Disaster management and recovery in northeast japan
DISASTER MANAGEMENT AND RECOVERY IN NORTHEAST JAPAN Miyazaki, M1., Ramdani, F11Geo-environment, Institute of Geography, Earth Science Department, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, JAPAN
• Sendai City’s population is approximately 1 million people (Census 2008), and this City located in center of the Tohoku Region.• Sendai City was hit by the big earthquake in 1978 and 2011. In March 11, 2011 a subsequent major tsunami hit Sendai but without causing much damage in the center of the city. In other areas however, especially on the coastal area including Sendai Airport major damage was reported.• The tsunami reportedly reached as far as Wakabayashi Ward Office, 8 kilometers from the coastline. This disaster led to the death of 14,435 people, injured more than 5,314, and damage 76,713 houses (totally collapse) (NPAJ, 2011).• This research evaluates the disaster management of Sendai City, Northeast Japan.
• The Great Hanshin Earthquake in 1995 was the final straw for rethink earthquake disaster management in Japan.• The earthquake event was generated a lot of damage inside the city, and the support from government iwas very limited.• Many people were saved by local residents actions than by rescue team (Kawada, 1997).• After Great Hanshin earthquake, the government began to add some supplement to the existing policy of the city disaster, many governments have been making community association for disaster management and recovery. The organizations are expected to have many roles to support in, as quick as possible after the disaster happen.
In Sendai City, a simulation of the earthquake firstly conduct in 2002, in thissimulation disaster plan based on the voluntary action in order to strengthening ofemergency contact and the creation of the city resistant to earthquake.Voluntary organanization for disaster management support in neighborhood basicallyis neighborhood association. Neighborhood association are listed in Table 1. thefamilies are members of this association.This associations are actively involved in disaster management activities with thecooperation of the school around the neighborhood location. Especially for foreignpeoples and students, Miyagi Prefecture has Miyagi International Association andSIRA (Sendai International Relations Association) to support foreign nationals residingin Miyagi with necessary action to prompt recovery from the disaster. This associationgive support systems and consultation services for the victims of the disaster withmultilingual (English, Portuguese, Korea, and China)
Neighborhood association in Sendai CityDistrict name Conduct an Neighborhood Member of emergency drill association neighborhood association (%)Aoba 76 512 115289 (83.8)Taihaku 96 271 78559 (86.5)Miyagino 45 213 71918 (86.8)Wakabayshi 40 178 50384 (89.2)Izumi 63 205 77516 (92.2)
The power of community (Local level) Headquarter - President -Vice PresidentInformation Fire fighting Evacuation Rescue Food and team team team team water supply team
Before Afterearthquake earthquake Safety check Fire fighting of the (initial state) community Dissemination Rescue of knowledge Conduct an Information emergency collection & drill transfer Evacuation Shelter management
Sequences of action after earthquake 2-3 days 1 month 3 month 6 month 1 yearEvent Recovery 3 Emergency Evacuation Recovery 1 Recovery 2 and recovery reconstruction Damage Rescue, medical Construction classification Get subsidy/ insurance/ care, evacuation, temporary and repair/ reconstruction quick inspection house assessment Emergency supply (food, equipment, etc) Transportation recovery Lifelines recovery (water, gas, electricity) Waste (human waste, garbage, debris, etc)
Risk inspection and safety declarationCentral Disaster Prime Minister and Minister of State Management for Disaster Management Council Decision of risk- Disaster Information inspection Prefecture Chief of disaster countermeasure office Decision of risk- Disaster Information inspection practice Director of Local Setup risk-inspection division government emergency headquater concerned Event
Simulation of escaping to evacuation area• For simulation of destination place to evacuate when the earthquake ocurs we applied GIS modeling using ArcGIS software.• It is understood that old peoples are more vulnerable than young peoples for the disaster event. Figure 7 shows the spatial distribution of the young and old peoples.• There are 10 Universities in Sendai, and many young people living allone. Many old peoples in Sendai City are living with they spouse. The last type of peoples have settled in certain areas, which is insufficient to measures in the area.• On figure 8 we show the time needed to reach shelter designated area in Sendai City. Many residences can arrive within 15 minutes. But some suburban residences need 30 minutes to arrive in the evacuation area.• In the case of March 11 earthquake, some designated area with high density of population could not handle to much refugees in one place (such as Sanjoumachi evacuation area). In the second day of evacuation at Sanjoumachi, the foods and drinks, and also the emergency toilet were in adequate already.
In summary This study has revealed two matters. The first things is the stockpile by city authorities distributed in a patchy fashion by comparison of the high population density distribution. More designated area are expected to increase. Secondly, the organization does not have sufficient members to support many refugees. The organization’s activities are not known by local residents, instead of policies to assist the city, the organization’s activities are running as an independent action. The new policy need to be established to give people awareness of the disaster, and the simulation will not become speculative activity in the city. Sendai City also give support for foreign nationals and foreign student with Miyagi International Association and SIRA, these organizations play a main role in order to support foreign peoples in Miyagi Prefecture to recovery from disaster.
Another example from another City• On a small island about 30 minutes by boat from Shiogama, Miyagi Prefecture, but none of the approximately 80 residents on the island was killed by the tsunami, thanks to a disaster prevention map and an evacuation route created more than half a century ago. They had also prepared for the possibility of disaster by conducting emergency drills over and over. All residents escaped half hour before tsunami hit. (japantimes.com, Tuesday, May 24, 2011) Planning pays off: Residents at Nonoshima Island in Miyagi Prefecture gather to draw up a disaster prevention map in August 2008. KYODO PHOTO
Kamaishi City, Iwate Prefecture • Students credit survival to disaster-preparedness drills. After quake, instincts kicked in to get everyone to higher ground. (japantimes.com, Saturday, June 4, 2011) KAMIYA PHOTOStanding tall: Kamaishi East One of the schools classrooms is A sign reading "General waste,Junior High School students Kana seen full of debris. SETSUKO city of Kamaishi" stands in frontSasaki (left), Fumiya Akasaka KAMIYA PHOTO of Kamaishi East Junior High(center) and Aki Kawasaki pose School in late May. YOSHIAKIfor a picture in late May. MIURA PHOTOSETSUKO
Indonesian Student took actions Ayukawahama, Ishinomaki, May 22nd, 2011 Tagajo, May 28th, 2011 and Higashimatsushima, May 29th, 2011