Lessons from Turkey Seden Yalinkilinc


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  • And now I would like give a brief information about drought.
  • Now, I would like to give brief information on Turkey’s water and land resources. Turkey is located on the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Turkey’s population is over 70 million. Rural population is 35% while urban population is 65%. Gross National Product (GNP) per capita is about US$5,000.
  • Turkey is not water rich country; we would expect water shortage even when we develop all our water resources. The average annual surface run off in Turkey is about 186 km³ of which only 98 km³ could be technically developed for consumptive use. considering the 1 4 km³ of groundwater safe yield, the total amount of exploitable water has been assessed as 11 2 km³. however only 38 % (42 km³) of total water potential is consumed by existing developed projects
  • T urkey is subject to both a continental type of climate characterized by cold rainy winters and dry summers and subtropical climate distinguished by dry summers. the distribution of precipitation is quite uneven. the average annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the inland areas of central anatolia to over 2 500 mm in parts of eastern black sea cost. though generally turkey has adequate amaount of water, it is not in the right place in the right time to meet present and anticipated needs.
  • 70 percent of precipitation occur from november to march. there is little effective rain during summer months. the rivers are generally irregular regimes and natural flows can not be taken directly as usable resources.
  • Aridty assesment of turkey has been made and regions susceptible to drought is determined and given in this map
  • W hen we look at water consumption figures, agriculture irrigation amount accounts for 70 %.of total water consumption. remaining 30 % is for domestic and industrial usage.
  • the distribution of precipitation is quite uneven. the average annual precipitation ranges from less than 250 mm in the inland areas of central anatolia to over 2 500 mm in parts of eastern black sea cost. though generally turkey has adequate amaount of water, it is not in the right place in the right time to meet present and anticipated needs.
  • As you see in the table while population of Turkey has increased %51, the storage capacity has inreased about %1000 (10 times) since 1971.
  • Before 2003, %6 of our network is pipeline system however now %60 of our network under construction is pipeline system.
  • Approximately %89 of irrigation area is irrigated by open channel and small channel system and %11 of irrigation area is irrigated by pipe system.
  • At surface irrigation system 10000 m3 water is used per hectar, at sprinkler system 6500 m3 water is used per hectar and at dripler irrigation system 4000 m3 water is used per hectar.
  • Lessons from Turkey Seden Yalinkilinc

    1. 1. Drought and Water Management in Turkey Seden YALINKILINÇ General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works,Turkey 22-24  February 2011 AMMAN/ Jordan
    2. 2. <ul><li>The relation between temporaray unstability of humidty at a region and water scarcity is defined as drought. </li></ul><ul><li>Drought is a natural climate action and it can be seen at any time and at any where. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 31 kinds of natural disasters and drought is placed at first. </li></ul><ul><li>There has been drought in our country since the past, it is not met first time. </li></ul>2. DROUGHT
    3. 3. <ul><li>Drought, generally is formed slowly and it shows a long term continuity. Among the atmospherical disasters, Drought is the most difficult to forecast and has the widest effects. </li></ul>2. DROUGHT
    4. 4. <ul><li>During Drought forecasting the long term average of balance between precipitation and evapotranspiration (evaporation+transpiration) must be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>On Drought; </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Precipitation (Precipitation density, quantity) </li></ul><ul><li>High Temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>Strong winds and </li></ul><ul><li>Low humidty, </li></ul><ul><li>Have effects. </li></ul>2. Drought
    5. 5. <ul><li>Drought is not only a physical or natural event. Because of humans’ needs on water resources it has several effects on society. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry air in long term cause to decrease plants,forests and water resources. Therefore there can be problems on environment,economy and social issues. </li></ul>2. Drought
    6. 6. 2.1. DROUGHT TYPES
