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Floods

  1. 1. Floods Disaster profile & Disaster management procedure in India Submitted by: K.Amruta Karunakar Lavanya Mani shankar Supraja Shameer VI th sem ,JNA&FAU PLANNING & MANAGEMENT FOR DISASTERS
  2. 2. Over view • Definitions for disaster and floods • Objectives • Types of floods • Causes of floods • Floods impacts • Methodology • Flood forecasting • Flood management • Flood zoning • Case study(Vijayawada) 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 2
  3. 3. Disaster • Disaster is a natural or human , caused phenomenon, which causes serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic and environmental losses which elicited the ability of the affected community, society to cope using its resources. • Floods are a common feature in the country that occur every year in many parts including South India. 6/11/2013 3Floods- Disaster Managment
  4. 4. FLOODS ARE NATURAL PHENOMENA. FLOODS ARE WATER RELATED DISASTER FLOODS 6/11/2013 4Floods- Disaster Managment
  5. 5. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY • To identify the causes of floods • To describe the overall impact of flooding • To formulate a strategy for the flood affected areas in Vijayawada, with reference to – MITIGATION, – PREPAREDNESS, – RESPONSE, – RECOVERY. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION A flood occurs when the Geomorphic Equilibrium in the river system is disturbed because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors or when a system crosses the geomorphic threshold. (a) Flooding in a river due to aggradation of river bed (intrinsic threshold); (b) Flooding in a river due to heavy rainfall (extrinsic threshold) Floods in major cities especially during rainy season are proving to disastrous not only to the environment but also have serious implications for human life and property. 6/11/2013 6Floods- Disaster Managment Source: FLOOD DISASTERS AND MANAGEMENT
  7. 7. TYPES OF FLOODS • Types of floods •Flash floods •River floods •Coastal Floods •Urban Flood • According to their duration flood can be divided into different categories: •Slow-Onset Floods: Slow Onset Floods usually last for a relatively longer period, it may last for one or more peeks, or even months. •Rapid-Onset Floods: Rapid1Onset Floods last for a relatively shorter period, they usually last for one or two days only. •Flash Floods: Flash Floods may occur within minutes or a fe1w hours after heavy rainfall, tropical storm, failure of dams or levees or releases of ice dams. And it causes the greatest damages to society.
  8. 8. The soil becomes saturated and overland flow and through flow reach the river and discharge increases. Overland flow arrives first. The time from peak rainfall to peak discharge is the LAG TIME. The discharge starts to fall slowly as water is added from through flow and groundwater flows which are much slower. The base flow supplies the river with water between storms and keeps it flowing in summer.Rainfall is intercepted or infiltrated into the soil moisture store Start of the storm there is a slow rise in discharge, as only a small amount of water falls into the channel
  9. 9. Contd…. Floods Natural Storm Surge, Tsunami, Glacial Melt, Landslide, Riverine, Estuarine & Marine Flood Eg: bursting of landslide blockades in the catchment areaof the Bhagirathi River in August 1978 (Gupta and Dave, 1982). Man made Breach of Dam/ Barrage/ Embankment Release from Reservoir, Urban Flood Eg: In the year 2009,Almatti and Naryanpur dams on the Krishna River in Karnataka. This water along with rain water reached Andhra Pradesh near the Srisailam dam. It causes a hevy floods in andhrapradesh 6/11/2013 9Floods- Disaster Managment
  10. 10. Causes of floods
  11. 11. FACTORS VEGETATION COVER This varies seasonally. The type and amount will affect interception and stemflow/throughfall. Overland flow is reduced. Lag time will be increased. ROCK TYPE Impermeable rocks prevent groundwater flow and encourage through flow and overland flow. These rocks will decrease lag time. Permeable rock will have the opposite effect. LAKES & RESERVOIRS These will store floodwater and thus reduce lag time and control river response to heavy rainfall. SOIL TYPE & DEPTH Deep soils store more water, pipes in the soil encourage through flow. Soils with small pore spaces will reduce infiltration and increase overland flow. LAND USE Impermeable surfaces created by urbanisation will reduce infiltration and encourage overland flow. Different types of crops affect interception rates e.g. cereals 7-15%. RAINFALL INTENSITY & DURATION Intense rain will increase overland flow and reduce lag times. Gentle rain over a longer time will allow more infiltration. SLOPES Steep slopes will encourage overland flow and gentle slope will slow run off down. CLIMATE The distribution of rainfall over the year and the temperatures will affect the lag times.
