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ROADART - Research On Alternative Diversity Aspects foR Trucks

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EGVIA - ERTRAC 1st European Conference Results from Road Transport Research in H2020 projects
29 November 2017 to 30 November 2017
Brussels

Published in: Automotive
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ROADART - Research On Alternative Diversity Aspects foR Trucks

  1. 1. ROADART: Research On Alternative Diversity foR Trucks Christos Oikonomopoulos ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017 1st EUROPEAN CONFERENCE Results from Road Transport Research in H2020 projects 29-30.11.2017 Brussels
  2. 2. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos General Information 2 • Long Title: "Research On Alternative Diversity Aspects foR Trucks" • Topic: MG-3.5a-2014 "Cooperative ITS for safe, congestion-free and sustainable mobility" • Type of action: RIA „Research and Innovation Action“ • Project Volume: 3,906,875 EUR • Grant Agreement No: 636565 • Duration: 36 Month • Start: 1st May 2015 • Partners: IMST (GER), MAN (GER), TNO (NL), UPRC (GR)
  3. 3. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos General Objective 3 • Investigate and optimize ITS communication systems for trucks – Distributed antennae subsystem – Architectural concepts – Diversity aspects – Channel modeling and simulation environment for worst case scenarios (tunnels) • Use Case: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control – Improved traffic throughput and reduced fuel consumption – Control objective to achieve a desired inter-vehicle distance – Model Predictive Control (MPC) to predict future intended acceleration shared via V2V and applied as feed-forward action in the preceding vehicle.
  4. 4. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Distributed Antennae Subsystems 4 • Truck – Trailer combination results in communication problems due to the large geometry. • Mounting of antennae on different positions on a truck cabin (e.g. outer side mirrors) • Investigation of low-complexity multi-antenna techniques to increase throughput and reliability in T2T/T2I wireless links. • Introduction of reconfigurable parasitic antennas (ESPAR) in vehicular communications • Analysis of antenna array aspects for T2X communication links
  5. 5. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Distributed Antennae Subsystems 5 ROOF LEFT RIGHT TX RX ROOF LEFT RIGHT LEFT
  6. 6. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Distributed Antennae Subsystems 6
  7. 7. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Distributed Antennae Subsystems 7
  8. 8. ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Architectural Concept 8 • Receive diversity without costly analog coax cables: digitally connected remote RF modules • Integrated support for antenna switching / beam steering • VHDL implementation of PHY and MAC on RF-Modules • Integration of DDS, ITS G5 stack, MRC algorithm and RF-Modules
  9. 9. Hardware 9 • Mount in outer side mirrors of the MAN trucks • Highly flexible architecture • Zynq 7Z030: Kintex FPGA + Dual Core ARM Cortex-A9 666 MHz • Analog Devices AD9361 Transceiver • 802.11p RF-Frontend • MIMO capable (2 complete transceiver chains) • Access to IQ-data / complete SDR • Additional analog and digital control signals for antenna steering • Performs: packet detection, frequency correction, time synchronization and FFT • Concepion-bX3/i7-6700TE1AL • Mount inside the MAN truck cabin • Special rugged system for automotive use • DC power supply • Option for third Ethernet interface if necessary • Combines and decodes the data streams from both RF modules • Executes the ITS G5 stack • Provides connectivity via OMG DDS ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos
