What factors bring about change in
Brainstorm and write in a one-paragraph
Main Idea: Geographers study how people and
physical features are distributed on Earth’s surface.
POPULATION INCREASE IN INDIA
Why is this a problem? How may it be
increased rapidly in
the past two
More than 6 billion
people live on the
Has the population in
increased or decreased
in recent years? (Think
about new schools
REASONS FOR POPULATION GROWTH
Death rate has
Better health care
Food supplies more
Birth rate has
High birth rates in Asia,
Africa, and Latin
Death rate (mortality rate)
is the number of deaths
per year fro every 1,000
Birth rate is the number of
children born each year for
every 1,000 people.
What conclusions can you draw from this
List at least 3 on your paper
ISSUES WITH POPULATION GROWTH
More food is needed for larger populations.
Warfare and crop failures can lead to famine.
Shortages of water & housing.
More schools & hospitals required.
Famine is a severe lack of
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #1 (ANSWER ON A SEPARATE PIECE OF
What has caused population growth in the
last 200 years?
WHERE PEOPLE LIVE
population is not
Land only covers
30% of the Earth’s
Humans live on only
half the available
Do we live in an urban,
suburban, or rural
area? What are the
disadvantages of living
TURN AND TALK
Talk to your partner and convince them of the
Even on usable land, population is not
People prefer areas that include:
Cities (access to jobs)
Some parts of the world are thickly settled while
some areas are not.
The eastern seaboard of the United States (the
area from Boston, MA to Richmond, VA) has a
high population density.
The area of the United States that includes the
Rocky Mountains (Montana to New Mexico) has
a low population density.
Population density is the average number of
people living in a square mile. To arrive at this
figure, divide total population by total land area.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #2
Why does much of the world’s population live
on a relatively small area of the Earth?
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #3
Answer with your flashcards (A, B, C, D)
A population will most likely grow if…
A. Its fertility rate is greater than its birthrate
B. Its infant mortality rate is greater than its
C. Its mortality rate is greater than its birth rate
D. Its birthrate is greater than its mortality rate
Large numbers of
people migrate from
one place to another.
millions of people
have moved from
one place to another.
People continue to
move today as
individuals or as part
of a larger group.
Have you or your family
ESSAY ASSIGNMENT- HOMEWORK
Use internet research to identify at least
two potential problems that may result
from a continued growth in world
2-3 paragraphs, describe one problem
TYPES OF MIGRATION
Internal migration: moving from place to
place within the same country.
Urbanization: growth of cities caused by
people moving from farm areas to cities in
search of work.
International migration: moving from one
country to another.
Emigrate: to leave the country where you
were born and move to another country.
Immigrant: a person moving into a country
from another country.
REASONS PEOPLE MOVE
“Push” Factors: convince people to leave
their current home. (for example, a shortage
“Pull” Factors: attract people to come to a
new place. (for example, availability of jobs.)
Refugees: people who are forced to flee to
another country to escape wars, persecution,
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #4- WRITE THEN TURN AND
What are some reasons a person may leave
a country? (Push factors)
What are some reasons a person may enter
a country? (Pull factors)
IMPACT OF MIGRATION
Country experiences a decrease in
population (this can ease overcrowding)
If the skilled workers leave a country, it can
hurt that country’s economy.
Positive effects on immigrant’s country:
bring new forms of music, art, foods, and
Negative effects on immigrant’s country:
nativists don’t like immigrants leading to
violence and unjust treatment
What is one effect of migration on another
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #5
Why have so many rural citizens moved to
cities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America?
USING ALL THE TERMS ON P. 1 AND THE
Now that we’ve learned some vocab. Terms,
organize/sort them according to categories.
You make up the categories, and one term
can be used in more than one category!
Factors that decrease population
Factors that increase population
Main Idea: Culture influences people’s perceptions
about places and regions.
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Culture refers to the
define a group of
Think about the clothes you
wear, the music you listen to,
and the foods you eat. These
are part of your culture.
Culture is the way of life of a group of people
who share similar beliefs and customs.
Eight things make-up a person’s culture:
We all belong to multiple social groups.
We all have social status
Most groups have rules of behavior that
group members learn.
Ethnic Group: group that shares a language,
history, religion, and some physical traits.
Old vs. young
Male vs. female
Student vs. worker
Wealthy vs. middle class vs. poor
Sharing a language is one of the strongest
unifying forces for a culture.
There are more than 2,000 languages spoken
in the world.
Dialect: a local form of a language that may have
a distinct vocabulary and pronunciation.
In many cultures, religious beliefs and
practices help people answer basic
questions about life’s meaning.
More than 2/3’s of the world’s population
follow one of the five major religions.
