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clean fleets
www .clean-fleets .eu
case studies
purchasing clean public vehicles
2 |
About Clean Fleets
The Clean Fleets project ... |
BEV 	 Battery electric vehicle
CNG 	 Compressed natural gas
purchasing clean public vehicles
4 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
Joint Procurement of EVs and
PHEVs in Swe...
5www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
much slower than expected. Orders are now increasing, but it
is doubtful th...
purchasing clean public vehicles
6 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
The table shows average Swedish figures w... |
Innovative Electric Buses
in Vienna
• 12 electric microbuses purchased for the...
purchasing clean public vehicles
8 |
• Out of four companies which took p... |
Lessons learned
• Unexpectedly, recharging only takes five to eight minutes
purchasing clean public vehicles
10 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
Monetising emissions for a
lease contrac...
11www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
Results and environmental impacts
• Only one supplier responded to the ten...
purchasing clean public vehicles
12 |
First EEV buses in Baia Mare,
• Fir...
13www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
vehicles. The buses will be owned by SC URBIS SA however Baia
Mare City wi...
purchasing clean public vehicles
14 |
Reforming the public fleet -
Electric and C...
15www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
2 ‘Actual expenses’ refers to any possible additional costs for extras, e....
purchasing clean public vehicles
16 |
Contract Monitoring and Management
The cont...
17www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
New Bus – Diesel/electric
hybrid in London
• First bus specifically design...
purchasing clean public vehicles
18 |
Contract Monitoring and Management
The NBfL...
19www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
matter and nitrogen oxides of conventional diesel buses
and is more fuel e...
purchasing clean public vehicles
20 |
Joint Procurement of Cars and
Vans in Slove... |
A Fleet of Biomethane Buses
in Reading
• 34 certified biomethane EEV buses
• ...
purchasing clean public vehicles
22 |
Lessons learned
• CNG has proven to be the ... |
Retrofitting buses in Freiburg
• Buses retrofitted to meet stricter emissions...
purchasing clean public vehicles
24 |
takes part in the annual “ÖPNV Kundenbarome...
25www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
Sustainability criteria as
minimum treshold for student
transport in Rotte...
purchasing clean public vehicles
26 |
Awarding method
Sustainability (see Fig 1):... |
intranet and on external sites such as PIANOo (
purchasing clean public vehicles
28 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
Annex: Further information
on tender def...
29www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu
For winter tyres the ultimate values mentioned above are
increased with 1d...
The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors . It does not necessarily reflect the op...
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This compendium of case studies was written by local authorities for local authorities, as part of the Clean Fleets project.

The case studies outline concrete procurement activities of public authorities and fleet operators. They illustrate real examples of vehicle procurement in detail including results and lessons learned. We hope to inspire others to learn from and replicate these examples.

Each case study includes contact details for those who would like to discuss the activity in more detail.

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Clean Fleets - case studies

  1. 1. clean fleets www .clean-fleets .eu case studies
  2. 2. purchasing clean public vehicles 2 | About Clean Fleets The Clean Fleets project assists public authorities and fleet operators with the implementation of the Clean Vehicles Directive and the procurement or leasing of clean and energy efficient vehicles. The project aims to accelerate a broad market introduction of vehicles with higher energy and environmental standards and thereby reduce energy consumption, noise, CO2 and pollutant emissions. Clean Fleets is a threeyear project funded by the European Commission Intelligent Energy Europe Initiative. About the case study compendium This compendium of case studies was written by local authorities for local authorities, as part of the Clean Fleets project. The case studies outline concrete procurement activities of public authorities and fleet operators. They illustrate real examples of vehicle procurement in detail including results and lessons learned. We hope to inspire others to learn from and replicate these examples. Each case study includes contact details for those who would like to discuss the activity in more detail. For further information please visit or get in touch with © Clean Fleets 2015 Design: Simone Schuldis Authors: Simon Clement, Natalie Evans, Caroline Chandler (ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability) Peter Wiesinger (City of Vienna), Andrew Robb, Edmund Hosking (TFL), Hendrick Koch (City of Bremen), Eva Sunnerstedt (City of Stockholm), Doina Anastase (URTP), Christine Kury (VAG), Martijn Gilbert, (Reading Transport Limited), Lies Helsloot (City of Ghent), Matjaž Uhan (Slovenian Ministry of Finance), Wynanda Babb (City of Rotterdam) Produced by:
  3. 3. | Content Glossary BEV Battery electric vehicle CNG Compressed natural gas CoC Certificate of Conformity CVD Clean Vehicles Directive (Directive 2009/33/) EV Electric Vehicles GPP Green public procurement HDV Heavy duty vehicle HEV Hybrid electric vehicle HVO Hydrogenated vegetable oil ILUC Indirect land use change LCC Life cycle costing LDV Light duty vehicle LPG Liquefied petroleum gas NEDC New European Driving Cycle NMHC Non-methane hydrocarbons NOx Mono-nitrogen oxides, which includes both NO (nitric oxide) and NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) OEM Original equipment manufacturer OLC Operational lifetime cost PHEV Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle PM Particulate matter TCO Total cost of ownership TTW Tank to wheel WHTC/WHSC World harmonized transient cycle/ stationary cycle WTW Well to wheel Imprint. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Joint Procurement of EVs and PHEVs in Sweden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Innovative Electric Buses in Vienna. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Monetising emissions for a lease contract in Bremen. . . . . . . . . . 10 First EEV buses in Baia Mare, Romania. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Reforming the public fleet - Electric and CNG vehicles in Ghent . . . . 14 New Bus – Diesel/electric hybrid in London. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Joint Procurement of Cars and Vans in Slovenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 A Fleet of Biomethane Buses in Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Retrofitting buses in Freiburg. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Sustainability criteria as minimum treshold for student transport in Rotterdam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Annex: Further information on tender definitions and calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
  4. 4. purchasing clean public vehicles 4 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Joint Procurement of EVs and PHEVs in Sweden • Buyers’ group of 296 organisations • Energy consumption < 0.37 kWh/km and emissions < 50g CO2 /km • 34 tonnes CO2 saved in first 1.5 years (95% reduction) Contract tendered • Framework contract for passenger cars and transport vehicles (light duty vans) • Led by the City of Stockholm and covering 296 organisations (260 public and 36 private bodies). Each organisation committed to a minimum number of purchases. • 2-year contract with possible 2-year extension, starting Oct 2011 Estimated purchase volume of 1,250 vehicles per year – 5,000 over 4 years • The Swedish Energy Agency will fund up to EUR 6,000 for the first 1000 vehicles procured Targets and planning considerations A Clean Vehicles in Stockholm programme has been run by the Environment and Health Administration of Stockholm since 1994 to speed up the transition to clean vehicles and renewable fuels. In 2011, the City Council approved an Electric Vehicles Strategy, aiming to become one of the world’s leading clean vehicle cities by 2030. The joint procurement was initiated by the City of Stockholm and the state-owned utility company Vattenfall to demonstrate Sweden’s purchasing potential to manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs), to contribute to a quieter and cleaner fleet, and to enable Swedish organisations to buy or lease EVs or PHEVs under optimal conditions. The City of Stockholm does not normally specify one technology in its calls for tenders, unless it requires a market boost. In this case, the market for EVs was less developed than that for ethanol or biofuel driven vehicles. Sweden has good conditions for EVs in terms of production capacity, infrastructure and distribution systems for electricity. Approximately 65% of the Swedish population has engine block heaters at home or work. They are normally used to keep the engine, coolant or oil warm in cold temperatures, but can also be used to recharge EVs. Procurement approach The joint procurement approach was applied for several reasons: • Toreduceadministrativecostsfortheparticipatingorganisations. • To achieve price reductions (although in this case, prices did not vary much). • To send a strong demand signal to the market. • To ensure that smaller municipalities would have access to such vehicles, as bidders may not otherwise be interested in such small calls for tender. Swedish procuring entities (municipalities and county councils) and private organisations were invited to participate in the joint procurement process in October 2010, two months before the start of the actual procurement process. Participating entities jointly determined the vehicle specifications, with two seminars organised by the City of Stockholm. All potential bidders were also transparently informed about the upcoming tender. The procurement itself was a two-phase procedure including a prequalification phase for bidders. Two separate contracts were tendered for – one for public bodies and one for private bodies. Clean Vehicle Directive (CVD) Methodology • CVD Option 1 (technical specifications) was used for the tender • The tender specified EV or PHEVs should meet the following minimum criteria: Passenger car Transport vehicle Type EV PHEV EV PHEV All-electric range (km) >100 >20 >100 >20 Energy/ CO2 <0 .37 kWh/ km <50 gCO2 / km No criteria No criteria Charging Schuko socket, one phase, 230 V & 10 A Copyright:AndreaLehmkuhl,Fotolia .com
