1
2
Climate Change and Transport
The potential role of electric passenger vehicles
Markus Becker
Division IG I 5 “Environmen...
3
Warm-up:
energy for transport
When using the energy contained in 5 litres of gasoline (42 kWh or
37,000 kcal) …
… how fa...
4
Content
I. Challenges in (automotive) transport
II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE
III. National Development...
5
Required GHG reduction
complying with a 2°C target
6
How to reduce emissions
from passenger transport?
total emissions
transport
demand
[passenger km]
energy
intensity
[joul...
7
Where lies the bulk
of emissions?
75%
15%
9% 1%
Individual (road) Public (road & rail) Aviation others
EU-27 modal split...
8
GHG path to meet 2°C
maximum global warming
Calculations:
McKinsey for BMU, 2010
CO2 emissions in Gt CO2e
9
What could a 2°C target
mean for car traffic?
2050:
7 - 22t
CO2e p.a.
9 Billion
citizens
in 2050
0,7 - 2,4t
CO2e budget
...
10
1) S60: Scenario oil price 60 USD per barrel, S110: oil price 110 USD per barrel.
2) Source: McKinsey
What could the ma...
11
A race for models
has begun
Mass production vehicles
as of August 2010
non-comprehensive
Source: RWE
12
Content
I. Challenges in (automotive) transport
II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE
III. National Developmen...
13
Advantages of
electric mobility
Climate Change
Reduction of CO2 emissions, worldwide by around
two thirds until 2050, b...
14
CO2
[g/km]
Diesel fuel
from coal (CtL)
Upstream process
Car operation
e-vehicles
with RE
20103)
50
100
150
200
e-vehicl...
15
Renewable electric mobility!
Consumption
Pump storage
Run down power plant
- + e-vehicle
„The additional total demand i...
16
Content
I. Challenges in (automotive) transport
II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE
III. National Developmen...
17
 Electric mobility as part of the Integrated Energy and Climate Programme
(December 2007)
 Establishment of the inter...
18
 Integrating e-mobility in a sustainable transport system
 Climate protection through expansion and grid integration ...
19
BMWi  Energy research (e.g. electricity storage and grid integration)
 ICT for grid integration (e-energy)
 Transpor...
20
Main focus of projects
commissioned by BMU
€ 100 million funding until 2011
• determining the environmental and
emissio...
21
E-Energy model regions
• integration of electric vehicles
into a smart energy system
• time sensitive charging
• examin...
22
Mini-E Fleet Trial
• 50 electric BMW Mini in Berlin
• partner: BMW, Vattenfall i.a.
• 100 user testing the Mini-E for
6...
23
Volkswagen TwinDrive
• development of a plug-in-EV,
platform: Golf
• fleet trial with 20 vehicles in the
Berlin conurba...
24
Mercedes E-Vito
• fleet trial with 50 elektric light duty
vehicles in Berlin
• users: parcel and customer services
• id...
25
Further projects
• development of recycling
procedures for Li-Ion-batteries,
installation of a pilot facility
• subsidy...
26
Regional distribution of
BMU projects
See www.pt-elektromobilitaet.de for more information.
27
Content
I. Challenges in (automotive) transport
II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE
III. National Developmen...
28
 Electric mobility is the future – independently of
developments in Germany
 Long-term climate protection goals make ...
29
Further steps
 Swift distribution of funds from economic stimulus
programme II
 1st report of National Platform for E...
30
Thank you for your kind attention.
Contact
Markus Becker
BMU IG I 5
D-11055 Berlin
Mail: markus.becker@bmu.bund.de
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Lösungen für die Klimawende // Climate Change and TransportThe potential role of electric passenger vehicles // Markus Becker, BMU

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Lösungen für die Klimawende // Climate Change and TransportThe potential role of electric passenger vehicles // Markus Becker, BMU

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 2 Climate Change and Transport The potential role of electric passenger vehicles Markus Becker Division IG I 5 “Environment, Traffic and Transport” TU Berlin 27 October 2010
  3. 3. 3 Warm-up: energy for transport When using the energy contained in 5 litres of gasoline (42 kWh or 37,000 kcal) … … how far can you travel on different means of transport ?