  12. 12. FLOODS IMPACTS • Human Loss • Property Loss • Affects the Major Roads • Disruption of Air / Train / Bus services • Spread of Water-borne Communicable Diseases • Communication Breakdown • Electricity Supply Cut off • Economic and Social Disruption • Increase in Air / Water Pollution 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 12
  13. 13. Flood forecasting • Anticipating floods before they occur allows for precautions to be taken and people to be warned so that they can be prepared in advance for flooding conditions. • For example, – Farmers can remove animals from low-lying areas and utility services can put in place emergency provisions to re-route services if needed. Emergency services can also make provisions to have enough resources available ahead of time to respond to emergencies as they occur. • In order to make the most accurate flood forecasts for waterways, it is best to have a long time-series of historical data that relates stream flows to measured past rainfall events • Radar estimates of rainfall and general weather forecasting techniques are also important components of good flood forecasting.
  14. 14. Flood Control • In many countries around the world, waterways prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defences such as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent waterways from overflowing their banks. • In the riparian zone near rivers and streams, erosion control measures can be taken to try and slow down or reverse the natural forces that cause many waterways to meander over long periods of time. • Flood controls, such as dams, can be built and maintained over time to try and reduce the occurrence and severity of floods as well.
  15. 15. Flood benefits • Floods (in particular more frequent or smaller floods) can also bring many benefits, such as – Recharging ground water, – Making soil more fertile and increasing nutrients in some soils. • Flood waters provide much needed water resources in arid and semi-arid regions where precipitation can be very unevenly distributed throughout the year. • Freshwater floods particularly play an important role in maintaining ecosystems in river corridors and are a key factor in maintaining floodplain biodiversity. • Flooding can spread nutrients to lakes and rivers, which can lead to increased biomass and improved fisheries for a few years. • For some fish species, an inundated floodplain may form a highly suitable location for spawning with few predators and enhanced levels of nutrients or food. • Fish, such as the weather fish, make use of floods in order to reach new habitats. Bird populations may also profit from the boost in food production caused by flooding.
  16. 16. 6/11/2013 16Floods- Disaster Managment National perspective: • Urban regions with more than 5 million population • Mumbai, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir and Bihar. • Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data Regional Perspective • Urban Regions with more than 3 million population. • Visakhapatnam and Vijayawada(case study area) urban region. • Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data. Local Perspective • Hyderabad(Musi river) • .Brief review of floods with the help of secondary sources of data METHODOLOGY:
  17. 17. Floods in India  Floods cause damage to houses, industries, public utilities and property resulting in huge economic losses, apart from loss of lives.  Though it is not possible to control the flood disaster totally, by adopting suitable structural and non-structural measures the flood damages can be minimised. Parameters Area liable to Floods (million Ha.) Total Damage Rs.13,400 million Area Affected 8.11 million hectare Crop Area Affected 3.57 million hectare Human Lives Lost 1579 Nos. Cattle Lost 95,000 Nos. NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
  18. 18. Flood prone zones , areas in INDIA
  19. 19. Major River Floods in 2002 The areas in red are where river floods have occurred .