  5. 5. 5www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu much slower than expected. Orders are now increasing, but it is doubtful that the overall target for 6,000 vehicles over four years will be met. Some purchasers have organised training sessions on how to handle EVs. However these are not judged to have made a big difference in terms of use or satisfaction. Costs Maximum prices were set after consultation with 20 manufacturers as follows (set purposefully high and generous to allow many bidders to participate in the first phase of the tendering process): SEK 400,000 – 650,000 (EUR 48,000 - EUR 78,000) for passenger cars SEK 600,000 – 800,000 (EUR 72,000 - EUR 96,000) transport vehicles. The range of prices is for different types of cars and vans. Each type had a fixed maximum price. Offers received were below these maximum prices, e.g. 362,000 SEK (42,054 EUR) for the passenger car Citroën C Zero. Since the demand for EVs is much larger than the supply, it was only possible to get a max. 3% rebate through joint procurement (low compared to other joint tenders, where 9-14% rebates are common). Including the costs for battery leasing, prices exceeded those for equivalent petrol driven cars by 200,000 SEK (EUR 23,234) on average, although with higher resale value. Environmental impacts For all vehicles receiving the Energy Agency’s subsidy of EUR 6,000, the buyers have to hand in monthly data reports to the City of Stockholm. Every six months, this data is compiled and CO2 emissions are calculated with assistance from the Royal Institute of Technology, based on the comparative figures in the table below. By the end of 2012, 174 funded vehicles had been purchased and had driven 300,000 km in total delivering a saving of 34 tons of CO2 compared to equivalent petrol cars (approx 95% reduction). As purchases have increased significantly in 2013, although not yet calculated, the CO2 savings although not yet calculated can also be assumed to have increased proportionally. Passenger car Transport vehicle Top speed (km/h) >100 >90 Max cost (SEK)(EUR) 400,000 – 650,000 48,000 – 78,000 600,000 - 800,000 72,000 – 96,000 The values for energy consumption and CO2 emissions were taken from the definition of clean vehicles national governments. The procurers preferred to stick to the established values for energy consumption, although they could easily have been halved. The value for CO2 emissions derives from a national premium of 40,000 SEK (EUR 4,647) which the government pays for every EV emitting less than 50 g CO2 /km. • Bidders had to provide figures necessary for the procurers to calculate life cycle costs (LCC). These included: • Acquisition costs (including delivery) or leasing costs • Fuel/electricity costs • Maintenance costs (if vehicle purchased rather than leased) • Residual value following the envisaged usage period (calculated automatically) • Life cycle cost was then calculated based on net present value (with a defined discount rate). Annual mileage, electricity and fuel costs were set in the tender for the purposes of the calculation Contract Monitoring and Management Due to the immature nature of the EV market, other potential environmental impacts (e.g. the use of metals such as cobalt and lithium, and nano-products) will be assessed a year into the contracts. Although car manufacturers are required by law to take back and dispose of batteries in an environmentally responsible manner, these aspects will be also followed up by contracting authorities throughout the lifetime of the contract. Results The City of Stockholm and Vattenfall both planned to purchase 20 vehicles per year. Befor May 2013 Stockholm had purchased around 40 vehicles, which makes up 5% of their vehicle fleet of 800 cars. In total, 300 vehicles (the large majority EVs) had been purchased under the contracts by May 2013. 10 bids were finally submitted by suppliers, exceeding the target of 8. 12 out of 14 suppliers passed the initial prequalification phase. As the first year was viewed by some organisations as a trial period, demand was slow and purchasing proceeded Minimum criteria Specified for EVS/PHEVS
  6. 6. purchasing clean public vehicles 6 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu The table shows average Swedish figures which have been estimated from the EV procurement project in Stockholm. They are for EVs only. No reporting has been done on PHEVs yet, but will be available for the first time in August 2013. Petrol driven vehicle EV Energy/fuel consumption 6 l petrol/ 100 km 20 kWh/ 100 km CO2 emissions 2,3 kg CO2 /l petrol 66 g CO2 /kWh according to nordic energy mix CO2 / 100,000 km over 13 .8 t just over 1 .3 t Comparison of fuel consumption emission for petrol driven & electric vehicles by the buying organisations should be questioned more thoroughly and be adjusted if necessary. • A one-year trial phase should be considered, as buyers like to check the performance of the new cars in all weather extremes. Estimated first year purchase volumes should therefore be lower. • The placement of the vehicles has not always been ideal - sometimes there was no possibility to recharge the vehicle in between two shifts or the driving range overestimated. Written: July 2013 Contact information Eva Sunnerstedt Project manager of Clean Vehicles in Stockholm Environment and Health Administration City of Stockholm Email: Indirect impacts: The major impact of electric vehicles remains CO2 emissions, as well as nuclear waste, potentially caused by electricity generation. Therefore the procurement of renewably-generated electricity to run the electric vehicles is an important element in the overall procurement approach for clean vehicle fleets. Batteries used in EVs contain metals like cobalt and lithium as well as nano-products. Many of these can almost only be found in Congo, China and Bolivia and their extraction can cause severe environmental and social problems. Lessons learned • The two-phase procurement gave preparation time not only to the buyers but also to suppliers • Recruiting public partners was quite straightforward, as they were already used to such procurement procedures. Deciding upon vehicle specifications with all stakeholders of the joint procurement was however time-consuming and challenging due to their number and concerns over vehicle safety. Nevertheless the city of Stockholm still considers “the more participants the better”. • Recruiting private buyers was much harder, and the city of Stockholm would put less emphasis on this in future. • Some manufacturers were disqualified in the first phase due to not filling in the tender documents correctly, despite the amount of information provided. In future a lobby organisation which has 99% of Sweden’s car industry as its members may be asked to do a course on how to tender correctly. • The estimated purchase volumes were not realistic from the beginning. The next time, the numbers submitted
  7. 7. | Innovative Electric Buses in Vienna • 12 electric microbuses purchased for the city centre. • New technology: batteries charged through tram’s overhead power lines at end stations. • Pre-procurement test phase with four buses. Contract tendered • Supply contract for 12 electric microbuses launched by Wiener Linien, Vienna’s city-owned transport company, in Sept 2011, for inner-city bus lines. • Awarded to Siemens/Rampini for the ElectriCitybusse in March 2012. • First buses operating in Sept 2012. Since July 2013, two inner-city bus lines rely entirely on ElectriCitybusse. Targets and planning considerations Vienna is striving to be a leader in green transport. In its e-mobility strategy of 2012, it sets the aim to reduce personal motorised transport to less than 20% in 2025. As a model region for e-mobility it is testing new transportation systems and with SMILE ( and MobilCard (, the city is involved in two projects supporting multimodal transport. The initiative for purchasing electric buses came from Wiener Linien themselves. They decided to create a zero-emission zone in the historic centre with low emissions in the wider centre. Viennese buses, which all used to be powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), are therefore gradually being substituted by diesel, hybrid and electric buses. As the two bus lines the tender referred to run in the historic centre, zero- emission electric buses were specified. As it would have been difficult to obtain a planning and building permit for new power lines or charging stations in the historic environment, Vienna decided to use the extensive existing network of overhead tram power lines to recharge the buses – Vienna has the fifth largest tram network in the world. This, however, required the development of new technology. Procurement approach Given the novelty of the technology required, an extensive market dialogue and testing phase took place before tendering. Peter Wiesinger, head of bus procurement for Wiener Linien, contacted suppliers all across Europe and visited several fairs in order to choose a new drive system. Four potential buses were identified on the market, however during initial testing two were rejected due to size or energy consumption. Therefore, following an open tender for battery driven buses without diesel auxiliary power unit, just two companies were able to meet the requirements. Clean Vehicle Directive (CVD) Methodology The requirements of the CVD for considering CO2 and toxic emissions were met through specifying the vehicle type (electric) – i.e. Option 1. Further specifications were set relating to the technical performance of the vehicle: • Maximum width, length, height and wheelbase due to the narrow and winding inner city streets. • Two doors, low-floor buses (for the elderly) and a minimum of 30 passengers. • Charging either via overhead lines or induction. Outlets must not be the exclusive charging technique, but have to be additionally provided. • Charging time: max. 15 minutes. • Range: min. 150 km. • Reliability: Bus must not need to be removed from service for repair before 30,000 km is reached. Compliant tenders were then evaluated against the following award criteria: • 45% cost (including battery replacement cost, and operational overheads). • 25% technology (e.g. vehicle dimensions, number of seats, door features such as low-floor and lowering ratio, range, charging time etc.). • 20% reliability (e.g. downtime, maintenance time etc.). • 10% charging process (e.g. charging time, charging cycle etc.). Contract Monitoring and Management Two years of full warranty were requested, including both buses and batteries. Repairs are covered by the supplier, but maintenance is carried out by Wiener Linien. Extra training for maintenance personnel has been carried out. The energy consumed by the e-buses will be measured with the support of the Technical University of Graz. As energy consumption is very low in summer – buses could complete five circuits before recharging – measurements are planned for winter 2013, when the heating draws additional electricity. Copyright:JohannesZinner/WienerLinien
