUSION  Cultures influence each other.  This can happen through trade, migrations, conquest, and mass communication.  Trade is still the most common way to spread culture.  Television, movies, and the Internet are major influencers today. Cultural Diffusion: The process of spreading ideas from one culture to another.
  43. 43. KNOWLEDGE CHECK  Describe one way that cultural diffusion takes place.
  44. 44. REGIONAL AND GLOBAL CULTURES  As countries and regions share cultural traits, a global culture is emerging.  A culture region is an area that includes different countries that share similar cultural traits.  What do you have in common with a student who lives across town or across the
  45. 45. CULTURE REGIONS  The countries in each culture region generally have similar social groups, governments, economic systems, religions, languages, ethnic groups, and histories.  There are nine major culture regions in the world: U.S & Canada; Latin America; Europe; Russia; North Africa, Southwest Asia & Central Asia; Africa south of the Sahara; South Asia; East Asia & Southeast Asia; Australia, Oceania & Antarctica.
  46. 46. GLOBAL CULTURE  Recent advances in communications & technology have helped break down barriers between culture regions.  Individual economies now rely greatly upon each other for resources & markets.  As global culture grows, local cultures become less important. Globalization: the development of a worldwide culture with an interdependent economy.
  47. 47. KNOWLEDGE CHECK #7  What are culture regions?  How and why do cultures change?
  48. 48. Main Idea: Patterns of economic activities result in global interdependence. RESOURCES, TECHNOLOGY, AND WORLD TRADE
  49. 49. NATURAL RESOURCES  Earth’s resources are not evenly distributed, nor do they all exist in endless supply.  What natural resources can you name?
  50. 50. NATURAL RESOURCES  Natural Resources: materials from the Earth that people use to meet their needs.  Such resources provide food, shelter, goods, & energy.  Examples include soil, trees, wind, & oil.
  51. 51. RENEWABLE RESOURCES  Renewable Resources: natural resources that cannot be used up or that can be replaced.  Examples include the sun, wind, water, rivers, and forests.
  52. 52. NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES  Nonrenewable Resources: natural resources that are finite, or limited in supply.  Examples include iron ore, gold, oil, and coal.
  53. 53. KNOWLEDGE CHECK  Which energy resources are renewable? Nonrenewable?
  54. 54. ECONOMIES & TRADE  An economy is the way people use and manage resources.  What kinds of goods and services do the people in your community produce?
  55. 55. ECONOMIC SYSTEMS  Economic System: the method used to answer what goods and services to produce, how to produce them, and who will receive them.  Traditional Economy = individuals decide what to produce and how to produce it. Technology usually limited.  Command Economy = government makes decisions about resources.  Market Economy = supply and demand; businesses & consumers force decisions.
  56. 56. DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES  Developed Country: has a mix of agriculture, a great deal of manufacturing, and service industries; rely on technology; workers have high incomes.  Developing Country: A country with little industry that relies heavily on agriculture; workers have low incomes.  Newly Industrialized Countries: there were once developing countries that are now working towards being a developed country.
  57. 57. WORLD TRADE  Trade is important because most countries have more than what they need of one resource, but not enough of another.  Export: sell to other countries resources that are in abundance.  Import: buy from other countries resources a country does not have.  Both developed & developing countries rely on trade.
  58. 58. BARRIERS TO TRADE  Tariffs: taxes to increase the price of imported goods—encourage purchase of products made within your country.  Quota: a limit on how many items of a particular product can be imported from a certain nation.
  59. 59. FREE TRADE  Recently, many countries have eliminated trade barriers.  Free Trade: the removal of trade limits so that goods flow freely among countries.
  60. 60. INTERDEPENDENCE & TECHNOLOGY  Free trade is leading to increased globalization.  More Interdependence: countries rely on each other for ideas, goods, services, and markets.  Interdependence has occurred due to increased technologies—trains, airplanes, telephones, & the Internet.
  61. 61. KNOWLEDGE CHECK  Explain why trade barriers exist, and describe two types of trade barriers.

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