The major religions are Buddhism,
Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, & Judaism.
History shapes how a culture views itself and
Stories about the challenges and successes
of a culture support certain values and help
people develop cultural pride.
Cultural holidays enable people to celebrate
Food, clothing, and shelter are
basic human needs.
Do you use chopsticks or a fork?
Do you live in an apartment or a
Do you wear sandals or sneakers?
Through music, painting,
sculpture, dance, and literature,
people express what they think is
beautiful and meaningful.
Arts can also tell stories about
important figures and events in a
Governments fulfill the need to prevent
conflict so people can live together.
Democracy: power is held by the
Dictatorship: The leader rules by force,
individual freedoms are limited.
Monarchy: government is led by a king
or queen who inherits power by being
born into the ruling family.
People in every culture must earn a
An economy’s success can be
seen in people’s quality of life—
how well they eat and live and what
kind of health care they receive.
and influencing each
New inventions &
change a culture.
Change in one
culture can influence
What influences from other
cultures can you see in your
The blending and cultural change that
results in the meeting of two or more
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #6
Describe three elements that help unify a
How can different cultures better live together
in the same place? (assimilation)
What may be some challenges in
INVENTIONS & TECHNOLGY
Humans were once hunter-gatherers.
The Agricultural Revolution led to
Civilizations led to cities, governments,
religions, and writing systems.
1700s: the Industrial Revolution changes
Computers, mass communication, & medical
technology have greatly influenced recent
Cultures influence each other.
This can happen through trade, migrations,
conquest, and mass communication.
Trade is still the most common way to spread
Television, movies, and the Internet are
major influencers today.
Cultural Diffusion: The process of spreading ideas
from one culture to another.
Describe one way that cultural diffusion takes
REGIONAL AND GLOBAL CULTURES
As countries and
cultural traits, a
global culture is
A culture region is an
area that includes
that share similar
What do you have in common
with a student who lives
across town or across the
The countries in each culture region
generally have similar social groups,
governments, economic systems, religions,
languages, ethnic groups, and histories.
There are nine major culture regions in the
world: U.S & Canada; Latin America;
Europe; Russia; North Africa, Southwest
Asia & Central Asia; Africa south of the
Sahara; South Asia; East Asia & Southeast
Asia; Australia, Oceania & Antarctica.
Recent advances in communications &
technology have helped break down barriers
between culture regions.
Individual economies now rely greatly upon
each other for resources & markets.
As global culture grows, local cultures
become less important.
Globalization: the development of a worldwide
culture with an interdependent economy.
KNOWLEDGE CHECK #7
What are culture regions?
How and why do cultures change?
Main Idea: Patterns of economic activities result in
RESOURCES, TECHNOLOGY, AND WORLD TRADE
Earth’s resources are
distributed, nor do
they all exist in
What natural resources can
Natural Resources: materials from
the Earth that people use to meet
Such resources provide food,
shelter, goods, & energy.
Examples include soil, trees, wind,
Renewable Resources: natural resources
that cannot be used up or that can be
Examples include the sun, wind, water,
rivers, and forests.
Nonrenewable Resources: natural resources
that are finite, or limited in supply.
Examples include iron ore, gold, oil, and
Which energy resources are renewable?
ECONOMIES & TRADE
An economy is the
way people use and
What kinds of goods and
services do the people in your
Economic System: the method used to
answer what goods and services to produce,
how to produce them, and who will receive
Traditional Economy = individuals decide
what to produce and how to produce it.
Technology usually limited.
Command Economy = government makes
decisions about resources.
Market Economy = supply and demand;
businesses & consumers force decisions.
DEVELOPED & DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Developed Country: has a mix of agriculture,
a great deal of manufacturing, and service
industries; rely on technology; workers have
Developing Country: A country with little
industry that relies heavily on agriculture;
workers have low incomes.
Newly Industrialized Countries: there were
once developing countries that are now
working towards being a developed country.
Trade is important because most countries
have more than what they need of one
resource, but not enough of another.
Export: sell to other countries resources
that are in abundance.
Import: buy from other countries resources
a country does not have.
Both developed & developing countries rely
BARRIERS TO TRADE
Tariffs: taxes to increase the price of
imported goods—encourage purchase of
products made within your country.
Quota: a limit on how many items of a
particular product can be imported from a
Recently, many countries have eliminated
Free Trade: the removal of trade limits so
that goods flow freely among countries.
INTERDEPENDENCE & TECHNOLOGY
Free trade is leading to increased
More Interdependence: countries rely on
each other for ideas, goods, services, and
Interdependence has occurred due to
increased technologies—trains, airplanes,
telephones, & the Internet.
Explain why trade barriers exist, and
describe two types of trade barriers.