  8. 8. purchasing clean public vehicles 8 | Results • Out of four companies which took part in the test phase, two bid. Only the consortium of Siemens/Rampini fulfilled all requirements, and was awarded the tender. • Training on how to drive the new e-buses has been conducted for all bus drivers of Wiener Linien. Retraining directly at the charging station was necessary. Drivers have less space in the e-buses than in the previous buses. • For external communication, Wiener Linien gave a press conference after the introduction of the first bus. On the buses is written ElectriCitybusse – emissionsfrei unterwegs (travelling emission-free). Except for this, publicity on the buses is prohibited in order to maintain the design. • Passengers do not notice the difference between the electric and previous buses when inside, but the charging process arouses their interest. Technology The buses recharge at their end stations by hooking up to the overhead lines of the Viennese tram using an extendable pantograph, an arm on the roof. The overhead lines from the tram system supplies direct current, however alternating current is required to recharge the bus. As the bus needed to connect to the power lines without additional equipment, both the charger and inverter were requested to be included in the bus – a feature which had not been available on the market until then. The direct current is converted to alternating current by an IGBT power inverter included on the bus. Not more than 30% of the batteries’ power is used for each circuit, so each recharging process only lasts five to eight minutes, during which passengers can get off and on the bus. At night, the batteries are recharged at the depot. With this recharging technique, it is possible to install a smaller battery system (nine lithium iron phosphate batteries with a total capacity of 96 kWh instead of the 180 kWh electric buses usually need). Like this, the buses still need a stronger rear axle, but have space for 46 passengers, as many as a comparable diesel driven bus. Batteries also last longer (at least four years), because they are always being fully recharged. In addition to the drive system, the batteries supply all of the onboard electronics, the heating and the air conditioning. Thanks to regenerative ESB braking systems, the buses can also recover energy. ElectriCitybusse have a top speed of 62 km/h and a range of up to 150 km without recharging (the distance decreases to 120 km in winter when the heating system consumes ca. 7 kW more energy). Costs Wiener Linien run 480 buses in total, so the twelve electric ones cover 2.5% of their fleet. Each electric bus cost EUR 400,000, double the cost of a comparable diesel bus. Prices are likely to drop as production rises, however. In addition, the additional charging infrastructure costs included a charging point at each end stations (each costing EUR 90,000), and charging point at the bus depot (EUR 320,000). The operating costs of the electric buses offset some expenses. Prices for electricity are significantly lower than for diesel. In terms of maintenance, electric buses will save about one third compared with diesel buses (with maintenance costs estimated at EUR 8000 per year) which themselves have lower maintenance costs than LPG buses. According to regular reliability monitoring, buses only require maintenance every second week on average, less frequently than the previously used liquid gas driven buses. They can then be substituted by one of the three buses in reserve before customers even notice. The operation of ElectriCitybusse is also less expensive than of other hybrid or electric buses, because the quick recharging allows them to use a smaller battery, which makes them lighter, and no new infrastructure had to be built. Environmental impacts How environmentally friendly electricity actually is depends on its sources. Wiener Linien source 100% of their energy from the city-owned electricity company Wiener Stadtwerke of whom they are a subsidiary. One half of their supply derives from water, one third from wind and the rest from gas power, so mainly from renewable sources. According to calculations of the Technical University of Graz, ElectriCitybusse will reduce emissions of CO2 by 5.3t, of NO by 1.7t and of NO2 by 0.06t per year compared to the liquid gas buses which had been used before. As NO2 is far more dangerous to health than NO, it was considered very important to split NOx emissions. NMHC and particulates have not been measured, as the Euro VI standard already ensures that their values are below the European limits. The environmental and as well social impacts caused by the batteries should also be taken into account. Their production takes place in China and requires rare earths. These are extracted with toxic acids which are, especially in the many small, rural and illegal mines, prone to be released into the general water supply.
  9. 9. | Lessons learned • Unexpectedly, recharging only takes five to eight minutes and passengers can get off and on the buses during this time. For future tenders, Wiener Linien will therefore specify a significantly lower charging time of max. 5 min. for microbuses and max. 10 min. for buses of twelve meter length. • Mostly in winter, the outer batteries got colder than the inner ones, which creates problems as electricity tends to be drawn from the warmer batteries. Special heaters for the outer batteries have therefore been installed. Costs had to be covered by the supplier. • From spring 2014 on, Vienna will investigate how batteries could be reprocessed and reused, instead of being disposed. • Vienna plans to purchase other, larger electric buses, too. Around the turn of the year 2015/16, a 12m bus will be tendered for. The purchase of an articulated bus is also planned. • Siemens is negotiating with other cities in Europe and in South America that have existing tram lines and might adopt the Vienna system. Written: September 2014 Contact information Peter Wiesinger Head of Technology Unit Wiener Linien Email:
  10. 10. purchasing clean public vehicles 10 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Monetising emissions for a lease contract in Bremen • Low emission vehicles available for all city staff • CO2 emissions between 96 139 gCO2 /km • CVD operational lifetime cost methodology used to monetise emissions Contract tendered • 2 year framework contract for the lease of approx. 80 vehicles for everyday use in Bremen • Contract tendered in 2011 Targets and planning considerations The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen has set its own climate and energy goals. Since 2009 the strategic objective has been to reduce Bremen’s CO2 emissions by 40% compared to the 1990 levels. One of the sectoral actions is to reduce transport related CO2 emissions. To meet its targets, the Senate wishes the city administration’s vehicle fleet be as clean and efficient as possible. In addition for business trips undertaken by administration staff there is a rule which prioritises more sustainable modes or transport. The order of priority is: walking, cycling, public transport – a car may only be used if these modes are not appropriate for their work. The Clean Vehicles Directive (2009/33/EC) was transposed into German law in 2011, and to help meet the above objectives the administration wished to apply the new approach in the Directive for monetising environmental impacts of vehicles – the operational lifetime costing (OLC) methodology. Procurement approach Each Bremen Senate department must determine their own demand for vehicles and pay for the car/van or car-sharing service themselves. The Umweltbetrieb Bremen (environment agency) acts as the central purchasing body for vehicles, and published a call for tender in 2011 for a passenger car framework contract. Prior to tendering, market research was carried out in order to establish additional minimum specifications for CO2 emissions and harmful local emissions, which would still allow sufficient competition. Levels were set to enable approx. 50% of vehicles on the market to comply, with the OLC methodology awarding better performance during the evaluation. The tender was separated into lots. There were 5 lots in total – 1 for each of the vehicle categories in the table below. 1) Specifications • CO2 emission limits were set as follows: Copyright:StadtBremen Passenger Car Category CO2 emission limit (g/km) Small car 120 Compact car 130 Medium class 150 Minivan 140 Van 150 • Vehicles must at least achieve Euro 5 standard • The supplier could offer diesel, petrol, and/or alternative fuel options for the different lots. • Each supplier could bid for as many lots as they wanted, with no minimum or maximum requirement 2) Award criteria Tenders were evaluated on the basis of most economically advantageous price, determined by adding: • Leasing costs. • Operational lifetime costs (OLC), calculated according to the methodology of the Clean Vehicles Directive. The OLC methodology allows emissions of CO2 , NOx , particulates, NMHC and energy consumption to be monetised for use directly in a cost calculation in tendering. For this purpose Bremen used a tool developed by the Berlin Energy Agency. A full description of the OLC methodology can be found in a separate Clean Fleets factsheet.
