Malaria ib food and health


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A lazy ppt about Malaria focused on 2 key IB syllabus points that may likely appear as essay questions in final exams.

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Malaria ib food and health

  1. 1. Examine the geographic factors responsible for the incidence and spread of Malaria. Examine: Consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue
  2. 2. Barriers to Malaria Physical • Latitude • Elevation • Aridity Human • Medication • IRS • LLIN • Drainage • Education • Quality housing • Insect repellent • Clothing • Wealth and empowerment • Sustained and systemic eradication attempts
  3. 3. Diseases of Poverty-Malaria General • Poor sanitation • Malnutrition • Low quality housing • Lack of potable water • Low education • Labor intensive employment • Low income • Lack of health care Malaria Specific • More standing water • Weaker immune system • Mosquitoes gain access • Additional diseases • Lack of awareness • Exposed to mosquitoes • Low empowerment • Poor prevention and treatment
  4. 4. Key Points of Essay Assumptions • Malaria is an endemic disease that has always been in certain geographic areas and always will Interrelationships • Malaria is actually a disease that can be (and has been) eradicated from geographic locations • There is a very strong correlation between poverty and incidence/spread of Malaria • Development is the key barrier to Malaria
  5. 5. Evaluate the geographic impact of Malaria at the local, national and international scales. Evaluate: Make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and limitations
  6. 6. Immediate Problem • Evaluate is a poor choice of command term for this topic i.e. what are the strengths and limitations of the geographic impact of malaria
  7. 7. Local Level-Humbo District Ethiopia Well Being • Children and women • Low level of resistance • Malnutrition • Mortality • Morbidity • Depression • Anxiety • Lack of hope • Grief • DDT? Society • High IMR/CBR/DALY/HALE • Pressure on health care-lack of necessary drugs, testing and skilled staff • Breakdown of agricultural work force-harvest time • Pressure on all social systems i.e. education
  8. 8. Local Level-Humbo District Ethiopia Economic Impact • Workers sick so food and money impacted • Financial resources diverted in health care instead of economic development and education • Few jobs created and thus economic stagnation, recession • Inability to afford the necessary medicine, doctors, mosquito nets, spraying to create necessary barriers to the disease • Lack of communications technology necessary to rapidly communicate info about epidemics • Vicious cycle
  9. 9. National Level-Ethiopia • The impacts on localities such as Humbo district combine to create pressures on national societal and economic systems. • Variations of impact as a result of physical geography of country i.e. high aridity and elevation variations mean that not all areas of Ethiopia experience such extreme well being impacts
  10. 10. National Level-Ethiopia • Since 2003 a great deal of progress has been made in combating Malaria primarily via ODA focused on supplying IRS and LLIN and the necessary medical facilities, equipment and staff to diagnose and treat Malaria • Since the financial crisis of 2008-10 the ODA flows have decreased and they were already below the 100% level required to eradicate Malaria already
  11. 11. National Level-Ethiopia • Many of the LLINs that were distributed in the ODA splurge are reaching the end of their 4 year life and thus funding is significantly below the level required to eradicate Malaria • Additionally mosquitoes have developed resistance to some of the preventative and curative medication that is provided to the infected
  12. 12. National Level-Ethiopia • The fear is that Malaria and the mosquitoes will maintain a more sustained approach than the aid donors • The reality is that the root cause of the disease is poverty and that without concerted and systemic efforts to address Ethiopia’s poverty it is highly unlikely that Malaria can be eradicated
  13. 13. Global-Regional Level • Malaria is a disease of poverty and thus does not exist in the more developed parts of the world (except in small pockets at low incidences) • Although there are climatic factors involved in the global distribution of Malaria the eradication of the disease from Europe, North America and parts of Asia demonstrates that climate is not the dominant causal factor
  14. 14. Global-Regional Level • While Malaria is found in many countries-regions with low development levels around the tropics it is at its most prevalent in sub Saharan Africa which is also the least developed region of the world • The more developed parts of the world are concerned about Malaria from the point of view of the ODA they provide to tackle it, whether citizens contract it during vacations and if the disease shows signs of geographical expansion