    7. 7. <ul><li>There are three types of drought; </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.1. METEOROLOGİCAL DROUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined as decreasing of precipitation under the average in long term. </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.2. AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined as lack of enough water which is need of plants. </li></ul><ul><li>2.1.3. HYDRAULIC DROUGHT </li></ul><ul><li>It can be defined as sharp decrease in the level of water in rivers,groundwater and lakes because of long term Meteorological Drought. </li></ul>2.1. DROUGHT TYPES
    9. 9. <ul><li>3.1. Effects on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. Effects on floods </li></ul><ul><li>3.3. Effects on fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>3.4. Effects on Energy Generation </li></ul><ul><li>3.5. Effects on Environment </li></ul>
    10. 10. 3.1. Effects On Agriculture <ul><li>Because of drought efficiency decreases, irrigation can not be made, quantity and variety of crops decreases. </li></ul>
    11. 11. 3.2. Effects on floods <ul><li>Because of climate changes seasonal precipitation features change and especially short term heavy rains causes the floods. </li></ul><ul><li>In the last years precipitations expected in 3-4 months period becomes in 48 hours and it leads to floods. </li></ul>
    12. 12. 3.3. Effects on fresh water <ul><li>There can be problems about fresh water and usable water in the aspect of the quantity and the quality. </li></ul><ul><li>If water scarcity and especially drought continues a few years it is thougth that present dams will not be sufficient. </li></ul>
    13. 13. 3.4. Effects on Energy Generation <ul><li>As it is known that generation of hydroelectrical energy is obtained by harnessing of water power. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing in the water quantity will affect mostly generation of hydroelectrical energy. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 3.5. Effects on Environment <ul><li>It is possible that, especially marshy areas will be dry and a decrease will be occur in the plant species affected by drought. </li></ul>
    15. 15. Turkey is located on the crossroads of Asia and Europe
    16. 16. WATER RESOURCES POTENTIAL LEAKAGE TO AQUIFERS 69 billion m 3 GROUNDWATER RECHARGE FEEDING RIVERS 28 billion m 3 NEIGHBOR COUNTR I ES 7 billion m 3 NET:112 billion m 3 SURFACE FLOW 158 billion m 3 P R ECIPITATION 501 billion m 3 Evaporation 274 billion m 3 AQUIFERS GW PUMPING 14 billion m 3
    17. 17. Turkey is located in a semi-arid region; Precipitation has uneven distribution Annual precipitation 250 mm 2500 mm
    18. 18. PRECIPITATION TRENDS 5-YEAR MOVING AVERAGE 1961-1990 mean: 643 mm 643 mm
    21. 21. SOURCE OF FRESH WATER IS PRECIPITATION <ul><li>The precipitation in our country is variable in hydraulic cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Average annual value is 643 mm in long period. </li></ul><ul><li>At drought period Minimum average is 525 mm, </li></ul><ul><li>At wet period Maximum average is 800 mm, </li></ul><ul><li>It is indicated that there is a deviation about at a level of %20 from the average. </li></ul><ul><li>In this situation; </li></ul>
    22. 22. WATER SUPPLY IN DROUGHT AND WET TERMS <ul><li>At drought period usable water: 90 000 hm3 </li></ul><ul><li>At wet period usable water : 135 000 hm3 </li></ul><ul><li>The Difference : 45 000 hm3 </li></ul><ul><li>It indicates an oscillation about %50. </li></ul><ul><li>The demand in drought period is need to be met by less than %50 of water quantity in wet period. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a drought period in every six years and there is a very drought period in every eighteen years. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Planning technique and strategy <ul><li>During planning instead of average values drought period values must be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term operating model should be preferred in storage reservoirs operation. By this technique water in the high supply term can be transferred to low supply term. </li></ul><ul><li>If water resources are managed well it is possible to meet the needs. </li></ul><ul><li>In this case there are 3 measures; </li></ul><ul><li>-To increase the supply </li></ul><ul><li>-To decrease demand </li></ul><ul><li>-To protect the quality </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>In our country, located in a semi-arid region, it is essential that irrigation as well as fresh water and potable water. Therefore increasing the storage capacity is very important. </li></ul>A- MEASURES ABOUT INCREASING THE SUPPLY 1-Increasing the storage capacity 2-Water transfer between basins if needed