  11. 11. 11www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Results and environmental impacts • Only one supplier responded to the tender. The administration believes this is likely due to the complexity of the information relating to a separate tender requirement on demonstrating compliance with the ILO1 conventions, rather than the OLC methodology. • Only diesel and CNG vehicles were offered. However the results in environmental terms still exceeded expectations (see table below). Overall, therefore all Bremen administrations which lease through this contract will be replacing their old cars with more efficient ones. The mean CO2 emissions value of all 531 cars in 2013 was 141.2 g/km. Passenger Car Category CO2 emission limit (g/km) CO2 emission of best offer (g/km) Small car 120 96 Compact car 130 119 Medium class 150 119 Minivan 140 124 Van 150 139 Costs The price impact of adding environmental criteria appears to have been limited. This will be further examined following the next framework call for tender in 2014/2015, when a performance comparison will be conducted. Lessons learned • The availability of low CO2 emission vehicles is already high, and this will be likely reflected in future tenders by using more ambitious minimum specifications. • Most trips take place within the city centre leading to higher pollutant emissions from diesel vehicles. In future tenders urban consumption figures may therefore be requested in tendering, rather than the combined figure. • The more suppliers are requested to provide emissions data for the OLC calculation (as well as ILO verification) the more used to this they will become, and more offers can be expected. • To better understand the user needs, a short survey will be carried out prior to the next tender. This might lead to only one van class and a lot for 2-seaters as an addition to the small car category. • There will be lots for all categories asking for petrol, diesel, CNG and electric vehicles. Written: October 2014 Contact information Hendrik Koch Project Manager Sustainable Mobility Freie Hansestadt Bremen E-Mail: Tel.: +49 421 361- 10455 Internet: 1 International Labour Organization
  12. 12. purchasing clean public vehicles 12 | First EEV buses in Baia Mare, Romania • First EEV (Enhanced environmentally friendly) buses ordered in Romania. • Emissions of NOx , NMHC and PM considerably lower than current diesel Solaris buses. Contract tendered • 5-year contract concluded in 2012 for the leasing of 30 new EEV solo (standard) buses and 8 trolleybuses to be delivered between 2013 – 2016. • Contract awarded by SC URBIS SA Baia Mare, the main public transport operator for Baia Mare City. Targets and planning considerations Background policy/targets – The City Council of Baia Mare has a stated policy to ensure new public transport vehicles should be as environmentally friendly as possible, taking into account the local market offer. Technology choice – Following market consultation, it was felt realistic to require new buses to be equipped with EEV1 engines, which was the least polluting engine available on the Romanian market in 2012. Both buses and trolleybuses were also required to have a low floor along the length of the vehicle, a platform and a suspension system permitting the vehicles to bend at kerbs, in order to improve accessibility for disabled people to the public transport system. Infrastructure – The modernisation of a residential area with the assistance of European funds, additionally required the purchase of several trolleybuses. New overhead cables were also using European funds. SC URBIS SA Baia Mare is operating both buses and trolleybuses as each technology has a distinct advantage: • Buses offer greater mobility than trolleybuses, demonstrated by an average speed of 20kmph for buses compared with 15kmph for trolleybuses. • The lifetime fuel consumption costs are lower for trolleybuses than for buses. Procurement approach The process started with a pre acquisition and market consultation phase. An open tender was then published, in accordance with Baia Mare Council’s competition rules. The tender was public at and All tender and contract documents were developed by experts from SC URBIS SA Baia Mare. Copyright:JuriBizgajmer| 1 EEV = Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles. This is an official voluntary EU emissions standard, which lies between the Euro V and Euro VI standards. Clean Vehicle Directive (CVD) Methodology The tender used a combination of technical specifications and award criteria to take the environmental impacts listed in the CVD into account: 1) Technical specifications – Minimum standard: EEV for diesel buses. 2) Award criteria – points awarded for lower fuel consumption, based on the SORT test cycle. 3) Approach for evaluating cost – life cycle costing model used, including acquisition price, fuel consumption, maintenance and operational costs. Contract Monitoring and Management The contract with the supplier included several requirements related to environmental performance, specifically: • Training drivers in eco-driving techniques • Training technical staff on maintenance and repair works after the guarantee period. New EEV buses were guaranteed for 48 months or 240,000 km and new trolleybuses for 39 months or 195,000 km. Spare parts availability is guaranteed for 12 years from the date of manufacture. Results The response from the Romanian market was quite limited, registering two compliant bids from Ager Leasing (SOLARIS) EVO BUS (Mercedes) for buses and Ager Leasing (SOLARIS) for trolleybuses. The final cost of the tender was lower than foreseen. The policy of environmentally friendly vehicles purchase was communicated to those concerned internally and also to other stakeholders, through workshops, roundtables, posters, and on the Internet. The new acquired buses were very much appreciated by the end users mainly due to their design and comfort but also thanks to their on board information system about the bus stop name and real time arrival. Costs The total cost of the procurement (leasing costs, maintenance and spare parts) was EUR 11.6 million for the 5 years. This is considerably higher than previous purchases but this is expected to be partly compensated by lower lifetime costs of the new
  13. 13. 13www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu vehicles. The buses will be owned by SC URBIS SA however Baia Mare City will cover the full leasing costs. The new buses are representing 41% of the current fleet. The 20 new EEV buses delivered in 2013 replaced 15 non-Euro and 5 Euro II buses. The new trolleybuses represent 70% of the existing fleet which has been in operation since 1996. Environmental impacts Based on the technical specifications of the bus provider the level of the emissions is: Engine type CO2 (g/ kwh) NOx (g/ kwh) NMHC (g/ kwh) PM (g/ kwh) EUR O 1 – 8 .00 1 .10 0 .36 EEV 973 1 .27 0 .06 0 .018 SC URBIS SA Baia Mare will measure these emissions in order to see the real values in operation. Lessons learnt No problems in operation or maintenance with this technology have been identified. The new vehicles are also insured for 12 years, including spare parts. However a one-month trial phase should have been considered, in order to check the performance of the new buses in real traffic conditions of Baia Mare. Written: September 2014 Contact information Mr. Dipl. Eng. Ioan Firte Manager of Operational Department S.C.URBIS S.A. Baia Mare Email:
  14. 14. purchasing clean public vehicles 14 | Reforming the public fleet - Electric and CNG vehicles in Ghent • 4 year framework contracts for electric and CNG cars and light delivery vehicles • 100% of Ghent’s electricity comes from renewable sources • Estimated volume over the duration of the contract: 94 electric vehicles and 36 CNG vehicles • Close involvement of end users in market consultation and testing phases Contract tendered • Two four-year framework contracts for passenger and freight vehicles tendered in September 2012, one for electric and one for CNG driven vehicles. • Tenders published by the Department of Facility Management, Services and Logistics Division, of the City of Ghent on behalf of various city and other local public entities. Targets and planning considerations The City of Ghent administration has a stated policy to be CO2 -neutral by 2050, with the promotion of sustainable urban mobility a key focus. Within this framework the city is committed to introducing environmentally friendly vehicles into the public fleet to help drive market development, and to encourage the uptake of these vehicles amongst the general public. An extensive market research and testing phase was undertaken within the CIVITAS ELAN project – for electric vehicles this testing phase covered almost all the vehicles then available on the market. Eventually it was decided to publish framework tenders for electric and CNG passenger and freight vehicles. Both technologies are commercially available and allow for different transport needs within the organisation to be covered. The city did not opt for too many different technologies to avoid problems related to infrastructure needs, fuel availability and organisational hurdles. Procurement approach The framework contracts were awarded through an open tendering procedure by the Facilities Management Department of Ghent’s Services and Logistics division. The contract was also opened up to other public entities in and around Ghent to offer the advantages of such a large contract, and further encourage the spread of the new vehicle technologies. One of the most challenging factors in introducing new technologies is resistance to change by users. To overcome this, Services and Logistics involved other city departments Copyright:Aprescindere| 1 Images copyright City of Ghent and drivers in the market research and test drives. After awarding the contracts, driver lessons, information days and follow-up feedback sessions with drivers were also organised to illustrate the advantages of the new technologies. When a Ghent city department orders new vehicles, it must indicate the purpose of the vehicle (e.g. transport of goods, passenger transport or a mix of both). The Services and Logistics Department then identifies and recommends the most suitable vehicle from the framework contracts. Suitability is determined through factors such as general usage pattern, number of passengers, mileage, budget availability etc. This may also include purchasing through other existing vehicle contracts if required. To ensure that the departments which order electric vehicles will be able to charge them, the Services and Logistics department of Ghent also ordered a charging station (slow) or a simple plug (normal wall socket) with every electric vehicle. For CNG, Ghent also needed to build new infrastructure. Since there was no fuel station offering CNG, the Services and Logistics department opted to install a slow fill station at one of the new vehicle depots for the infrastructure and road construction department. In the future, the city wants to further encourage the introduction of CNG within its own fleet and other public organisations as well as the private sector. Therefore filling infrastructure will be needed in the region and will need to also be open to the private sector and citizens. Clean Vehicle Directive (CVD) Methodology In awarding both tenders, methodologies 1 and 2 of the Clean Vehicle Directive, technical specifications and award criteria, were used. 1) Technical specifications included (full specifications available on request): Electric vehicles • Maximum charging time: 12 hours. • Suppliers are asked to provide the latest model offered on the market. • Battery life is at least 120 km in eco mode. • Possibility of interim recharging with a duration of 1 hour. • Electric motor of at least 40 kW that is able to independently run the vehicle/engine.
