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Assessment of technologies to decarbonize the transport sector

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Assessment of technologies to decarbonize the transport sector

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Assessment of technologies to decarbonize the transport sector

  1. 1. WIR SCHAFFEN WISSEN – HEUTE FÜR MORGEN The environmental performance of current & future passenger vehicles B. Cox, C. Mutel, Christian Bauer :: Energy Systems Analysis :: Paul Scherrer Institut ETSAP workshop, ETHZ, December 12, 2017
  2. 2. -2- Why decarbonization of passenger vehicles? G. Georges, after BAFU & BFS 2017 Mobility sector in Switzerland: sector with highest CO2 emissions 46% of national emissions (incl. aviation) in 2015 sector with highest consumption of final energy 36% of national consumption in 2015 almost entirely dependent on oil 95% of mobility related energy consumption was oil-based in 2015
  3. 3. -3-G. Georges, after BAFU 2017 Why decarbonization of passenger vehicles? AnnualCO2emissions(direct)[Mt/year] mobility (incl. aviation) households industry service sector
  4. 4. -4-
  5. 5. Life Cycle Assessment - LCA LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life cycle from- cradle-to-grave, i.e., from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacturing, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. -5-
  6. 6. Life Cycle Assessment - LCA «Background» LCA data Materials, fuels, energy supply, transport, infrastructure, disposal,… Zero emission ?Environmental impacts? -6-
  7. 7. Procedure for consistent vehicle assessment Hofer 2014 -7-
  8. 8. LCA of passenger vehicles: acronyms  ICEV: Internal combustion engine vehicle  HEV: Hybrid electric vehicle  BEV: Battery electric vehicle  FCEV: Fuel cell electric vehicle  -p: petrol as fuel  -d: diesel as fuel  -g: compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel  P2G: Power-to-Gas  SMR: Hydrogen from «Steam Methane Reforming» of natural gas  CH (electricity): average electricity supply in Switzerland  BAU: Business As Usual  NEP: New Energy Policy -8-
  9. 9. Energy consumption: vehicle operation Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary -9-
  10. 10. LCA results: GHG emissions today -10-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  11. 11. LCA results: GHG emissions ~2040 -11-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  12. 12. LCA results: particulate matter today -12-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  13. 13. LCA results: particulate matter ~2040 -13-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  14. 14. LCA results: «summer smog» today -14-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  15. 15. LCA results: «summer smog» ~2040 -15-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  16. 16. LCA results: lifetime distance vs GHG emissions -16-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  17. 17. LCA results: impact of CO2 intensity -17-Cox et al., 2018 – preliminary
  18. 18. Main uncertainties & limitations in LCA  Location-specific assessment of health impacts  Emissions of pollutants from ICEV (NOx, PM, etc.)  Batteries & fuel cells: lifetime, manufacturing chain, future technology development  Effects of large scale implementation of BEV & FCV -18-
  19. 19. Take home messages  BEV & FCV only provide environmental benefits with electricity and H2 from renewable sources  GHG emissions of BEV & FCV can be up to 70% lower than those of ICEV (using hydro or wind power)  Other burdens: ambiguous LCA results, also with «clean» electricity and H2, due to: • burdens from battery and FC manufacturing • inefficient hydrogen supply chain  Short-term: Natural gas vehicles show largest potential for reduction of impacts  Long-term: electric vehicles need: • Enough clean electricity • Recycling strategies for batteries and fuel cells -19-
  20. 20. Thanks to: • Brian Cox • Chris Mutel Contact: christian.bauer@psi.ch https://www.psi.ch/ta/ -20-

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