  20. 20. Analysis over years
  21. 21. INDIA FLOOD PRONE AREA OTHER STATES 43.9% UTTAR PRADESH 21.90% BIHAR 12.71% ASSAM 9.40% WEST BENGAL 7.91% ORISSA 4.18%
  22. 22. FLOOD MANAGEMENT AREA AFFECTED BY FLOODS 2.29 7.49 9.44 9.24 4.86 6.26 5.77 7.53 6.56 6.12 3.49 4.9 1.46 4.74 7.12 7.15 6.2 6.46 13.25 4.1 11.79 6.7 6.17 11.91 11.46 17.5 3.99 11.46 6.12 8.87 9.02 10.71 8.38 8.81 8.89 16.29 4.63 9.3 6.17 2.09 4.63 2.75 6.11 7.4 3.85 7.18 2.55 5.166 3.08 7.09 6.5 8.031 1953 1956 1959 1962 1965 1968 1971 1974 1977 1980 1983 1986 1989 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004 YEAR AREAINM.Ha.
  23. 23. FLOOD DAMAGE IN INDIA DURING 52.4 57.23 102.73 53.63 23.37 43.97 86.2 63.17 31.37 94.89 36.61 66.61 7.14 88.43 155.43 211.1 404.43 287.83 632.48 158.19 569 569.02 471.64 888.69 1201.85 1454.76 614.2 840.5 1196.5 1644.88 2491.61 1905.56 4059.27 3748.53 2569.72 4630.32405.33 1708.92 1488.33 3344.53 2536.79 1794.59 3702.31 2952.78 2831.18 5845.982107.86 1415.88 1953 1955 1957 1959 1961 1963 1965 1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 RUPEESINCRORE YEAR
  24. 24. Total flood damage state wise and for the union territory of Delhi  The macro-flood zones of India may be broadly grouped into the following zones:  (a) Brahmaputra River Basin,  (b) Ganga River Basin,  (c) North-West Rivers Basin, and  (d) Central India and Deccan Rivers Basin.
  25. 25. 2012 Brahmaputra floods This was another sorrow caused to Assam in recent years. In July 2012, Brahmaputra and its tributaries showed its wrath and since it was natural but it grabs a spot at number 2 and eye-catching event because the main area which was affected included Kaziranga National Park, a park which is the natural habitat of Rhinos. It cause a death of 540 animals including 13 Rhinos. The main reasons behind this calamity is the deforestation in the area of passing by of Brahmaputra. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 25
  26. 26. 2010 Ladakh Floods. It was 6th August 2010, when the series of natural disasters started to take place in Ladakh, a regional part of J&K (Jammu and Kashmir). It was accompanied with cloudburst, debris flows and Flash floods from Himalayan. Causality was less than 300 but a great loss of property was reported. Areas of Leh were also affected and it caused a loss of total Rs. 133 crores INR. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 26
  27. 27. 2005 : Maharashtra flood This was the major and the most devastating disaster occurred in Maharashtra, mainly engulfing areas of Mumbai, Chiplun, Khed, Kalyan, Ratnagiri and Raigad. The main problem arose with the people on the road and which caused a traffic jam and with it came the loss of people. A total of 5000 people were reported for the death toll. The date 26 July 2005 has been marked as one the BLACK DAY in the history of Mumbai. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 27
  28. 28. 2004 Bihar Flood Being considered as a flood prone area, Bihar is again in the list because of 2004 flood which it suffered. It was stated that a total of 883 people lost their lives and more than 3000 animals were killed. One of the most horrifying disaster caused almost a loss of Rs. 1,03,049.60 Lakh. Rivers, primarily, Gandak, Kosi, Mahananda, Bagmati, Budhi had already crossed the red mark while on the other hand Ganga first time in its history crossed the red mark in Farrakka Barrage. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 28