  15. 15. 15www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu 2 ‘Actual expenses’ refers to any possible additional costs for extras, e.g. extra device, a tool on the vehicle that is not standard etc. Taking into account ‘actual expenses’ assures budget availability during the lifecycle of the vehicle. 3 For more detailed information about how to calculate the Ecoscore, please visit: • Warranty on the battery pack for at least four years or 1500 cycles. CNG driven vehicles • Main fuel is natural gas, with possible conversion to biogas. • Minimum Euro V emissions standard. • Gas tank capacity of at least 190 litres. • Reserve fuel tank (minimum 12 litres), which can take over (automatically or manually) when the gas tank is empty. • Silent and energy efficient radial tyres with a normal road profile. • Warranty of at least 4 years. 2) Award criteria: Electric vehicles Award criteria were price (60%) and quality (40%) for electric vehicles. Extensive market research indicated that there are still very big issues about the batteries. Therefore quality was given a high weighting in the evaluation. • 60% price – calculation: • Purchase price of a base vehicle equipped with all required options + Average cost of maintenance and repair contract - Value of a spare battery - Average redemption amount after eight years at 5,000 km, 10,000 km and 15,000 km per year for a base vehicle equipped with all required options + Actual expenses2 . • 40% quality – sub criteria: • 25% technology (including battery type and charging time). • 5% safety. • 5% comfort. • 5% guarantee and maintenance. CNG driven vehicles Award criteria were price (50%), quality (40%) and environment (10%) for CNG driven vehicles. • 50% price – calculation: • Purchase price of a base vehicle equipped with all required options + Average cost of maintenance and repair contract + Actual expenses • 40% quality – sub criteria: • 20% technology • 10% safety • 5% guarantee and maintenance • 10% environment – sub criteria: • 5% environmental performance - assessed through the Ecoscore methodology (see text box 1) • 5% description of the vehicle’s impact on the environment and of the features the vehicle has to minimise these impacts Text Box 1 – Ecoscore Methodology Ecoscore3 is a methodology developed by VITO, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research to measure a vehicles’ impact on the environment . It gives different weightings to different impacts: 50% greenhouse effect, 40% air quality (20% effects on health and 20% effects on ecosystems) and 10% noise . To calculate the Ecoscore, the following formula is used . In responding to tenders bidders must provide all the data necessary for the calculation: 100*exp[-0.00357*(A*CO2 + B*HC + C*NOX + D*CO + E*PM + F*FU + G*dB(A) + H)] CO2 CO2 emissions in g/km HC Hydrocarbon emissions NOX NOX emissions CO CO emissions PM PM emissions FU Fuel use dB(A) Noise level (driving) in dB(A) The coefficients A, B, C, D, E, F, G and the constant H vary according to the fuel used and the Euro standard of the vehicle . They can be looked up in a table on the Ecoscore website
  16. 16. purchasing clean public vehicles 16 | Contract Monitoring and Management The contract included the following contract performance clauses: • Driver training on proper use of the vehicles and for all technology upgrades. • Technical maintenance of the vehicle. Every time the Services and Logistics Department places an order, it thoroughly checks if the delivered models comply with the contract requirements (e.g.: Minimum Euro V, average fuel use based on combined use) or if they already offer an updated version. Results • Only three car companies were able to fulfil the requirements with fully commercialised electric and CNG vehicles. However this was a sufficient number to ensure competition. • So far 30 electric and 11 CNG vehicles have been purchased within the contract in question, out of a total fleet of 900 vehicles. 6 hybrid vehicles have also been purchased through a separate contract. • All fleet optimisation activities have and will be widely publicised - targeting private citizens, as well as companies and public organisations wanting to make the shift. A number of communication channels are being used: website, press releases, info on cars, networking events, presentations etc. • The City’s activities have been successful in stimulating the private vehicle market. Recently this has resulted in a public CNG-station being constructed on the outskirts of Ghent. Costs The purchase price for electric vehicles was approximately three times the purchase price of comparable previous purchases. The CNG driven vehicles cost approximately EUR 5000 more per vehicle + the costs for the slow fill station. Environmental impacts Electric vehicles have no localised harmful emissions (NOx , particulates etc.). In comparison to traditional diesel or petrol engines, CNG vehicles also offer substantial reductions in local emissions. As the City of Ghent only purchases green electricity generated from renewable sources, the electric vehicles also offer a major reduction in CO2 emissions generated by the city fleets. CO2 emissions from CNG vehicles are dependent on the source of the gas used – emissions from natural gas typically lie between diesel and petrol, and do not offer a significant benefit. The use of biogas however, can generate substantial CO2 savings. Biogas will be purchased for the CNG vehicles, if available on the market, but currently there is no biogas provider in Ghent. In the electric vehicles, electricity consumption is being monitored and the average per mile being calculated. Current electricity consumption is being displayed in every vehicle. Lessons learned • Electric vehicles: Mileage with full battery has proved lower than expected. Cold weather has a significant impact on mileage with full battery. • Involving end-users in market research, test drives, and consultation rounds has proved very helpful in raising acceptance and convincing users to shift to alternative fuels. Written: July 2015 Contact information Lies Helsloot Services and Logistics (Facility Management) City of Ghent, Email:
  17. 17. 17www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu New Bus – Diesel/electric hybrid in London • First bus specifically designed for London in over 50 years. • Iconic design combined with modern hybrid technology and expectations. • Emits less than half the CO2 and NOx than a current London diesel bus in service • Largest order of hybrid buses ever placed in Europe. Contract tendered • Contract to design, manufacture and supply 600 diesel electric hybrid buses to Transport for London between 2012 and 2016. • Tender specification based on initial public design competition. • Highly publicised project due to political and design factors. Targets and planning considerations A Mayoral priority project in 2008, who wanted an updated version of the classic Routemaster double-decker bus, with very high environmental credentials. The Mayor set the target to reduce London’s CO2 emissions from its 1990 level by 60% in 2025. As of 2008, transportation accounted for 22% of London’s CO2 emissions with road based modes comprising 81% of this total. The Mayor targeted the sector for not only reducing its CO2 emissions but also improving air quality and quality of life for Londoners. It was planned that the new buses would operate on Central London routes. The bus began service in February 2012 on route 38 and by July seven buses were in operation on the route. In June 2013 32 buses began operating on the 24 hour route 24. It is aimed that by May 2016 there will be a full role out of 600 vehicles. Transport for London, who runs the buses in London, have made it a big policy to introduce and operate green buses throughout its vast bus network. Overall London has Europe’s largest fleet of green buses and is looking to increase its green fleet. As of 2012 all new buses entering the fleet are expected to be hybrid. A number of hydrogen buses are currently in the fleet, with electric buses also being purchased and will be trialled. By 2016 there will be more than 1,700 hybrid buses in service in London of which 600 will be the New Buses for London (NBfL). Overall hybrid buses will represent 20 per cent of the total bus fleet (8,500 buses). Procurement approach There was a public competition launch in July 2008 with the objective to harvest ideas and concepts for the new bus. The competition was open to design studios, colleges and the general public. There were over 700 entries from all over the world. Some of ideas and concepts the competition produced allowed TfL to further develop its tender specification for the NBfL. Once the performance specification had been created a European procurement exercise started in February 2009. There were six initial expressions of interest and on the 23rd December 2013, Wrightbus of Ballymena, Northern Ireland were awarded the contract. The contract was a competitive, fixed price deal. The fixed price was chosen as it removes the risk and uncertainty of higher production and material costs and inflation over the next four years. The fixed price not only included the 600 buses, but also the design development of the bus, a mock- up, development test vehicle testing and an initial batch of 6 prototypes vehicles. To help create the overall concept design of the bus, Heatherwick Studio a renowned design team worked alongside TfL and Wrightbus. Heatherwick Studio created the unique shape and design of the bus with the final design being announced in May 2010. Clean Vehicle Directive (CVD) Methodology For this contract TfL used CVD Methodology Option 1, with contractual targets for emissions set at the tender stage. These targets were based on the Millbrook London Transport Bus (MLTB) test cycle. This test cycle recreates the conditions of a Route 159 bus which travels from Brixton (South London) to Baker Street (North Central London) with all the accompanying gear changes, calls at bus stops, acceleration, braking and waiting time at traffic lights. The MLTB is a chassis dynamometer test. The MLTB produced a number of aspirational emission targets, TfL wanted the New Bus for London to meet. These were Carbon Dioxide (CO2 ), Nitrogen Oxide (NOx ), Particulate Matter (PM) and Hydrocarbons (HC). The target levels for these emissions are set out in the table below: Emission CO2 g/km NOx g/km PM g/km HC g/km Target 750 5 .00 0 .030 0 .015 Copyright:TransportforLondon
  18. 18. purchasing clean public vehicles 18 | Contract Monitoring and Management The NBfL contract included a number of deliverables that had to be met. There are strict dates to meet in terms of rolling out the buses into operation. The route 24 had to be served by NBfLs on the 22nd June 2013. The route 11 is next with rollout date being the 22nd September 2013. Two further routes will be served by NBfL by the end of 2013. The contract states that approximately 200 vehicles will be delivered to TfL in 2014, 250 in 2015 with the remainder in 2016. To meet legal requirements the contract states that from 2014 all the new NBfLs manufactured must be fitted with Euro 6 engines. The contract provides that TfL will have sufficient intellectual property rights to enable other manufacturers to supply vehicles of this style in the event that their usage represents a material proportion of the London bus fleet. The contract also allows for Wrightbus to supply NBfL to the bus operators at capped prices. Results There were six initial expressions of interest, with Wrightbus of Ballymena, Northern Ireland being awarded the contract on the 23rd December 2013. The cost was slightly higher than foreseen at the beginning. This is mainly due to the higher specification of the NBfL. Over the lifetime of the buses TfL expect them to produce a substantial saving. When the NBfL was announced, a lot of work was done to let the public know that the new bus would be much more environmentally friendly than a conventional bus. At events and throughout the press both the Mayor and TfL highlighted how the new bus would produce substantially fewer emissions of carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The previously mentioned public competition for initial ideas and concepts greatly helped create interest in the project and a buzz around it. The 700 entries from the competition came from a wide range of people and the London Transport Museum held an exhibition showcasing the submissions. TfL also organised a public consultation on the new buses to gather public feedback and answer questions from the general public. Customer research carried out in summer 2012 confirms the NBfL is well liked by customers, scoring very high satisfaction among passengers who particularly rate its smooth ride, comfort