  4. 4. 4 Content I. Challenges in (automotive) transport II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE III. National Development Plan for EV, related projects IV. Conclusions
  5. 5. 5 Required GHG reduction complying with a 2°C target
  6. 6. 6 How to reduce emissions from passenger transport? total emissions transport demand [passenger km] energy intensity [joule per pkm] CO2 intensity [CO2e per joule] Simplified illustration for overall emissions, acc. to Creutzig/Edenhofer = x x approaches Avoid traffic e.g. reducing needs for mobility and distances through integrated planning Shift traffic + efficiency e.g. reducing consumption of vehicles and support modal shift towards more efficient modes Switch fuel e.g. using low carbon fuels such as sustainable biofuels or renewable electricity
  7. 7. 7 Where lies the bulk of emissions? 75% 15% 9% 1% Individual (road) Public (road & rail) Aviation others EU-27 modal split (pkm 2007, DG Energy and Transport) …efficiency Electric engines are by far more efficient than combustion engines. …fuel switch Electric drives allow for a switch from hydrocarbon fuels to renewable electricity. + normal car hybrid plug-in & range-extended fully electric combustion electric Electric vehicles both support…
  8. 8. 8 GHG path to meet 2°C maximum global warming Calculations: McKinsey for BMU, 2010 CO2 emissions in Gt CO2e
  9. 9. 9 What could a 2°C target mean for car traffic? 2050: 7 - 22t CO2e p.a. 9 Billion citizens in 2050 0,7 - 2,4t CO2e budget p. capita/year Share of transport constant Similar modal split emission standards of 14 to 43g/KM >> requires a 68 to 93% share of electric driving in mileage, even if conventional cars are optimised
  10. 10. 10 1) S60: Scenario oil price 60 USD per barrel, S110: oil price 110 USD per barrel. 2) Source: McKinsey What could the market look like in 2020? Global Sales Global sales of EV and PHEV up to 7mn in 2020, thereof 3 million in Europe and 0,6 million in Germany ICEV (combustion v.) Optimized ICEV Mild Hybrid Plug-In and battery electric vehicle Global market volume of 470 billion euro p.a. possible by 2020. scenario S 110, thereof € 110 bn EV and PHEV
  11. 11. 11 A race for models has begun Mass production vehicles as of August 2010 non-comprehensive Source: RWE
  12. 12. 12 Content I. Challenges in (automotive) transport II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE III. National Development Plan for EV, related projects IV. Conclusions
  13. 13. 13 Advantages of electric mobility Climate Change Reduction of CO2 emissions, worldwide by around two thirds until 2050, by at least 80% in Germany Scarcity of fossil fuels Supply will presumably last 30 to 40 years – reserves mainly in politically unstable regions Urbanisation Changing requirements for users and increasing necessity to limit local emissions Technological requirements EV technologies available today, some manufacturers have already started small-scale production Industrial policy Government support programmes, in particular China: 11 billion euro within the upcoming decade; likewise: US, EU, Japan Customer demand Significant number of early adopters already today (despite high costs)
  14. 14. 14 CO2 [g/km] Diesel fuel from coal (CtL) Upstream process Car operation e-vehicles with RE 20103) 50 100 150 200 e-vehicles with electricity mix Germany 20103) 115 5 290 Efficient diesel engine 2010 2) 126 1) Source: KBA, conventional fuels 2 ) consumption: 4 l/100 km, conventional fuels 3) electricity consumption: 18 kWh/100 km 106 106  Largest CO2 reduction for electricity from renewable energies Passenger cars, new vehicles' Germany 20071) 201 CO2 emissions of different energy paths 170
  15. 15. 15 Renewable electric mobility! Consumption Pump storage Run down power plant - + e-vehicle „The additional total demand in electric energy for electric vehicles will be met by electricity from renewable sources – according to the determinations of the National Electromobility Development Plan.“ Joint Declaration FedGov - Industry of 3 May 2010  preferably: use of intermittent renewables  thereafter: provision of further extensions The use of renewable electricity for vehicles is crucial to  the climate protection effect  the user acceptance  the marketing of the car industry 1 million electric vehicles increase the electricity demand by appr. 0.3 percent mileage 10.000 km/a, 0.18 kWh/km consumption, gross electricity consumption 617 TWh (2007) Scheme: Electric vehicles can absorb peak loads of green electricity
  16. 16. 16 Content I. Challenges in (automotive) transport II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE III. National Development Plan for EV, related projects IV. Conclusions
  17. 17. 17  Electric mobility as part of the Integrated Energy and Climate Programme (December 2007)  Establishment of the interministerial steering group on electric mobility (BMWi, BMVBS, BMU, BMBF)  Support of first field trials in Berlin (June 2008)  National strategy conference on electric mobility (November 2008)  Economic stimulus programme II € 500 m until 2011 (January 2009)  National Electromobility Development Plan (NEDP) (August 2009)  Establishment of Federal Government Joint Unit for Electric Mobility (February 2010)  National platform on electric mobility (May 2010) Development in Germany