  29. 29. STATE PERSPECTIVE • Latest reports said 150 villages in Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, Krishna, Guntur and the east and west Godavari districts were submerged. Around 67,000 people had been evacuated. Crops spread over 2.5 lakh hectares of farmland were under water and schools remained shut.(2012) 6/11/2013 29Floods- Disaster Managment
  30. 30. 6/11/2013 30Floods- Disaster Managment
  31. 31. Contd… City name Rivers or streams Floods Vishakhapatnam Visakha Sarada, Gosthani, Champavathi, Tandava 2005(cyclone), 2004(tsunami) Vijayawada Krishna Vira, Munneru Budameru Thammileru 2006 (Ogni cyclone), 2004 (Tsunami) 1977 / 78 /90 / 96 (Cyclones) 1983/ 86 /98 / 2005 (Krishna), 1977 (Diviseema Floods) 6/11/2013 31
  32. 32. Local Perspective of Floods 23RD AND 24TH AUGUST, 2000 • 24cm rainfall for 24 hours • 77 slums washed away • 35,000 affected • 142 people killed • 90 residential areas under water (10 – 15 feet) • More than 100 colonies submerged in water 28th September, 1908 • 15,000 people killed • 19,000 houses demolished • 80,000 dwellings demolished • Average flood water level 15 – 20 feet • Construction of Osman Sagar (1914), Himayat Sagar (1927). 6/11/2013 32Floods- Disaster Managment
  33. 33. Approaches & measure for long , short term protection from floods in India • Attempts to modify the floods: involves flood protection by physical measures such as • Construction of embankments • Construction of detention reservoirs • Channel improvements etc. • Attempts to modify the susceptibility to flood damage: involves action designed to reduce the vulnerability of property and other developmental activities in the flood plains to the flood hazard • Attempts to modify the loss burden: Consists of actions to modify the incidence of losses, by spreading them over a large segment of community. • Bearing the loss: Bearing the loss means living with floods
  34. 34. MEASURES
  35. 35. • FLOODS CAN NOT BE ABSOLUTELY CONTROLLED • FLOODS CAN ONLY BE MANAGED TO REDUCE FLOOD LOSSES FLOOD MANAGEMENT APPROACH
  36. 36.  INDISCRIMINATE ENCROACHMENT  INCREASING ECONOMIC AND DEVELOPMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN FLOOD PLAINS  LACK OF REGULATIONS  INADEQUATE DRAINAGE SYSTEM  INADEQUATE MAINTENANCE  LACK OF DISASTER PREPAREDNESS INCREASED VULNERABILITY CAUSES
  37. 37. • MODIFY THE FLOODS • MODIFY THE SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FLOOD DAMAGE • MODIFY THE LOSS BURDEN • BEAR THE LOSS FLOOD MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES
  38. 38. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING WATER SUPPLY FACTORY POWER HOUSE UNIVERSITYRESIDENTIAL AREA GOVT. OFFICE HOSPITAL NORMAL CHANNEL PARK FREQUENT FLOOD FLOOD ONCE IN 25 YEARS FLOOD ONCE IN 100 YEARS III IIII III I I
  39. 39. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING PROHIBITIVERESTRICTIVEWARNING WARNINGRESTRICTIVE I II III II I RIVER CHANNEL
  40. 40. FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING  DATA COLLECTION  DATA TRANSMISSION  DATA ANALYSIS & FORECAST FORMULATION  DISSEMINATION OF FORECAST STEPS
  41. 41. FLOOD FORECASTING • HYDROLOGICAL RIVER WATER LEVEL RIVER DISCHARGE • HYDROMETEOROLGICAL RAINFALL OTHER RECIPITATION eg. SNOW, HAIL ETC. DATA COLLECTION
  42. 42. FLOOD FORECASTING • WIRELESS • TELEPHONE • FAX DATA TRANSMISSION • SATELLITE • TELEGRAPH
  43. 43. FLOOD FORECASTING • CORRELATION • MATHEMATICAL MODELS DATA ANALYSIS & FORECAST FORMULATION
  44. 44. FLOOD FORECASTING DISSEMINATION FORECAST CIVIL AUTHORITY OTHER AGENCIES PRESS, A I R DOORDARSHAN OTHER USERS LOCAL REPRESENTATIVES