  10. 10. Software: Example ITS G5 Stack 10 RF (RX) Ethernet Ethernet Communication Unit (TX) RF (TX) FAC BTP GEO LLC Management DDS MAC PHY MGMT Communication Unit (RX) DDS RF (RX) FAC BTP GEO LLC MAC PHY Management PHY MGMT ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • Supported message types: • CAM (Cooperative Awareness Message) • DENM (Decentralized Environmental Notification Message ) • CACC (Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control) • TX interoperability testing: • Cohda Wireless Wireshark Plugin • Plugin parses Ethernet packets and extracts their content • Outcome of the ITS G5 stack can be imported into Wireshark • Extracts and validates expected payload • RX interoperability testing: • ETS-Shell Application (MK5 SDK) • Generates 802.11p packets, including CAM and DENM • Those messages were imported and successfully passed through the ITS G5 stack
  11. 11. 11 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Channel Modell - Raytrace • Development of the ROADART Geometric-Stochastic (GS) Framework • Implementation based on published models and simulation results • Modifications of the IST-WINNER 2 model • Development/evaluation of Stochastic models
  12. 12. 12 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Channel Modell - Raytrace • The ROADART GS Framework includes: • Environmental and traffic simulation for highway (and tunnel) environments • A behavioral model, i.e. vehicle movement is based on driving habits/regulations • The radio channel is the sum of two components: • The specular components – the effect of large (usually metallic, mirroring) scatterers. • The Dense Multipath component – the effect of unresolvable multipath (caused by trees, leaves etc.). It depends on the complexity of environment – purely stochastic feature. • The model is currently configured based on relevant state-of-the-art studies
  13. 13. • Radio channel measurements in Munich, Dusseldorf and Athens • More in http://roadart.eu/news 13 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Channel Modell - Raytrace  Transmitter  Receiver
  14. 14. 14 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Roadside Unit in Tunnel Three Switchable Patterns (A,B,C) ROADSIDE UNIT PROBE VEHICLE PROBE ANTENNA A: INTO TUNNEL B: TOWARDS TUNNEL ENTRY C: A & B COMBINED MEAN ATTENUATION PAST CURRENT
  15. 15. 15 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Roadside Unit in Tunnel Three Switchable Patterns (A,B,C)
  16. 16. CACC: (Robust) Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 16 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • CACC design (nominal functionality): – CACC control design for a test truck. – Localization solutions for T2T-enabled platooning in tunnels • Fault-tolerant cooperative driving This task addresses fault tolerance of this system, in particular with respect to packet loss and (time varying) latency of the wireless communication system. • Fail-safe cooperative driving to ensure safety in the transient phase of fault-tolerance mechanisms, a collision avoidance functionality must be present
  17. 17. CACC: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 17 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • Automated short-distance vehicle-following – Increasing road capacity (time gap ≈ 0.3 s) – Decreasing fuel consumption (trucks: 5 – 20 %) • Control objective: – Vehicle following • 𝑑𝑖 → 𝑑 𝑟,𝑖 • desired distance: 𝑑 𝑟,𝑖 = 𝑟 + ℎ𝑣𝑖 • Wireless communication allows to share the intention – Positionsare needed to fuse on-board sensor measurements with communicated messages. – Positions are based on Global NavigationSatellite System (GNSS), which is not available in tunnels  localization requirements are needed for this use case. • Requirements: • Localization accuracy is about 1-5 meters. • The localization system must be available at all times. • The response time must be fairly small, (i.e. low complexity/latency of the localization algorithms).
