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Floods in Pakistan

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Economic Impact of floods in Pakistan

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Floods in Pakistan

  1. 1. Introduction What is a Flood? A flood is a large body of water in areas where it becomes destructive and impedes the natural cycle of living organisms. A flood may be the result of long periods of heavy rain, or rivers or lakes that overflow their banks. High temperatures can also cause flooding when it causes ice caps and snow to melt quickly. Heavy floods can be disastrous that infrastructure is washed away, people and animals drown, and people can be stranded for long periods. Advantages of Floods:  Floods can distribute large amounts of water and suspended river sediment over vast areas. In many areas, this sediment helps replenish valuable topsoil components to agricultural lands and can keep the elevation of a land mass above sea level.  When the water of the river overflows, it spreads to the forests and carries the seeds of different plants with it from one place to another. In this way, these plants start growing in various areas, thereby increasing the percentage of land covered with forests.  A significant portion of land absorbs the flood water is absorbed in the earth. In this way the levels of ground water are restored. This is called Recharging ground water
  2. 2.  The occurrence of floods increases the frequency of the development of river deltas.  Preserving of ecosystem. Disadvantages of Floods:  Loss of lives and vegetation.  Infrastructure damage to industries will reduce employment as people would be laid off by the industries.  Loss to economy in damages.  Foreign loans for reconstruction will increase debt on the economy.  Damage to crops.
  3. 3. Historical Perspective Year Direct loss ($ million) Lost lives Affected villages Flooded area (sq km) 2010 10000 1985 17553 160000 2011 3730 516 38700 27581 2012 2640 571 14159 4746
  4. 4. Causes of Floods in Pakistan  Heavy concentrated rainfall in monsoon season in river catchments and meltin of snow in northern areas.  Monsoon currents originating from Bay of Bengal often result in heavy rainfall in Himalayan foothills  In some cases, floods are caused by landslides or glacial movement and their consequent collapse  Improper drainage system to cope with heavy rains in cities.  Inadequate discharge capacity of dams and barrages on River Indus, Jhelum, Chenab.  Villages built on adjacent river banks. The riverine areas should be prohibited by the government for inhabitation.
  5. 5. Impact of Global Warming According to experts from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) climate change is a major contributing factor of extreme rainfall in months of July and August 2010. In 2007, UN scientific body report of IPCC(Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change) stated, “ The floods of the kind that hit Pakistan may become more frequent and more Intense in the future in the same region and other parts of the world.” According to WMO the floods in Pakistan fit the climate change pattern.
  6. 6. 2010 Floods • 2010 Floods Characteristics:  The worst floods ever in the region ‘s history of 80 years.  Devastated areas from Gilgit-Baltistan to Kotri (Sindh).  Started on 22 July after few hours of rainfall in Balochistan flooding the province.  Second spell took place by unexpected rainfall in KPK affecting Punjab and Sindh.  ADB has estimated the cost of flood damages to irrigation, drainage and flood protection infrastructure at RS 23.60 billion and a reconstruction cost around Rs 83 billion. • Flooding pattern during Flood Season, 2010:  Triggered by Indus and its tributaries which affected all 4 provinces  Affected vast basin areas of rivers of KPK, Punjab, Sindh and parts of Balochistan.  Flash floods from rains on hills.
  7. 7. Flood damage and destruction Irrigation Infrastructure Damages: Irrigation infrastructure such as barrages were damaged. Such as  Jinnah Barrage, Taunsa and Guddu barrages  TP link canal  Head regulators, Drains and Flood embankments  Tori and Ghauspur bunds. Damage estimates:  Punjab: Rs 15.5 billion  Sindh: Rs 52 billiion  KPK : Rs 11.5 billion  Balochistan: Rs 3.75 billion (Source: Annual Flood Report 2010)
  8. 8. Damage to Power sector:  KPK suffered the highest damage.  Transmission lines and distribution system was heavily damaged  Powerhouses of KAPCO and Muzaffargarh shut down due to floods  Restoration cost estimated at Rs 13 billion Damages Overview:  Total damages result in RS 855 billion ($10 billion)  Direct Damage was Rs 552 billion  Indirect Damage was Rs 303 billion
  9. 9. Pakistan’s Flood Policy National Water Policy:  Prepared in 2005 and addresses all water related issues in the country  The policy provides a framework through which flood management can be improved through necessary institutional and legal reforms.  The policy consists of all possible structural and non structural methods for ‘Flood management’.  Proposes to create Federal Water Commission which should consist of Federal Flood Commission, part of planning of WAPDA and Office of Chief Engineering advisor.  Recommends strengthens of public & private research in fields of weather forecasting and flood forecasting.  The document also advises to see floods as a resource rather than a natural disaster and harness the numerous benefits of flooding through developing flood mitigation measures.
  10. 10. Federal Flood Commission Functions:  Preparation of national flood protection plans.  Approval of flood control schemes prepared by provincial governments and concerned federal agencies.  Review of flood damages to public sector infrastructure and review of plans of plans for restoration and reconstruction.  Measures for improvements in flood forecasting and warning system.  Standardization of designs and specifications for flood protection works.  Assessment and monitoring relating to progress of implementation of national flood protection plan (nfpp)  Preparation of research program for flood control and protection.  Recommendations regarding principles of regulation of reservoirs for flood control.
  11. 11. Flood Management An integrated flood management plan should be as follows 1. Problem: How to reduce flooding? Solution:  Construct dams and reservoirs and flood embankments including maintenance of existing framework by removing siltation in reservoirs.  Development of irrigation, drainage and other water management activities  Watershed management: a practice of re-afforestation of the catchment areas to reduce the velocity of the flood. It is mainly done on hilly areas. It can only be done in areas with abundant rainfall so as to support the growth of trees.  Strengthen irrigation channels by cementing the eroded lining. Periodically replenish the flood embankments.
  12. 12. 2. Problem: How to reduce susceptibility to damage? Solution:  Floodplain regulation: this mainly consist of a) Development policies restricting construction and economic development in floodplain areas. b) Housing and building codes restricting encroachment and development of infrastructure and industries. c) Flood resistant crops should be sown only. Other crops should be prohibited by government.  Flood forecasting and warning system: a) Improving communication technology by acquiring latest equipment for flood warning. b) Up gradation of weather forecasting equipment in various weather stations by installing more accurate weather radars. c) Installing a computer based Flood Early warning System (FEWS) d) Floodplain mapping and computer based analysis of Indus river for determining risk of floods.
  13. 13. 3. Problem: How to lessen the impact of flooding? Solution:  Information and education of the village people regarding floods and how to respond to warnings.  Warning system should be reliable.  Flood insurance should be introduced by government to compensate the villagers.  Disaster preparedness: This includes, a) Sufficient and efficient transport system for mobility of staff. b) More effective patrolling of bunds. c) Strengthening of communication system by providing additional wireless equipment and internet for flood affected areas. d) Post flood recovery.
  14. 14. 4. Problem: How to preserve natural resources of Floodplains?  Floodplain zoning: The study of floodplains to determine which areas are flood prone and which are not. This will result in optimized utilization of lands. By dividing floodplains into zones the government will be able to construct buildings in floodplains efficiently to prevent flooding.
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Economic Impact of floods in Pakistan

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