  45. 45. FLOOD FORECASTING AND WARNING PRESENT SYSTEM - SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM WEATHER FORECASTS RIVER STAGE & DISCHARGE AT BASE STATION RIVER STAGE & DISCHARGE AT FORECASTING STATIONS RAINFALL F.M. O. OF I.M.DFLOOD FORECASTING CENTRES & CONTROL ROOMS FORMULATION OF FORECAST C.E., S.E. STATE GOVT. CONTROL ROOM PRESS RADIO P & T POLICE FLOOD COMMITTEE CIVIL AUTHORITIES ENGG. AUTHORITIES DEFENCE RAILWAYS INDUSTRIES F.M.O OF I.M.D REGIONAL OFFICES OF I.M.D. REGIONAL OFFICES OF I.M.D. DOORDARSHAN CWC HQ MINISTRY OF WR
  46. 46. FLOOD MANAGEMENT • Use of Remote Sensing and GIS • Research and Development • Weather / Rainfall Forecasting • FF Modelling • Capacity Building • International Cooperation
  47. 47. FLOOD FORECASTING STATIONS INDIA GANGA B’PUTRA WEST FLOWING GODAVARI EASTERN RIVERS KRISHNA MAHANADI BARAK 85 27 17 15 9 8 3 2
  48. 48. FLOOD FORECASTING STATIONS INDIA 35 32 23 1415 11 11 6 4 3 2 12 4 2
  49. 49. FLOOD MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Pre flood During flood Post flood
  50. 50. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING • AN IMPORTANT NON-STRUCTURAL MEASURE. • REGULATES LAND USE IN FLOOD PLAINS TO RESTRICT DAMAGE BY FLOODS. • INVOLVES DEMARCATION OF ZONES IN FLOOD PLAINS COMPATIBLE WITH FLOOD RISKS INVOLVED. CONCEPT
  51. 51. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING PRIORITY - I ACTIVITY LIMITED TO WATER LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO 100 YEARS FLOOD FREQUENCY AND DRAINAGE CONGESTION FOR 50 YEARS RAINFALL. ZONE REGULATION
  52. 52. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING PRIORITY - II ACTIVITY LIMITED TO LEVELS CORRESPONDING TO 25 YEARS FLOOD FREQUENCY AND DRAINAGE CONGESTION FOR 10 YEARS RAINFALL FREQUENCY. ZONE REGULATION
  53. 53. FLOOD PLAIN ZONING PRIORITY - III LESS ECONOMIC AND COMMUNITY ACTIVITY IN AREAS VULNERABLE TO FREQUENT FLOODS. ZONE REGULATION
  54. 54. FLOOD MANAGEMENT FUTURE STRATEGIES • Focused Approach • Basin Wise Action Plan • Flood Plain Zoning • Role of Central Government • Funding of Planned Flood Management Works • Adequacy of Flood Cushion in Reservoirs
  55. 55. National Disaster Management Guidelines • To minimise vulnerability to floods and consequent loss of lives, livelihood systems, property and damage to infrastructure and public utilities • Flood damage assessment be made on a realistic and scientific basis and recorded basin- /sub-basin-wise. • Performance evaluation of a large number of FM schemes be carried out and their impact on the socio economic development of the protected area be assessed. • The use of flood plains be regulated and a suitable legislation for flood plain zoning be enacted and enforced. • Water Resources planning and construction be basin wise and basin organisations be set up. • Storages in various forms is an important component of the package of measures for FM and flood space in reservoirs be provided to the extent feasible and flood control not relegated to a non- priority activity as against competing water requirements for hydropower and Irrigation purposes. • International dimensions of problem of floods be kept in mind and the GOI should play an important role in the matter. • Requisite funds be made available for construction of new and maintenance of existing works. • Emphasis be laid on research, education and training on FM. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 55