  18. 18. 18  Integrating e-mobility in a sustainable transport system  Climate protection through expansion and grid integration of RE  Maintaining and enhancing competitiveness by introducing innovations throughout the entire value-added chain (lead market electric mobility)  Interlinking central actors (national platform)  Interim goal: 1 million electric vehicles by 2020 [6 million in 2030 according to FedGov’s Energiekonzept] Fundamental aims of NEDP
  19. 19. 19 BMWi  Energy research (e.g. electricity storage and grid integration)  ICT for grid integration (e-energy)  Transport research (e.g. drive components, field trials) BMVBS  8 model regions  Centre for battery testing BMU  Field trials in passenger and commercial transport  Recycling of lithium-ion traction batteries  Market introduction of hybrid busses  Grid integration and coupling with RE (e-energy) BMBF  Development of production technologies for lithium-ion cells/ battery systems  Competence network systems research electric mobility  Development of research centres for electrochemistry Key areas of support of ministries
  20. 20. 20 Main focus of projects commissioned by BMU € 100 million funding until 2011 • determining the environmental and emission impacts of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles • gaining knowledge about user acceptance and real-time charging behaviour • proving controlled charging in order to support grid integration of renewable electricity • developing and testing storage and back-feed options for electricity Image: theautochannel.com Objective: Commercialise the „zero-emission vehicle“ as a sustainable innovation
  21. 21. 21 E-Energy model regions • integration of electric vehicles into a smart energy system • time sensitive charging • examination of back-feed capability (vehicle to grid) • developing and proving the IT-infrastructure • devicing business cases for utilities and users Involved regions • Mannheim: company fleet of SAP, further partners • Harz: individual users and rent-a-car, further partners • 7 model regions in total, commissioned jointly with BMWi
  22. 22. 22 Mini-E Fleet Trial • 50 electric BMW Mini in Berlin • partner: BMW, Vattenfall i.a. • 100 user testing the Mini-E for 6 months • individual and commercial participants • objective: analysing acceptance and proving controlled charging Intermediate results • high customer satisfaction, high reliability of the vehicles • rare use of public charging spots provided • mobility patterns hardly distinguishable from conventional cars
  23. 23. 23 Volkswagen TwinDrive • development of a plug-in-EV, platform: Golf • fleet trial with 20 vehicles in the Berlin conurbation • objectives: • determining energy consumption, emissions and user acceptance • proving controlled charging and back-feed of current into the grid Specifications • e-drive: 85 kW, 40 - 50 km electric range, Vmax: 120 km/h • combustion engine: 90 kW, Vmax:170 km/h
  24. 24. 24 Mercedes E-Vito • fleet trial with 50 elektric light duty vehicles in Berlin • users: parcel and customer services • ideal segment for deployment: • short distance, high mileage • uniform pattern of operation • major environmental benefit in urban areas • low energy costs Specifications • 130km range, 80 km/h Vmax • 900kg net load, no storage constraints • regenerative breaking, zero local emissions
  25. 25. 25 Further projects • development of recycling procedures for Li-Ion-batteries, installation of a pilot facility • subsidy scheme for hybrid buses • proving inductive charging for electric vehicles • employment of range extended vehicles • fleet trial with heavy-duty passenger e-cars (Porsche) • examination of environmental and economic benefits
  26. 26. 26 Regional distribution of BMU projects See www.pt-elektromobilitaet.de for more information.
  27. 27. 27 Content I. Challenges in (automotive) transport II. Advantages of electric drives, coupling RE III. National Development Plan for EV, related projects IV. Conclusions
  28. 28. 28  Electric mobility is the future – independently of developments in Germany  Long-term climate protection goals make electrification indispensable  e-vehicles only sustainable with electricity from RE  Symbiosis between RE and electric vehicles possible  1st phase of NEDP important step Most important findings
  29. 29. 29 Further steps  Swift distribution of funds from economic stimulus programme II  1st report of National Platform for Electric Mobility Dec 2010  International strategy conference presumably first half of 2011  Steadily pursuing development of electric mobility industry (in particular manufacturers and energy utilities) research politics  specification of next phase of NEDP  incentives for coupling e-vehicles to RE
  30. 30. 30 Thank you for your kind attention. Contact Markus Becker BMU IG I 5 D-11055 Berlin Mail: markus.becker@bmu.bund.de In 1899, more electric vehicles than com- bustion engine vehicles were produced. Recommended reading www.bmu.de/english/mobility/electric_mobility/doc/44821.php www.ikt-em.de/en www.pt-elektromobilitaet.de [German only]

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