  18. 18. CACC: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 18 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • Motivation for MPC: • Nonlinear control law • Constraints can easily be added • Involves a prediction horizon which may be beneficial for Fault-tolerant cooperative driving • A model is used to predict the future output behavior • The tracking error, i.e. the difference between predicted output and desired reference, is minimized over a future horizon, subject to I/O constraints. • Only the first one of the computed moves 𝑢(𝑡) is implemented Reference Signal Generator Optimization Problem Solver Vehicle Model Constraints Cost Function Model Based Predictive Controller 𝑢𝑟 𝑦 Model Predictive Control (MPC)
  19. 19. CACC: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 19 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • Estimated acceleration is used as feedforward for (ACC-)MPC • MPC can use the predicted acceleration for prediction horizon to predict own intended behavior (output MPC) • Own intended behavior is broadcasted and received by following truck (and used as input for CACC-MPC) CACC ACC Mixed traffic [ades(t0) ades(t1) ades(t2) … ades(tN)] [𝒂(t0) 𝒂(t1) 𝒂(t2) …𝒂(tN)] Fault-tolerant cooperative driving
  20. 20. CACC: Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control 20 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos • Implementation of a novel approach for increasing the robustness and performance of CACC, in the presence of short periods of packet losses, by sharing look-ahead information. • Implementation of a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) in combination with a buffer. Implementation & Verification MPC Collision Avoidance Controller • Report on Fault Tolerant Control and Fail Safety Strategy • Integration of cooperative techniques in the Localization algorithms. • Investigation of performance improvements using extra sources (maps, beacons etc. in accordance with H2020 HIGHTS). • Proposition of a new localization algorithm that can be used when GNSS is not available (e.g. tunnel environment)
  21. 21. Achievement Table 21 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Improvement or Standardisation of positioning technologies Positioning in cm tolerance to reality No localization in tunnels. Raw GPS accuracy ~15m, DOP>10 In-tunnel localization 2m error (90%) GPS improvement when DOP>10: 20% reduced error Objectives achieved TRUCKS (Improvements are also valid for conventional vehicles) Sensors and in- vehicle computers development Type of sensors, Computer speed in GFLOPS or so Inclusion of multiple reconfigurable antennas on vehicle One antenna usually on the roof. At least two reconfigurable antennas (on the side mirrors) Four reconfigurable antennas (two per side mirror) TRUCKS (Improvements are also valid for conventional vehicles) Improvement or Standardisation of wireless communication technologies Improved Latency (percentage) Beamforming gain in dB Improved Throughput (percentage) Improved Packet Error Rate PER (percentage) Increased coverage area (improvement as a percentage for BER 10-3) Latency at reference coverage edge No beamforming used. Typically, less than 10Mbps - It depends on the system. Typically, 500-800 m 10-30% Beamforming gain: 3 dB 10-20% throughput improvement 100% PER improvement at reference coverage area Increased coverage area: 60% Latency improvement >30% Beamforming gain (extended open loop beamformer): 6 dB Throughput improvement >30% at reference coverage edge PER improvement > 100%. Increased coverage area: >60% TRUCKS (Improvements are also valid for conventional vehicles)
  22. 22. Achievement Table 22 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos CO2 or fuel consumption reduction g/km Pollutant emissions reduction (Specify – regulated and unregulated, including noise) g/km and dB(A) Not in the scope Not in the scope Not in the scope Improvement or Standardisation of on-/ or offboard software Programming Languages, Operating System types, Middleware types Improved maximum ratio combining (MRC): Number of digital receivers One receiver performing MRC from two antennas connected via analog coaxial cables Two physically separate receivers performing MRC from four antennas via digital Ethernet cables and software algorithm Implementation of the transceiver in software radio and C++ Objectives achieved: Less costs a. weight of RF- coaxial cable, implemented MRC can be easily extended to multiple receivers TRUCKS (Improvements are also valid for conventional vehicles)
  23. 23. Achievement Table 23 ERTRAC / EGVI, Brussels, 29.11.2017C. Oikonomopoulos Additional information Specify Robust CACC Control: Safety 1) Amount of test cases which would lead to a collision. 2) The impact velocity in case a collision would occur. 1) As low as possible 2)Tuning parameter Robust CACC Control: Stability Controlers String stability margin internal stability Number of vehicles for which the controller is still stable. Switching behaviour between controllers should not lead to instability. Robust CACC Control: System availability Fault Tolerant (FT)- time Maximum duration of a wireless failure for which the system can avoid a collision (assuming a given set of acceptable braking patterns by the leading vehicle) and still maintains the following functionality. Minimum acceleration over time of the host truck, to evaluate “false-positive” behaviour, i.e. severe braking in case this is not needed to avoid a collision. This aspect aims to favor less conservative controllers.
  24. 24. THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION QUESTIONS?

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