  56. 56. 6/11/2013 56Floods- Disaster Managment CASE STUDY ON VIJAYAWADA FLOODS
  57. 57. Satellite map showing river Krishna in Vijayawada 6/11/2013 57Floods- Disaster Managment
  58. 58. LOCATION MAP 6/11/2013 58 Map of India showing AP
  59. 59. Location • The city is situated at the foot of a low range hills on the northern bank of the river Krishna with its cardinal points as 16° 31’ North latitude and 80° 37’ East longitude, around 70 km away from the coast. 6/11/2013 59Floods- Disaster Managment
  60. 60. Topographic Details • The land lay of Vijayawada is characterized by four canals, four hills and the holy river Krishna. Vijayawada when approached from Guntur is welcomed by the historic gates across the holy river Krishna. The way to Machilipatnam runs parallel to Budamerru canal and crosses two other Canals There are four major hills: a) Indrakiladri hill b) Machavaram c) Gunadaa Hill d) Moghalrajapuram hill e) Gollapalem Gattu Hill 6/11/2013 60Floods- Disaster Managment
  61. 61. Krishna River • The River Krishna takes of its origin in the western Ghats at an elevation of (+) 1336 Mts and runs for a length of about 1400 Km and runs through Vijayawada city and joins at Bay of Bengal The length of Krishna River up to Prakasam Barrage is about 1310 km and the length from Prakasam Barrage to Puligadda Aqueduct is 64.00 kms. • The flow of the river is managed partially by the Nagarjuna Sagar dam which is located to the west of Krishna District and Prakasam Barrage which is located at the beginning of the city. 6/11/2013 61Floods- Disaster Managment
  62. 62. Krishna river flow details and distance of dam to dam 6/11/2013 62Floods- Disaster Managment The Krishna Flood bank Above Prakasam Barrage is about 13KM and bellow flood bank is 6.40 Km which creates havoc in flood season which starts from June to December. Water release from barrage with 4,12,734 to 10,94422 Cusecs is been observed over the years.
  63. 63. Details of Flood Banks In Krishna District 6/11/2013 63Floods- Disaster Managment
  64. 64. Index plan of Krishna River Flood Banks 6/11/2013 64Floods- Disaster Managment
  65. 65. Flood Bank locations
  66. 66. Year Wise observed Maximum Floods In Krishna River
  67. 67. Reasons for Krishna Flood  This region receives maximum rainfall both by southwest and retreating monsoons.  The primary reason for the flooding is the unauthorized settlements along the river which had taken place due to lack of planning and enforcement.  Vijayawada is located on the line which separates the delta-irrigated lands  Flood bank below barrage is about 6.40 Km which creates havoc in flood season from June to December.  High Water release at time from barrage with 4,12,734 to 10,94422 Cusecs of water released in various years.  Developmental activities like sluice connectivity to into the river is causing back water(3 sluices connected into river)  Bund cutting for public private developmental activities (ex: sluice, storm water drains) approach roads for bigger vehicles.  Allotting the residential areas officially in flood zone. Ex: Police colony.
  68. 68. Contd… • trespassing the river bunds by people • damage to the river bunds by rodents • Breach occurrence and damages occurred to the flood bank with slips and erosion. • Negligence and helpless condition making people to stay at the houses even after passing the warnings • With little authoritative power over the settlements along the flood banks, the irrigation department is unable to attend swiftly in vulnerable areas.