and quietness. The NBfL also won the prestigious Viva Shield by the Worshipful Company of Carmen. The award founded in 1956, it honours transport innovation, improvement or development in Europe. Technology The NBfL uses the latest green diesel-electric hybrid technology and it is deemed by TfL to be the best performing bus of its kind in the World. It works by having a battery pack which powers the electric motor which drives the wheels on the bus. The battery is charged by a generator and through regenerative braking (where the system recycles the energy lost during the braking motion). Stop-start technology means the engine only runs when it needs to charge the battery. The bus is a series diesel-electric hybrid with a Cummins ISBe4, 4.5l turbo diesel (currently EuroV certified). The bus has valance lithium phosphate battery energy storage and a Siemens/ZF drive train with permanent magnet electric motor. The performance specification created for the NBfL was completely unique. Costs The TfL board decided to buy the 600 buses outright, which allowed it to get a lower unit price. The overall cost for all 600 buses will be £212 million (EUR 250 million). At today‘s prices the buses cost around £326,000. Whilst being more expensive than a standard diesel double-decker bus, this is broadly comparable with a standard hybrid double-decker bus. The price difference is accounted for by the much higher specification of the new bus compared to a standard hybrid bus, for example the innovative three-door, two-staircase design. The unique and iconic design of the NBfL also resulted in it being more expensive than a standard looking double-decker model. The average price of a new bus over the life of the contract will be £354,500. This cost includes inflation, technical upgrades and any mandatory changes. Even taking into account the marginally higher initial cost of the buses, a multi-million pound saving will be delivered over the 14 years of operation the buses will have. One of the reasons behind this is that it is more fuel efficient than a comparable average hybrid. Over their 14-year lifetime each NBfL is estimated to roughly save £127,000 (EUR 148,000) in fuel compared to the average hybrid. This estimate uses August 2013 fuel prices and that each bus will travel roughly 90,000km per year over each 14 years. In 2016 when all 600 buses are in operation, they will roughly account for 7% of the total TfL Bus fleet. Environmental impacts The NBfL helps reduce the CO2 emissions in London by around 20,000 tonnes a year. In test conditions the NBfL produced around half the carbon dioxide and a quarter of the particulate
  19. 19. 19www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu matter and nitrogen oxides of conventional diesel buses and is more fuel efficient. The CO2 emissions from the NBfL are tailpipe emissions only, as the vehicle is not charged externally. The battery power that the bus uses comes from the vehicle’s regenerative braking system. MLTB CO2 g/km Eco- nomy Mpg NOx g/km PM g/km HC g/km New Bus for London target 750 10 .3 5 .00 0 .030 0 .015 New Bus for London certified result (EuroV) 690 10 .8 2 .048 0 .012 0 .000 Average Hybrid (EuroV) 864 8 .6 7 .70 0 .048 – Average Diesel (EuroV) 1295 5 .8 9 .3 0 .048 – ventilation and air chill systems tested before being placed on operation. Eight NBfL’s are operating on Route 38 alongside another model without the hop-on-/off back. Although both models serve the same route some customers are confused by the two different models so to mitigate this, the NBfL’s back doors are now to be closed on the route 38. There has been work on reducing the weight of the buses, as the prototypes operating on the route 38 have a kerb weight of 12.650 tonnes. The NBfL’s that were put into service on route 24 have a kerb weight of 12.460 tonnes and more work is being done to reduce the weight. Written: September 2013 Contact information Andrew Robb Senior Procurement Manager Transport for London. Email: In recent emissions tests a prototype bus, that had been in passenger service for eight months and that had driven more than 15,000 miles, was found to emit a quarter of the NOx and PM of a fleet average hybrid bus and 20 per cent less CO2 . Below is a table of results from a recent emission test based on the MLTB test.The Euro 6 engine that will be fitted to the buses from 2014 will deliver even lower PM and NOx emissions. The exact levels of the Euro 6 aren’t currently known as an NBfL with a Euro 6 engine hasn’t been tested on the MLTB yet. Lessons learned When the NBfL was introduced there were some slight problems and issues. In the summer of 2013 London experienced a heat wave with a number of high temperatures. This led to some slight issues with the ventilation and air chill systems within the NBfL. Customers were complaining due to the high temperatures within the bus, especially on the top deck. The high temperatures were a result of a manufacturing and operating failure, which were quickly fixed by Wrightbus. Therefore all the new NBfL being manufactured will have their
  20. 20. purchasing clean public vehicles 20 | Joint Procurement of Cars and Vans in Slovenia • Technology-neutral joint procurement • Operational lifetime costs used as award criteria • A decrease of up to 45 g/km CO2 per vehicle Contract tendered • Tender for 57 vehicles published in 2011, broken down into 11 lots covering a variety of vehicle types from small cars to larger vans. • Contract for 18 public authorities (national ministries and agencies). Targets and planning considerations The Public Procurement Agency in Slovenia was responsible for carrying out joint procurement for Slovenian public authorities for a number of product and service groups and currently purchases on behalf of about 130 authorities across the public sector. As part of its mandate, the Agency implements GPP criteria in its procurement of electricity, paper and office IT equipment as well as vehicles. Joint public procurement procedures for vehicles that were carried out in 2010 and 2011 included recommendations from Directive 2009/33/EC which was adopted in Decree on Green Public Procurement at the end of 2011. Tendering This was a technology neutral tender run through the open procedure. Technical specifications were based on comprehensive market research (using catalogues, web and pricelists). The tender included minimum environmental specifications, and also used the operational lifetime cost methodology from the Clean Vehicles Directive (CVD), to monetise energy efficiency and emissions in the overall cost calculation. This ensured sufficient competition in the tender, whilst also encouraging better environmental performance. Technical specifications: • All vehicles must meet the Euro 5 emissions standard or equivalent. • Maximum CO2 emissions range from 115 g/km for small cars to 180 g/km for mini-buses. Award criteria: The contract was awarded to the most economically advantageous tender, evaluated in terms of: • Overall cost (see below) - 81 points. • Service network – 5 points. • Safety and environmental equipment: 4 points. • Gear shift indicator: 1 point. • Warranty period: 4 points. Copyright:123elis, • Delivery time: 3 points. • Tyre pressure monitor: 2 points. Overall cost calculation: To determine the cost of each offer, the “operational lifetime cost” (OLC) of the vehicles was added to the bid price. OLC is calculated according to a methodology defined under the CVD, and allows the procurer to monetises energy use based on fuel consumption and emissions of CO2 , NOx NMHC and PM according to values specified by the CVD. A full description of the OLC methodology can be found in a separate Clean Fleets factsheet Results • There were fewer bidders than expected, but all bidders were well able to meet the CO2 emission limits. Only diesel vehicles were offered. • The cost was lower than foreseen. Environmental impacts Applying operational Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) as a part of award criteria on one hand, and setting requirements for maximum levels of CO2 released on the other, has led contractors to submit offers for vehicles with lower CO2 emissions. In comparison to previous tenders emissions were from 3g/km to 45 g/km lower per vehicle, depending on the lot. Lessons learned • When administering contracts, it is necessary to foster competitiveness among contractors to deliver good economic and environmental performance. High priority should be given to surveying the market and ensuring that the procurer has up-to-date information in order to set and achieve appropriate standards. Written: June 2015 Contact information Matjaž Uhan Slovenian Ministry of Finance Email:
  21. 21. | A Fleet of Biomethane Buses in Reading • 34 certified biomethane EEV buses • Lower life cycle costs • 30-50% less NOx emissions than comparable Euro V diesel buses Contract tendered • Purchase of CNG buses by Reading Transport (public transport operator). • Initial supply of 14 buses, with 20 further buses purchased following successful introduction. 34 CNG buses now in operation, biggest fleet in the UK. Targets and planning considerations Reading Borough Council’s local transportation plan includes the goal of addressing air quality issues. A tender was announced for a 10bus service contract, with a minimum requirement to meet the Euro IV emission standard, but additional points awarded for even better performance. In future, environmental requirements are also likely to become stricter. In consideration of longer term sustainability requirements, Reading Transport was already considering the use of alternative fuelled vehicles. They had previously had the opportunity to trial a new MAN CNG bus for 8 weeks. Despite reservations based on earlier poor performance of CNG buses from 20 years previously, the MAN bus trial proved a very positive experience – with high reliability and low fuel costs. It was decided to bid for the service contract based on the use of CNG buses. Procurement approach A tender was published for CNG buses, specifying minimum Euro V, together with standard technical elements, which apply to all new buses. Award was based on both life cycle cost and quality, including technical compatibility with a diesel fleet. In addition to the buses, it was necessary to convert the vehicle depot to cater for CNG buses, and the refuelling infrastructure. A considerable amount of work was done on health and safety, which required some rebuilding work (a new extraction canopy, together with ventilation system, and an alarm system). Results • There were two bids received: from MAN and Scania. The Scania bid was accepted, in part due to the technical similarity with the existing diesel fleet • Both bids offered EEV standard – better than required • 34 CNG buses now in operation (since May 2013), biggest fleet in the UK • The buses run on biogas (biomethane), which was brought Copyright:ReadingBoroughCouncil in by tanker daily until the refuelling infrastructure was up and running. Now they use gas from the national grid and pay for the amount of biomethane they use to be injected into the national grid. • Reading Transport decided to brand the new bus service with the name ‘greenwave’ to highlight their environmental credentials to passengers. The buses carry the message: ‘gas power... quieter, cleaner, greener’. • Passenger numbers have increased by 20% per year so an additional 2 CNG buses have been added to the greenwave contract, other routes converted to gas operation and frequencies further improved. Costs The CNG buses cost just under 20% more than a conventional diesel bus, but over a 10 year lifetime, this is more than compensated by lower fuel costs, even with the new infrastructure investments required. The company already had 31 diesel-electric hybrid buses on the road when the gas buses were tendered for but it was calculated that, without the previous government subsidy, the reduced fuel costs did not make up for a 50% higher purchase price. Environmental impacts NOx had been identified by the Borough Council as a local pollution problem. The CNG buses have a 30% to 50% reduction in NOx emissions. Particulate emissions are negligible. Natural gas-driven CNG buses do not give a significant benefit in terms of CO2 reductions (can even lead to a small increase). Therefore, Reading Transport decided to run the buses on certified bio-methane from agricultural products, under the Green Gas certification scheme. This allows biogas producers to feed the gas directly into the gas mains, for which it receives a certain number of certificates which can then in turn be sold to customers such as Reading Transport. CNG buses are also smoother and quieter than their diesel counterparts – particularly important for early morning routes.