    25. 25. 1 – COMPLETING DAMS <ul><li>The active storage capacity of present dams is 65 billion m 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Thus in order to meet the need in drought periods active storage capacity must be increased in our country. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore at least dams under constructions must be completed immediately. </li></ul>
    26. 26. ACTIVE VOLUME INCREASINGS Years Population Storage Capcity (hm 3 ) 1971 36 215 000 6 500 2007 70 586 000 65 937 Increasing % 51 % 1 000
    27. 27. 2 – WATER TRANSFER BETWEEN BASINS <ul><li>Drought and global climate change is going to cause to change the precipitation types. </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible that precipitation will increase in some regions and decrease in some other regions. Therefore transferring between the basins will be very important. </li></ul>
    28. 28. <ul><li>General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works; </li></ul><ul><li>The Mavi Tunnel Project is an example of tranferring water between basins for irrigation. </li></ul>
    29. 29. MAVİ TUNNEL <ul><li>Aim of the project; To derive the water from Göksu basin to Konya closed basin by Bağbaşı Dam and Mavi Tunnel. </li></ul><ul><li>Derivation Tunnel Diameter is 4 m, length is 17 034 m. And </li></ul><ul><li>About 414 million m 3 water will be transferred annually. </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Melen Project is an another example of transferring water between basins for providing big cities with water for fresh and usable water. </li></ul><ul><li>17 </li></ul>
    31. 31. Aim of the project; By Melen System, developed to meet İstanbul’s long term fresh water and potable water need, firstly 268 million m 3 (8,5 m 3 /s) water and then 1,180 billion m 3 water will be provided and water need of İstanbul will have been met till 2040. Melen project is an integrated project. It was finished in 2010. MELEN SYSTEM
    32. 32. <ul><li>Especially decreasing the water quantity used in agriculture is possible by using advanced technology. </li></ul>B- THE MEASURES ABOUT TO DECREASE THE DEMAND 1- Using Modern irrigation systems 2- Decreasing the loss in the city and irrigation network. 3- Integrated River Basin management.
    33. 33. 1 - Using modern irrigation systems <ul><li>DSİ, unlike in the past, changed the strategy of irrigation systems in last 2003 and since then it has been using sprinkler system and dripler system which provide us with water saving. </li></ul>
    35. 35. <ul><li>Open Channel(% 43) </li></ul>c) Pipe System(% 11) 1 817 734 ha b) Small Channel (% 46) 207 150 ha
    36. 36. IRRIGATON EFFICIENCY If dripler irrigation system is used there is increase up to %48 in efficiency relative to surface irrigation If sprinkler system is used there is increase up to %38 in efficiency relative to surface irrigation
    37. 37. AVERAGE CONSUMPTION OF WATER Dripler irrigation system 4 000 m 3 /ha Surface irrigation 10 000 m 3 /ha Sprinkler system 6 500 m 3 /ha
    38. 38. <ul><li>Decreasing the loss of network; </li></ul><ul><li>Especially in several cities fresh water losses reaches up to %60. It means 60 m 3 of every 100 m 3 is lost at underground. To decrease this loss of water to the least the networks of cities must be renewed immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewing the irrigation network; </li></ul><ul><li>Some irrigation systems are old and primitive, delivery loss is a lot therefore it is neccesary to renew the networks. </li></ul>2 – Measures about decreasing the loss in the city and irrigation network.
    39. 39. <ul><li>A strict water management is needed against drought. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, in order to generate water budget, it is essential that the basin must be managed completely and groundwater and surfece water resources must be handled together. </li></ul>3- BASIN WATER MANAGEMENT
    40. 40. <ul><li>1- It is necessary to protect water quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody has a right to contaminate scarce and fresh water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>2- Waste water threats the fresh water resources. Each drop of water which is used turns into waste water. Therefore it is important to save water for less waste water. </li></ul>C – Protecting the water quality
    41. 41. <ul><li>3-Regaining of waste water, using it in agriculture or grass irrigation must be provided. </li></ul><ul><li>4- All of the water consumers must use the water consciously, must avoid from misuse and this must be recognized as a sign of a good citizen. </li></ul>
    42. 42. <ul><li>THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>