  69. 69. Vulnerable groups to Krishna floods
  70. 70. Satellite imagery of vulnerable points at Krishna flood area 6/11/2013 71Floods- Disaster Managment
  71. 71. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE 6/11/2013 72Floods- Disaster Managment Mitigation Preparedness Response Recovery
  72. 72. Occurrence of disaster in Vijayawada (year wise) 6/11/2013 73Floods- Disaster Managment
  73. 73. MITIGATION  Mitigation measures are very important phase of disaster management. They will help to reduce the loss and increase the capacity of people in managing the disasters. The potential forecast outlook can be translated into early warning messages and initiate preventive/preparedness actions. • As per the building byelaws 1981, no permission to construct a building on site shell be granted , if the site is with in 9 meters of the highest water mark of a tank • Further the authority may require the floor of the lowest styorey of such building to be raised above the normal minimum flood level of the adjoining to ground or to such other level as the authority may prescribe Shift or restrict the people living in flood banks to safe place by providing all aminities • Krishna Bund strengthening at Krishna lanka, ranadheevinagar, Bhupesh Gupta nagar • Krishna bund construction from police colony to yanamala kuduru • Raising the free board of Krishna flood bunds from 1.5 metre to 2 meters. • Shift the habitants of the flood zone of Budameru temporary or permanent to safe shelters after announcing the warning • Stop plowing / occupying the budameru bund from singh nagar to NSC Bose nagar 6/11/2013 74Floods- Disaster Managment
  74. 74. Contd… • Providing Road side rain water drains at banadar road • Providing Road side rain water drains Ayyappanagar Road • Providing Under ground drainage and sewer lines and construction of sump cum [Pump house • Construction of Flood banks for Krishna River and Budameru Floods • Renovation or construction of safe schools and providing safety equipment at schools • Provision of Food to lactating mothers and Infants and children under 6 years reconstruction of rubbish or spoiled roads in many points of the city to protect form water stagnation • Identify the high milkproduction and other animal or bird production areas, based on that preference should be given to provide all measures to those cattle and birds safety and multiplication 6/11/2013 75Floods- Disaster Managment
  75. 75. Before the Disaster During the Disaster After the Disaster • Learn warning signs and community alert system During a flood watch • Don't return home until authorities express itis safe to do so • Stockpile emergency building materials • Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent flood waters from backing up in sewer drains • Plan and practice an evacuation route • Have disaster supplies on hand • Develop an emergency communication plan in case of separation • Ask an out-of-state relative to serve as the "family contact" • Teach family members how and when to turn off the gas, electricity, and water and teach children how and when to call 9-1-1 • Ask your insurance agent about flood insurance If indoors: • Turn on battery operated radio to get latest emergency information • Get pre-assembled emergency supplies • If told to leave, do so immediately. If outdoors: • Climb to high ground and stay there • Avoid walking through any floodwaters. • If in a car, turn around and go another way; if your car stalls, abandon it immediately and climb to higher ground. During an evacuation: • If advised to evacuate, do so immediately to avoid flooded roads, being sure to follow recommended evacuation routes and listen to radio for evacuation instructions • Help neighbors whom may need assistance • Use extreme caution when entering buildings • Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage and examine walls, floors, doors, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing • Watch out for animals, especially poisonous snakes, that may have come into your home with flood waters • Watch for loose plaster and ceilings that could fall • Take pictures of damage for insurance claims • Look for fire hazards • Throw away all food (including canned) that has come in contact with flood waters • Pump out flooded basements gradually (~ 1/3 amount of water per day) to avoid structural damage • Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools, pits, and leaching systems ASAP – damaged sewage systems are health hazards. 6/11/2013 76Floods- Disaster Managment
  76. 76. PREPAREDNESS • State of being ready to react promptly and effectively in an event of emergency (systematic way approach). Being prepared for severity vulnerability of the disaster . Preparedness plan ( a holistic integrated approach)  Specific Region , Area, Purpose  Deploying Officers Incharge To Take Care With Emergencies  Strategy Development For Activities Likely To Be Undertaken At A Local Situation( Resource Analysis To Force)  Identify Government Bodies Which Can Respond  Establishment Of Emergency Operating Centres 6/11/2013 77Floods- Disaster Managment
  77. 77. Emergency Operating centre(EOC) /Control room : • An emergency operations center, or EOC, is a central command and control facility responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and emergency management, or disaster management functions at a strategic level in an emergency situation, and ensuring the continuity of operation of a company, political subdivision or other organization. 6/11/2013 78Floods- Disaster Managment