  22. 22. purchasing clean public vehicles 22 | Lessons learned • CNG has proven to be the commercially best solution, aside from any of the environmental benefits achieved, and can be considered a win-win for the operator, the council and the local population Written: December 2014 Contact information Martijn Gilbert CEO Reading Transport Limited Email: More information on this case study from the perspective of Reading Borough Council can be found here : alert/Issue40_Case_Study85_Reading_biomethane_ buses.pdf
  23. 23. | Retrofitting buses in Freiburg • Buses retrofitted to meet stricter emissions standards • The entire fleet now meets a minimum Euro 5 standard. CO and NMHC emissions reduced by 92.5%, NOx by 81.5% and PM (particulates) by 78%. Summary of initiative In 2010 Freiburger Verkehrs AG (VAG) decided to retrofit buses with particulate- filters. 5 buses were retrofitted, going from a Euro 3 standard to Euro 5. Business Case for retrofitting Achieving high exhaust emission standards is a very important strategic goal for VAG. New buses are required to meet Euro 6 emission standards, and the existing fleet is expected to meet at least Euro 5 standard. In 2010, there were still five buses in the VAG fleet that only met the Euro 3 standard. The buses were Mercedes Benz Citaro G models with OM 457 Euro 3 engine. At 7 years old, they were only halfway through their expected 12-14 year lifecycle. Two options were available to ensure that the whole bus fleet met its obligatory Euro 5 standard: either sell the buses and buy new ones, or retrofit the existing stock. The decision to retrofit the buses instead of replacing them was the more cost effective option for achieving the set emission goals. VAG used this project as a pilot to gain experience, as this type of retrofitting was not well established in the market at the time and few other companies had experience in this area. Technology choice VAGhadalreadyboughtseveralbusesthatincludedparticulate- filters, with positive results. It was therefore decided to use the same system for retrofitting. The main advantage to this decision was that only one system of particulate- filters would need to be maintained, meaning just one type of spare parts would be required. The system which was bought for retrofitting is called SCRT. This means Continuously Regenerating Trap and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR+CRT=SCRT). It reduces the toxic element particles, NOx , HC and CO. Procurement approach VAG decided to retrofit its buses with a complete system that was offered on the market rather than buying individual components. In a first step a market analysis was carried out to learn about the available suppliers and systems. The decision to buy the same system that was already being used in newer buses reduced the range of systems to choose from. As the estimated project costs were well below the EU limit for European-wide tenders, VAG requested offers only from possible suppliers of the SCRT system. The offers were analysed and the supplier with the best offer was chosen. Assembly VAG mechanics worked with the supplier to learn how to install the SCRT system. The supplier assembled the first two systems, giving the VAG mechanics a chance to learn the installation process. The last three systems were installed by VAG mechanics as the retrofitting process turned out to be fairly uncomplicated. It took about 3 days with 2 assemblers to install one retrofitting system. Results As VAG chose to buy the same system already installed in some of the buses the range of possible suppliers was limited to two companies. The bidder offering the cheapest service was chosen. The initial investment was lower than foreseen because the installation could be carried out in-house. Maintenance costs, on the other hand, were higher than estimated because the filters need to be cleaned more often than was foreseen. The requirement that the existing VAG bus fleet meet at least Euro 5 standard forms part of the company’s environmental strategy. Other elements of this strategy include using 100% green energy in tram operation and a tram washing system which collects and reuses rainwater. VAG is convinced that the population of Freiburg chooses the public transport instead of cars not just for convenience reasons but also as a positive commitment to protecting the environment. Therefore there are many marketing initiatives to communicate the climate protection impacts of using public transport. These include using the commercial space on buses and trams to communicate this message, distribution of a flyer on the climate protection initiative and an educational program for school children called “VAG KlimaKlasse” that is attended by several thousand pupils every year. The public response to initiatives like the retrofitting system is very positive, as seen the results of market research. VAG Copyright:VAGFreiburg
  24. 24. purchasing clean public vehicles 24 | takes part in the annual “ÖPNV Kundenbarometer” carried out by TNS infratest, covering 33 German public transport companies. When asked to rate initiatives for climate protection, VAG is regularly voted into the top three transport companies. This shows that initiatives like retrofitting to reduce the environmental impact of the fleet are understood and appreciated by customers. Costs The cost of each SCRT system was 15.000EUR. The total investment in upgrading five buses from Euro 3 to Euro 5 standard was 75.000EUR without assembly cost. Following the decision that three of the systems should be installed by VAG mechanics, it was possible to renegotiate prices with the supplier. As the alternative for the retrofitting would have been to buy five new buses, the retrofitting was a much more cost effective choice. No data is available on the impact of the retrofitting on vehicle maintenance costs. Environmental impacts The supplier of the SCRT system commissioned TÜV Nord (a German testing institute) to measure the gaseous and particulate pollutants. Different measurements on an engine test bed were carried out. The engine was measured with and without the retrofitting system. The test results showed that the retrofitting system reduced CO emissions by 92.5%, NMHC by 92.25%, NOx by 81.5% and PM (particulates) by 78%. Lessons learned The maintenance volume and costs were underestimated, although the overall saving was still significant when compared to buying a new bus. When buying a retrofitting system this should be discussed in detail with the supplier. Written: January 2015 Contact information Freiburger Verkehrs AG Christine Kury Commercial Manager Email:
  25. 25. 25www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Sustainability criteria as minimum treshold for student transport in Rotterdam • Contract broken down into 7 lots • Use of MEAT criteria • Inclusion of social clause • Contract value of 7 million per year • Minimum sustainability threshold included Contract tendered In their 2011 tender for student transportation services, the municipality of Rotterdam for the first time used most economically advantageous tender criteria when awarding the contract rather than relying on lowest price. This included award criteria for sustainability and quality. Although the tender was carried out as a single procedure, seven separate lots were awarded. Suppliers were able to bid for all of the lots individually or register for any combination of lots. The contract runs from August 1, 2011 until July 31, 2015, with two possibilities for a one year extension. The lots were grouped as follows: Lot 1: Taxi transport Lot 2: Bus transport Lot 3: Wheelchair transport Lot 4: Swimming class and gym class transport Lot 5: Invalid transport Lot 6: Taxi transport Hoek van Holland Lot 7: Taxi transport Rozenburg Targets and planning considerations Background policy/targets Environmental and social sustainability are high priorities for the municipality of Rotterdam, with ambitious goals such as those of the Rotterdam Climate Initiative which aims to halve CO2 emissions by 2025 against 1990 levels. Other goals include improving air quality, reducing noise pollution and creating a healthy, fair working environment. Rotterdam’s sustainable purchasing policy prioritises suppliers who provide social and environmental benefits as well as creating financial-economic value. It was one of the first cities in the Netherlands to implement the Dutch government’s sustainability criteria for student transport. Infrastructure No infrastructure changes were required for this tender. If electric vehicles were offered, the public loading infrastructure - facilitated by the municipality – could be used. Copyright:CityofRotterdam Procurement approach Assessment of award criteria The tender was awarded to the most economically advantageous tender, with a maximum of 1000 points allotted to Quality and Sustainability criteria. In order to be assessed on cost, tenders had to meet a minimum threshold of 600 points on these criteria (see Fig 2). Breakdown of award criteria Per criterion the tenderer has to give an answer in succession to the items asked, without further reference . The information given will be assessed by criterion in mutual coherence by an assessment team . The assessment will take place in a way as described in paragraph 4 .3 .6 . Nr. Criteria Points 1 . Quality 810 KG-1 Capacity 325 KG-2 Plan of transport 325 KG-3 Plan of approach 160 2 . Sustainability 190 DG-1 Euro standard 125 DG-2 Silent tyres 25 DG-3 Fuel 40 Total 1.000
  26. 26. purchasing clean public vehicles 26 | Awarding method Sustainability (see Fig 1): 1. Euro standard Bidders were asked to provide the weight (kg) and Euro standard for each vehicle. A maximum of 125 points was awarded to vehicles which met Euro-6 standard (3,500 kg or less) or EEV standard (over 3,500kg). 2. Silent tyres Bidders were asked to disclose the type of tyres used on each vehicle, with a maximum of 25 points available for vehicles with silent tyres (EU Guideline 92/23/EEG – see Fig 2). 3. Fuel Bidders were asked to indicate whether vehicles were hybrid or run on alternative fuels such as natural gas or bioethanol. A survey of alternative fuel can be found at: Quality Assessments for “KG-1 Capacity”, “KG-2 Plan of transport” and “KG-3 Plan of approach” were carried out by an assessment team of at least three experts. Each assessor gave individual marks from 0 to 10 (10 being the highest) per (sub) criterion and per bidder. These marks were then discussed in an assessment meeting and a final ‘report mark’ was given for each section based on consensus. Once the final report mark was decided, each criteria was awarded a mark by multiplying the maximum number of points by the report mark and dividing the total by 10. Price Only tenders scoring over 600 points in quality and sustainability criteria (Fig. 1) qualified for an assessment of price. Each lot was evaluated separately. Calculation In order to find the most economically advantageous tender for each lot, the total number of points awarded per lot for quality and sustainability criteria was divided by the cost quoted for the relevant lot to give a “cost/points ratio”. The offer with the highest cost/points ratio per lot was awarded the contract. See Fig. 3 for a worked example. If two bids received the same score based on this calculation, the contract was awarded to the bidder scoring most highly on quality. Other contract obligations: Social Return The city of Rotterdam requires contractors to contribute to the creation of trainee posts as well as employment fo the long-term unemployed, by spending 5% of a contract’s value on job creation for these groups. How this obligation is implemented is discussed with each successful bidder on a case by case basis. For more information on the 5% arrangement, visit: Amendments Over the course of the tender, it became clear that suppliers were not able to meet the required sustainability standards. The requirements were therefore amended slightly, in order to make the tender more reflective of market availability. 1. The requirement for vehicles to meet Euro 6 standards in criteria 1 was removed for lots 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 and the EEV requirement for lots 2 and 4 was reduced, with a minimum of 50% of the fleet now having to meet this standard to receive maximum points (see fig 5). 2. The number of points awarded for silent tyres and alternative fuels in lots 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 was increased to make up for the number of points no longer being awarded for meeting Euro 6 norms (see Fig 5). Contract Monitoring and Management Suppliers were expected to provide proof of compliance both at the tender stage and over the course of the contract. In reality, this means that: • DG-1 Euro standard - suppliers have to provide a reference, registration number and matching Euro standard for all vehicles. • DG-2 Silent tyres - suppliers have to provide information on the kind and type of tyres belonging to each vehicle. • DG-3 alternative fuel – suppliers have to provide an extra document of evidence from the car dealer as well as evidence of refuelling during the contract. Results The number of tenders received per lot is as follows: Lot 1: Taxi transport: 2 tenders Lot 2: Bus transport: 5 tenders Lot 3: Wheelchair transport: 4 tenders Lot 4: Swimming class and gym class transport: 5 tenders Lot 5: Invalid transport: 1 tender Lot 6: Taxi transport Hoek van Holland: 5 tenders Lot 7: Taxi transport Rozenburg: 4 tenders. Seven bidders met the minimum standard and three offered alternative fuels (two offered natural gas and one proposed natural gas and hybrid options) Four suppliers were chosen to carry out the contract. Lots 1, 3, 5, 6 and 7 were divided between two suppliers, who had gained points within the sustainability assessment for silent tyres and fuel (requirements 2 and 3). The two winners for lots 2 and 4 gained points for all 3 sustainability criteria (Euro-norm, silent tyres and fuel). Communication A fact sheet was produced and distributed to publicise the tender and there was also coverage on the municipal
  27. 27. | intranet and on external sites such as PIANOo ( duurzaamheid-social-return-in-leerlingenvervoer-rotterdam). Suppliers were also asked to provide publicity. Some of them did this by advertising the type of fuel they were using on the vehicles. Costs The total savings per school-year (excluding lot 7) are EUR 792.744,62 (for a more detailed breakdown, see Fig 5). Costs were lower than expected but different calculation methods were used occasionally, such as costs per student versus costs per kilometre, meaning it wasn’t always possible to make a comparison. Environmental impacts The 190 points awarded for sustainability played a small but significant role in the choice of supplier. This type of assessment was important for two key reasons: firstly, it sent a signal to the market that cleaner vehicles would be required going forward. Secondly, it provided a good basis for the department to begin including sustainability criteria within procurements and forced them to assess their own needs. For example, charging infrastructure has now been introduced for electric vehicles in the Rotterdam area and bidders in upcoming contracts are expected to provide electric vehicle options. Lessons learned The tender process wasn’t always easy and much was learned from it. Its complexity stemmed from the number of lots, the different kinds of transport involved, the different target groups and the complex geographical area. In order to make assessment of the bids easier, it is important to provide a uniform format for suppliers to use when bidding (instead of using their own). When the tender was published it became evident that only a limited number of vehicles were able to meet the demands. It was therefore decided to make a number of changes with regard to the tender criterion ‘sustainability’ and the assessment method ‘sustainability’. This allowed more parties to tender. For detailed information on the changes, see Fig 5. The importance of communication with the traffic and transport department cannot be under-estimated here, as they are more aware of the market and can help with defining realistic criteria. Infrastructural issues were also important. In The Hague, CNG vehicle use was facilitated by the installation of appropriate infrastructure, with a clear impact on the number of CNG vehicles offered. The City of Rotterdam has now tried to do something similar. Since this tender, electric charging points have been installed in Rotterdam to make electric vehicles a more viable option. Contact information Ingrid Veenstra Senior purchaser City of Rotterdam Email: Wynanda Babb Advisor sustainable mobility City of Rotterdam Email: Email:
  28. 28. purchasing clean public vehicles 28 www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Annex: Further information on tender definitions and calculations Fig 1: Breakdown of points for sustainability assessment Sustainability With assessing the criteria of sustainability the tables below count The criterion DG-2 Silent tyres uses the following division of points. The table below shows the division of points for criterion DG-3 Fuel. A tyre is a more silent tyre when the rolling sound emission (dB(A)) of the tyre does not exceed the ultimate values indicated in the table below. The ‘rolling sound emission’ is measured according the VN/ECE Regulations 117. % number of vehicles which meet the Euro standard requirements Score = 100% 125 80% - 100% 100 60% - 80% 75 40% - 60% 50 20% - 40% 25 20% 0 % number of vehicles which meet the requirements of silent tyres Score = 100% 25 80% - 100% 20 60% - 80% 15 40% - 60% 10 20% - 40% 5 20% 0 % number of vehicles which meet the requirements of hybrid or alternative fuels Score = 40% 40 30% - 40% 30 20% - 30% 20 10% - 20% 10 10% 0 20% 0 Class of tyres Nominal section width (mm) Ultimate va- lues in dB(A) C1A ≤ 185 70 C1B 185 - ≤ 215 71 C1C 215 - ≤ 245 71 C1D 245 - ≤ 275 72 C1E 275 74 Fig 2: Table of European ultimate values for rolling sound for tyres of classes C1, C2 and C3 (Regulation (EG) Nr. 661/2009)
  29. 29. 29www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu For winter tyres the ultimate values mentioned above are increased with 1dB(A) For winter tyres of category C2-tractive power tyres, 2dB(A) has been allowed additionally. For all the other tyres of the classes C2 and C3, 1dB(A) has been additionally allowed for winter tyres. For more detailed information, please read the case study online at Class of tyres Category of usage Ultimate va- lues in dB(A) C2 Regular tyres 72 C2 Tractive power tyres 73 C3 Regular tyres 73 C3 Tractive power tyres 75 Tender A Tender B Tender C Points awarding criteria 650 700 740 Quotation EUR 500 .000,- EUR 550 .000,- EUR 560 .000 Cost points ratio 130 127 132 Fig 3 Example of tender calculation In this example the assignment is tendered to tenderer C as this is the tenderer with the highest number of points per Euro and so from an economic point of view it is the most profitable tender .
  30. 30. The sole responsibility for the content of this publication lies with the authors . It does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union . Neither the EACI nor the European Commission are responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained therein . www .clean-fleets .eu www .clean-fleets .eu | info@clean-fleets .eu Clean Fleets Clean Fleets project partners The Clean Fleets project ( assists public authorities and fleet operators with the implementation of the Clean Vehicles Directive and the procurement or leasing of clean and energy-efficient vehicles
  • ReneeGonzales3

    Nov. 28, 2021
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    Nov. 9, 2017
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    Mar. 25, 2017
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    Nov. 17, 2016

This compendium of case studies was written by local authorities for local authorities, as part of the Clean Fleets project. The case studies outline concrete procurement activities of public authorities and fleet operators. They illustrate real examples of vehicle procurement in detail including results and lessons learned. We hope to inspire others to learn from and replicate these examples. Each case study includes contact details for those who would like to discuss the activity in more detail. For further information please visit or get in touch with


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