  78. 78. Functions • Dealing with incoming emergency calls and prioritizing them taking the necessary information from the caller • Recording details of incidents on computer systems • Providing necessary advice and guidance • Dispatching an emergency services team to deal with the incident. • Maintaining contact with the team at the scene of the incident to keep up to date with the situation and ensure staff safety. 6/11/2013 79Floods- Disaster Managment
  79. 79. Warning Stages 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 80 Flood –Krishna 1st-Warning - When flood level reaches 12ft. at Prakasam 2nd Warning - When flood level reaches 15 ft. at Prakasam 3rd Warning - When flood level reaches 17 ft. at Prakasam
  80. 80. RESPONSE Occurs immediately / during following disaster Designed to provide emergency assistance to the victims of the event and reduce the likelihood of occurrence of secondary damage 5 STAGE PROCESS 1. Notification 2. Immediate public safety 3. Property security 4. Public welfare 5. Restoration 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 81
  81. 81. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 82
  82. 82. RECOVERY  Final phase of disaster management cycle  It is the longest phase out of all until system return to normalcy / nearly to normalcy  2 TYPES long term Complete redevelopment of damage short term Restoration of vital services like watersupply, social infrastructure to minimum standards of operation and safety Mike announcement of flood discharge and awareness of people to evacuate the people to be submerged houses. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 83
  83. 83. Water Supply • Identify the effected areas substitute with good and quality of water. • Keep the stock of Chlorine. • Identify and keep ready the list of sources of water in unaffected areas. • Check and Identification of low lying areas in the ward. • Check the water samples for residual chlorine, microbial substitutes and treat accordingly. Duties of Medical Teams in Rehabilitation Centers • List out the below 5 years age children’s and supply the milk and food (medicated). • List out the pregnancy ladies and take sufficient medical treatment. • List out the old / unhealthy people and take sufficient medical treatment. • Arrangements for fogging to control the mosquitoes and fly’s. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 84
  84. 84. Shelter Management • Departments women and Child welfare, Revenue, Civil supplies and Municipal Corporation must play a major role in Shelter management. • Adequate numbers of buildings or open space shall be identified where relief camps can be set up during emergency and updated in the plan. • The relief camps should provide with adequate provision of drinking water and bathing, sanitation and essential health-care facilities. • Adequate securing arrangements shall be made by local police. • Adequate lighting arrangements shall be made in the camp area including at water points, toilets and other common areas by the Municipal Engineering Department. • Explore the possibility of provision of food through community kitchens, provision of education through the restoration of schools and anganwadis in effected areas. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 85
  85. 85. Duties of Civil Supplies • Necessary free distribution of food shall be made to those who ever need in the shelter and effected areas. • Wherever possible dry rations shall be provided for home cooking. • Community Kitchen for mass feeding shall be organized only for an affected people do not have the means to cooks. • While providing food assistance, local food practices shall be kept in mind and commodities being provided must be carefully chosen, in consultation with the affected population. • Food must be of good quality, safe to consume, and appropriate and acceptable to recipients. • Food distributed should be of appropriate quality and fit for human consumption. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 86
  86. 86. Duties of Police Department • City Police officer will make arrangements for providing adequate number of mobile VHF sets up to sub-division/ward Police stations for meeting the exigencies. • List out trained persons responsible at sub division and ward level Police stations for disaster management activities with details of address and phone numbers. Provide this list to Dist Collector and Municipal Commissioner and concerned line departments. • Adequate security arrangements shall be made by local police at the shelters and vulnerable areas. Duties of Irrigation Department • Flood preparedness plan for the city is to be prepared. • Update and inform about the floods at higher reaches. • Check your stores keep ready Inventory and instruments. • Keep ready the emergency material which ever required at the out falls at Krishna lanka river bank. • A report on activities and work status of Budameru drain should be submitted immediately and an office of concerned work must be attended to the next meeting. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 87
  87. 87. In Conclusion While we can never contract with the future or accurately predict all of the consequences of our actions and policies, policymakers must extend their thinking about their impacts and the impacts of private entities beyond the local, the near term, the likely, and the recently newsworthy.
  88. 88. 6/11/2013 Floods- Disaster Managment 89

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